Map Projections and Map Coordinate Systems


 Silas Barton
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 Map Projections and Map Coordinate Systems Jamie Wolfe CITE Marshall University Huntington, WV IS 645 Introduction to GIS Lecture 03, May 23, 2000
2 Today s class topics Map Projections Cylindrical Conical Azimuthal Map Distortions Map Coordinate Systems Latitude, Longitude, height Earth Centered, Earth Fixed XYZ Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) World Geographic Reference System (GEOREF) State Plane Coordinate Systems (SPCS) IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 2
3 Map Projections Map projections are attempts to portray the surface of the earth or a portion of the earth on a flat surface The map projection can be onto a flat surface or a surface that can be made flat by cutting, such as a cylinder or a cone If the globe, after scaling, cuts the surface, the projection is called secant. Lines where the cuts take place or where the surface touches the globe have no projection distortion IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 3
4 Map Projections Some distortions of conformality (shape), distance, direction, scale, and area always result from this process. Some projections minimize distortions in some of these properties at the expense of maximizing errors in others. Some projection are attempts to only moderately distort all of these properties IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 4
5 Map Projections Three common types of projections are: Cylindrical Conical Azimuthal (Planar) IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 5
6 Map projections: Cylindrical A cylindrical projection can be imagined in its simplest form as a cylinder that has been wrapped around a globe at the equator. If the graticule of latitude and longitude are projected onto the cylinder and the cylinder unwrapped, then a gridlike pattern of straight lines of latitude and longitude would result. The meridians of longitude would be equally spaced and the parallels of latitude would remain parallel but may not appear equally spaced anymore Cylindricals are true at the equator and distortion increases toward the poles IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 6
7 Map projections: Cylindrical Regular and Secant IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 7
8 Map projections: Cylindrical Oblique Tangent or secant to another point on the globe is called oblique IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 8
9 Map projections: Cylindrical Transverse Tangent or secant to a meridian is the transverse aspect IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 9
10 Map projections: Conical In the Conical Projection the graticule is projected onto a cone tangent, or secant, to the globe along any small circle (usually a midlatitude parallel) In the normal aspect (which is oblique for conic projections), parallels are projected as concentric arcs of circles, and meridians are projected as straight lines radiating at uniform angular intervals from the apex of the flattened cone. Conic projections are not widely used in mapping because of their relatively small zone of reasonable accuracy IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 10
11 Map projections: Conical The secant case, which produces two standard parallels, is more frequently used with conics. Even then, the scale of the map rapidly becomes distorted as distance from the correctly represented standard parallel increases. Because of this problem, conic projections are best suited for maps of midlatitude regions, especially those elongated in an east west direction. The United States meets these qualifications and therefore is frequently mapped on conic projections IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 11
12 Map projections: Conical Conics are true along some parallel somewhere between the equator and a pole and distortion increases away from this standard IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 12
13 Map projections: Planar or Azimuthal Imagine a plane being placed against (tangent to) a globe. If a light source inside the globe projects the graticule onto the plane the result would be a planar, or azimuthal, map projection. If the imaginary light is inside the globe it is called Gnomonic If the light is antipodal (diametrically opposite) it is called Sterographic If light source is at infinity, it is called Orthographic Azimuthals are true only at their center point, but generally distortion is worst at the edge of the map IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 13
14 Map projections: Azimuthal or Planar IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 14
15 Map Projections: Distortions Projections can be based on axes parallel to the earth's rotation axis (equatorial), at 90 degrees to it (transverse), or at any other angle (oblique) A projection that preserves the shape of features across the map is called conformal A projection that preserves the area of a feature across the map is called equal area or equivalent No flat map can be both equivalent and conformal. Most fall between the two as compromises To compare or edgematch maps in a GIS, both maps MUST be in the same projection IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 15
16 Map Projections Distortions Conformality When the scale of a map at any point on the map is the same in any direction, the projection is conformal. Meridians (lines of longitude) and parallels (lines of latitude) intersect at right angles. Shape is preserved locally on conformal maps Area When a map portrays areas over the entire map so that all mapped areas have the same proportional relationship to the areas on the Earth that they represent, the map is an equalarea or equivalent map Distance A map is equidistant when it portrays distances from the center of the projection to any other place on the map IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 16
