Non Indigenous Species Transported on the 2011 Japanese Tsunami Debris: Considerations for a Natural Disaster Driven AIS Pathway of Emerging Concern.

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1 OSU Hatfield Marine Sciences Center, E. Bachus Non Indigenous Species Transported on the 2011 Japanese Tsunami Debris: Considerations for a Natural Disaster Driven AIS Pathway of Emerging Concern. Sam Chan*, Jessica Miller, John Chapman, Gayle Hansen, Jennifer Lam* and Tania Siemens* Oregon State University (OSU), *Oregon Sea Grant OSU Corvallis, Oregon, USA

2 One of the problems of particular interest to student[s] of the geographical distribution of plants and animals is the colonization of new areas by organisms which have in some manner strayed from the native haunts Usually these immigrants have become well established before their presence is noticed, which, as in the case of undesirable aliens, is too late (Ricketts & Calvin 1962*) Between Pacific Tides: Third Edition. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA

3 Thank You! Acknowledgements Dr. Jessica Miller, John Chapman, Dr. Gayle Hansen Oregon State University Dr. Jim Carlton, Mystic Connecticut Peg Brady and Susan Pasko, NOAA Steve Rumerill, Oregon Dept of Fish and Wildlife. Stephen Brandt, Oregon Sea Grant Jean Wan Lee, former NOAA Knauss Fellow Jennifer Lam and Tania Siemens, Oregon Sea Grant, OSU David Floyd, OSU Communications

4 NOAA Tsunami marine debris intro. March 11, 2011 Japanese Tsunami Marine Debris and AIS

5 Tsunami wave height prediction &feature=player_embedded Source: NOAA Center for Tsunami Research

6 Impacts of March 11, 2011 Japanese Tsunami on Port of Brookings, OR

7 Where most Tsunamis Have Occurred 59% 12% 25% 4%

8 Similar Tectonics for the PNW and Northern Japan

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12 Derelict Ship from Tsunami in Gulf of Alaska

13 JTMD Section of Japanese Temple from 3/8 4/8/2013 ORSP. Florences Wa atch River, photo 1By EcologyWA

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16 Typical marine debris with common non invasive pelagic gooseneck barnacles. Common, abundant to both sides of the Pacific and not an invasive concern

17 What might your perception of these organisms be if you found them attached to a boat that washed ashore this morning? Pelagic gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.) Risk Perception:

18 Floating Docks in Misawa, Japan Prior to the 2011 Tsunami

19 Timing and location of debris Recent appearance of large marine debris on the west coast is the vanguard of the tsunami debris field stretching thousands of miles, the majority currently north of Hawaii and expected to begin arriving after the fall storms of 2012 and estimated to continue circulating for years through 2015 Tan square represents Japanese floating dock at Agate Beach, OR. Source Jack Barth, OSU and NOAA MDP courtesy Dylan McCord, U.S. Navy

20 Second of 4 Docks Seen off of Hawaii

21 67 Species of Japanese Origin plus 4 Pelagic

22 Agate Beach, Yaquina Head, Oregon Japanese dock, Agate Beach, OR June non pelagic Species of Japanese Origin plus 11 Pelagic = 130 Species

23 Dock Dedicated June 2008 in the Fishing Port of Misawa, Japan (a fishing village). Dock only in water for 2.75 years before tsunami in March 2011

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25 Noah s Ark? From June 5, 2012 to April 2013, more than 150 species have arrived on JTMD. From just 50 JTMD rafts. Over 40% of the species are not present in the Eastern Pacific. 10 Phylum 25 Classes Over 150 species Misawa 1.SpeciesList.Version.10.0.April.2013

26 Japanese Tsunami Watch Guide

27 Invasive Undaria pinnitifida Native Oregon bull kelp forests. Undaria pinnitifida (insert) found on the dock is a potentially fierce competitor.

28 Undaria pinnatifidia ( Wakame Brown (Kelp) Algae) with reproductively mature ruffled sporophylls. An invasive species of high concern.

29 What makes the discovery of a large community of organisms from Japan on the dock an important discovery? Haven't organisms rafted across the ocean on logs, coconut, sailing ships and perhaps even polar bears for millennia? Wunderblog.com

30 The biota associated with the JTMD is a Heads up for research, protocols and actions to: (1) increase our understanding of transoceanic dispersal of coastal species through natural disasters; (2) better understand aspects of invasion ecology why some species are successfully transported to novel habitats outside of their current biogeographic range when others are not. (3) address coordination, incident command, management response and communications and education needs on AIS vectored by natural disasters. (4) integrate social relevance and preparation for natural disasters

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32 About 30 species of marine algae have been preliminarily identified from the dock. At least two occur in Oregon

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34 Sea Urchin Grammarid Colonial tunicate

35 Known invasive species found on the dock Undaria pinnatifida Wakame brown kelp algae Asterias amurensis, Northern Pacific Starfish

36 Parasites on oysters are a concern. Typically oysters from Japan must be quarantined

37

38 Allen Pleus WDFG

39 Sai-shou-maru ( Dignified Victory ) March 22, 2013 on Long Beach, WA 740 d after the tsunami Miller, OSU Collections by Allen Pleus, WDFW

40 Otolith from Barred knifejaw (Oplegnathus fasciatus ) fish on the Japanese tsunami driven aquarium reef boat Boat at Long Beach, Washington. Jessica Miller, OSU HMSC

41 Challenges, Successes and Lessons Learned Much yet to learn about bioinvasions pathways Expect worse case scenarios Natural disaster driven pathways are likely to gain importance (coupled with human development and climate change) Coordination across jurisdictions, disciplines and scenario analysis and drills are essential to improve effective response Need to maintain taxonomic capabilities Leadership Engage the public and communicate developing scenarios. sponse%20protocol_19%20oct% pdf

42 The dock and other JTMD generated strong public, management and scientific interest and concerns. How can w learn and be prepared for natural disaster driven bio invasion pathways. What are potential engagement and educational opportunities for invasive species, ocean/earth sciences, planning, preparedness, outreach and community stewardship?

43 Public Interest was very high on the beached dock at Agate Beach, Oregon, Tsunami debris and invasive species Over 90,000 cars have stopped at Agate Beach parking area in June since the dock was reported beached on 6/5/2012 until it was removed in early August. On a typical June, State Park pays for 3,800 gallons of water this year the park paid for over 25,000 gallons.

44 Cost of removal $100K to $500K

45 1970 Video: How not to remove marine biological debris (a whale that is) watch?v=1_t44sifyb4 watch?nr=1&v=dm4pgnk GUgE&feature=endscreen

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