Lesson 2: English Settlement

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1 Unit 3 Lesson 2: English Settlement Like the Spanish and French, The English Wanted to claim colonies in North America. Goal. 5-U2.1.1: Describe significant developments in the Southern colonies including: patterns of settlement, establishment of Jamestown, development of one-crop economies (rice and tobacco), relationship with Indians, colonial representative 1 assemblies (House of Burgesses), and development of slavery.

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4 The English began a settlement in what is now Virginia. The settlement was sponsored by the Virginia Company. About 100 men including John Smith, who became the leader. Other settlers, including women and enslaved Africans. What Happened? Who was involved? Jamestown was founded. When did it happen? How and why did it happen? Cause Effect 1607 Wanted to make a profit. Became 1 st permanent English settlement 4

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12 The English had been sailing to North America since John Cabot s voyage in In the late 1500s English rulers began taking more of an interest in the region. 12

13 England saw Spain getting rich from gold and silver from mines, as well as products from ranches. English sea captains began to attack Spanish treasure ships carrying things back to Spain. This caused serious conflicts between England and Spain. It also greatly increased England s wealth. With this money England built a strong navy and decided it wanted to create colonies in North America. 13

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15 First Attempt Roanoke Island First seen by Europeans when two English explorers sailed by in Location and characteristics seemed good for a settlement. Queen Elizabeth of England then gave a friend of hers, Walter Raleigh, the right to claim all lands in and around Roanoke and the nearby mainland. 15

16 1585: one hundred men set sail for Roanoke. Arrived too late to plant any crops. Had to rely on the supplies they brought which were not enough Native Americans helped them with food. Leader of the group was Ralph Lane. Had little respect for Native Americans Killed the Roanoke chief now Native Americans were unwillingly to help them with food. Settlers managed to build a small fort and a few houses. 16

17 In 1586 Sir Francis Drake sailed to the area. Settlers begged him to take them along with him back to England, which he did. One week later a supply ship landed on Roanoke. Fifteen men stayed behind on the island from this ship. 17

18 Second Attempt What would you do differently??? 18

19 Second Attempt Roanoke Island Walter Raleigh decided to try again to begin a settlement. This time 150 people including women and children Leader : John White. Group arrived on Roanoke Island on July 22, 1587 went to find the fifteen men who had stayed behind two years earlier. They did not find them. Settlers began making improvement to the houses that were already there and building new ones. 18

20 Native Americans more hostile this time Only one group was friendly. This group was the Croatoans. End of August settlers decided they needed more supplies Gov. White took the fleet of ships and several sailors home to England to get food and supplies. War broke out between England and Spain making it impossible for him to return quickly 19

21 Finally in 1590 White able to return to Roanoke. Arrived in August of that year but found no one. Found clues to a puzzle that has still not been solved: letters CRO carved on a tree. armor covered with rust the houses had been taken down the area had been surrounded by trees and other things made into a tall fence like a fort. Carved on another tree was the word CROATOAN. 20

22 White and his men decided to sail to an island where the Croatoans lived to search there. Heavy storm winds blew the ships eastward. The winds continued to blow making it impossible to reach the island. The winds did not give up and White and his men sailed home to England. 21

23 Options: 1. Use your textbook 2. Use this text selection 3. Have some students use the textbook and some use this selection 21

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25 Problem: Neither John White nor Walter Raleigh had enough money for a third attempt at a settlement. What could England do to finance more voyages and settlements? 23

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27 The Virginia Company In 1606: King James granted the company a charter ( a written contract) This gave the company the right to establish a colony. Major goal of the company: make a profit The company was given the following instructions: settle Virginia find gold try to find a water route to Asia. 25

28 PUSH FACTORS PULL FACTORS Hard times in England Adventure The hope for gold 26

29 The Virginia Company convinced about 100 men to sail to Virginia and form an English colony. Several of the men were indentured servants. They set sail in December of 1606 on three ships. 27

30 They decided to sail up a river, which they named the James River in honor of their king. 28

31 They chose a spot on a peninsula that they felt was far enough from the ocean to protect them from passing Spanish ships that might attack. The spot ended up being a poor choice because it was swampy, filled with mosquitoes, and had bad drinking water. The first thing they did was to build a simple fort for protection. They called their new settlement Jamestown. 29