17 Map Projections Distortions Direction A map preserves direction when azimuths (angles from a point on a line to another point) are portrayed correctly in all directions Scale Scale is the relationship between a distance portrayed on a map and the same distance on the Earth Different map projections result in different spatial relationships between regions IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 17
18 Map projections: Cylindrical (Normal) Characteristics Lines of latitude and longitude are parallel intersecting at 90 degrees Meridians are equidistant Forms a rectangular map Scale along the equator or standard parallels is true Simple construction Can have the properites of equidistance, conformality or equal area IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 18
19 Map Projections: Cylindrical Equal Area: Behrmann Uses 30 degree North as parallel of no distortion IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 19
20 Map Projections: Cylindrical Conformal: Mercator Straight lines are lines of constant azimuth IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 20
21 Map Projections: Cylindrical Stereographic: Gall s Secant intersection at 45 N and 45 S Moderately distorts area, direction, distance, shape IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 21
22 Map projections: Conical Characteristics In the normal aspect (which is oblique for conic projections), parallels are projected as concentric arcs of circles, and meridians are projected as straight lines radiating at uniform angular intervals from the apex of the flattened cone. Conic projections are not widely used in mapping because of their relatively small zone of reasonable accuracy. IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 22
23 Map projections: Conical Characteristics The secant case, which produces two standard parallels, is more frequently used with conics. Even then, the scale of the map rapidly becomes distorted as distance from the correctly represented standard parallel increases. Because of this problem, conic projections are best suited for maps of midlatitude regions, especially those elongated in an east west direction. The United States meets these qualifications and therefore is frequently mapped on conic projections. IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 23
24 Map projections: Conical Equal Area Distorts scale and distance except along standard parallels Areas are proportional and directions are true in limited areas Used in the United States and other large countries with a larger eastwest than northsouth extent IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 24
25 Map projections: Conical Equal Area IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 25
26 Map projections: Conical Equidistant Equally Spaced Parallels. Equidistant Meridians converging at a common point Direction, area, and shape are distorted away from standard parallels. Used for portrayals of areas near to, but on one side of, the equator IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 26
27 Map projections: Conical Equidistant IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 27
28 Map projections: Conical Conformal Area, and shape are distorted away from standard parallels. Directions are true in limited areas. Used for maps of North America IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 28
29 Map projections: Conical Conformal. USA IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 29
30 Map projections: Azimuthal (Planar) Imagine a plane being placed against (tangent to) a globe. If a light source inside the globe projects the graticule onto the plane the result would be a planar, or azimuthal, map projection If the imaginary light is inside the globe it is called Gnomonic If the light is antipodal (diametrically opposite) it is called Sterographic If light source is at infinity, it is called Orthographic Azimuthals are true only at their center point, but generally distortion is worst at the edge of the map IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 30
31 Map projections: Azimuthal Lambert Equal Area Used to map large ocean areas. The central meridian is a straight line, others are curved. A straight line drawn through the center point is on a great circle. IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 31
32 Map projections: Azimuthal Equidistant Used to show airroute distances. Distances measured from the center are true. Distortion of other properties increases away from the center point. IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 32
33 Map projections: Azimuthal Conformal (Stereographic) Used for navigation in polar regions. Directions are true from the center point and scale increases away from the center point as does distortion in area and shape. IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 33
34 Map projections: Azimuthal Orthographic Used for perspective views of hemispheres. Area and shape are distorted. Distances are true along the equator and other parallels. IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 34
35 Map projections: Azimuthal Gnomonic Neither conformal nor equal area. Is used by navigators and aviators because greatcircle paths (shortest distances) are shown as straight lines. Less than one hemisphere can be viewed from a given origin. Scale is true only where the central parallel and meridian cross. IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 35
36 Map projections: Azimuthal Gnomonic IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 36
37 Coordinates basics IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 37
38 Polar to cartesian coordinates IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 38