32 Make a list of the kinds of skills and jobs people would need in order to create a colony in a new place 30

33 Occupations of the Original Jamestown Settlers Occupation (Total) Number Councell 6 Preacher 1 Gentlemen 29 Carpenters 6 Blacksmith 1 Sailer 1 Barber 1 Bricklayers 2 Mason 1 Taylor/Tailers 1 Drum 1 Labourers 12 Boyes 4 A Surgeon 1 With divers others Unknown 31

34 Jamestown Faces Problems Many of the settlers did not know how to farm or fish. They had come to Virginia to get rich. This contributed to food problems in the Jamestown. Many settlers went out looking for gold instead of planting food. This also contributed to food problems. The settlement had a lack of leadership and members of the council often argued. 32

35 Jamestown Faces Problems Jamestown faced weather problems as well. It was hot and dry. The settlement of Roanoke Island coincided with the worst three-year drought of the past 800 years. When the Jamestown colonists arrived years later to set up their colony in Virginia, another major drought occurred, this time the driest seven-year episode in the entire period between 1215 and

36 Jamestown and Native Americans More than 30 tribes of Eastern Woodlands Native Americans were living in Virginia when Jamestown was started. Most were members of the Powhatan Confederacy, a confederation or a loose group of governments that worked together. They were united under one chief. Jamestown colonists gave the name Powhatan to all the tribes as well as their chief. The Native Americans had problems with the colonists from the beginning including the issue of colonists stealing their crops for food. 34

37 It looked like the colony would fail. Things began to turn around under the leadership of John Smith. In the fall of 1608, Smith became President of the Council. He provided the leadership that was lacking in the colony. He instituted an important law that helped solve many problems in the settlement If you don t work, you don t eat. 35

38 Disaster struck again when the fort caught fire and many of the houses and supplies were lost. The colony was saved with the aid of donations of corn from Native Americans who had become friendly again with the help of John Smith and Pocahontas, daughter of Chief Powhatan. In October of 1608, a new supply ship arrived with the first two women who would settle in Jamestown. In August 1609 hard times hit again when rats ruined most of the corn supplies and a supply ship was wrecked in Bermuda on its way to Jamestown. Tensions were growing again between the settlers and Native Americans. It was at this time that John Smith was injured and decided to return to England. Without his leadership, the colony began to fall apart. The colony was unprepared for winter. The winter of became known as the starving time and by spring only about 60 settlers were still alive. In May of 1610 they decided to abandon the colony and the settlers started down the river to head for home. 36

39 The Jamestown settlers began to sail down the James River. At the mouth of the river they met Lord de la Warr who had arrived with 150 settlers and supplies. The settlers decided to go back with them to Jamestown and the settlement was reestablished. 37

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41 Artifact What is it? What does this tell you about Jamestown? A Delftware Drug jar used to hold medical potions. It was made in the Netherlandsfrom around A Bartmann Jug from Gemany that was used for drinking from around 1600 Jamestown was getting goods from many different places. In the beginning Jamestown was not making many of its own household goods. Bone Dice Game each die was the size of a pencil eraser. These were used by settlers for to play betting games. Soldiers were not allowed to play dice. They made the dice small so the pieces could easily be hidden. 39

42 Artifact What is it? What does this tell you about Jamestown? People smoked tobacco in Jamestown. Tobacco Pipe Tobacco was expensive and strong so the pipe did not hold much. A Turtle Shell Turtles were used as a food supply in Jamestown especially in the early years. 40

43 Tobacco Saves Jamestown Economic success for the colony began when people started growing tobacco as a cash crop. Jamestown leader John Rolfe had experimented with various kinds of tobacco and ways of drying it. By 1613 Rolfe had developed a tobacco that the English liked. It became a huge success in England and other places in Europe. 35

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45 1619 A ship carrying 100 women arrived in Jamestown. For a long time there were few women in Jamestown. The company felt this was causing a problem. Because they had no families in Jamestown many men were making money and then returning to England. In order to have more families, the company brought the group of about 100 women to the colony in Women came to become wives to the settlers. 38

46 1619 The first Africans arrived in Jamestown in A ship carrying 20 Africans arrived in Jamestown. Records are unclear but most historians think they were treated like indentured servants. As more workers were needed, Africans were enslaved and treated as property. 39

47 1619 Jamestown was allowed to elect a group of lawmakers and form its own legislature. The colony was given the right to set up a lawmaking group, or legislature. Virginia s legislature was called the House of Burgesses. This was because a burgess was a representative who is chosen by people to make decisions for them. This was the first legislature in the English colonies. 40

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