39 Coordinate Systems A coordinate system is a standardized method for assigning codes to locations so that locations can be found using the codes alone Standardized coordinate systems use absolute locations A map captured in the units of the paper sheet on which it is printed is based on relative locations or map millimeters IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 39
40 Coordinate Systems Some standard coordinate systems used are: geographic coordinates Latlong, geodetic lat long, Earth Centered Earth Fixed XYZ Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) system military grid state plane coordinate system To compare or edgematch maps in a GIS, both maps MUST be in the same coordinate system. IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 40
41 Latitude, Longitude, Height The most commonly used coordinate system today is the latitude, longitude, and height system The Prime Meridian and the Equator are the reference planes used to define latitude and longitude Geographic coordinates are the earth's latitude and longitude system, ranging from 90 degrees south to 90 degrees north in latitude and 180 degrees west to 180 degrees east in longitude IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 41
42 Latitude, Longitude, Height A line with a constant latitude running east to west is called a parallel A line with constant longitude running from the north pole to the south pole is called a meridian The zerolongitude meridian is called the prime meridian and passes through Greenwich, England A grid of parallels and meridians shown as lines on a map is called a graticule IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 42
43 Latitude, Longitude, Height IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 43
44 Distances on the great circle IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 44
45 Geodetic Latitude, Longitude, Height The geodetic latitude of a point is the angle from the equatorial plane to the vertical direction of a line normal to the reference ellipsoid. The geodetic longitude of a point is the angle between a reference plane and a plane passing through the point, both planes being perpendicular to the equatorial plane. IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 45
46 Geodetic Latitude, Longitude, Height The geodetic height at a point is the distance from the reference ellipsoid to the point in a direction normal to the ellipsoid. IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 46
47 Earth Centered Earth Fixed XYZ Cartesian coordinates (XYZ) define three dimensional positions with respect to the center of mass of the reference ellipsoid. The Zaxis points toward the North Pole The Xaxis is defined by the intersection of the plane defined by the prime meridian and the equatorial plane The Yaxis completes a right handed orthogonal system by a plane 90 degrees east of the Xaxis and its intersection with the equator IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 47
48 Earth Centered Earth Fixed XYZ, Example IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 48
49 Eastings and Northings Traditionally, rectangular coordinates are used when reading maps, with the X value first and the Y value second When map is oriented with north on top, X value is called easting because it measures distances east of the origin and the Y value is called northing because it measures distances north of the origin Origin is placed so that all references are positive False origins may have to be placed at several places to ensure more accurate measurements. Easting and Northings from the false origin are called false eastings and false northings IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 49
50 Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) is the most prevalent system used for mapping and other work UTM zone numbers designate 6 degree longitudinal strips (60 vertical zones) extending from 80 degrees South latitude to 84 degrees North latitude. Zone numbers start from the 180th meridian in an eastward direction IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 50
51 Universal Transverse Mercator Grid IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 51
52 Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) For eastings, a false origin (easting value 500,000 meters) is established at the center of each zone UTM zone characters designate 8 degree zones extending north and south from the equator For northings, it has two primary ordinate points, one at the equator and the other at 80 degrees south For small scale maps, the last digit may be dropped to decrease resolution to 10 meters. Decimal may be used for more accuracy on large scale maps IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 52
53 UTM zones in the lower 48 IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 53
54 UTM Zone 14 Each zone has a central meridian. Zone 14, for example, has a central meridian of 99 degrees west longitude. The zone extends from 96 to 102 degrees west longitude. Eastings are measured from the central meridian (with a 500km false easting to insure positive coordinates). Northings are measured from the equator (with a 10,000km false northing for positions south of the equator). IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 54
55 Reading a UTM measurement IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 55
56 Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) MGRS is an extension of the UTM system. UTM zone number and zone character are used to identify an area 6 degrees in eastwest extent and 8 degrees in northsouth extent. UTM zone number and designator are followed by 100 km square easting and northing identifiers. The system uses a set of alphabetic characters for the 100 km grid squares. Starting at the 180 degree meridian the characters A to Z (omitting I and O) are used for 18 degrees before starting over. From the equator north the characters A to V (omitting I and O) are used for 100 km squares, repeating every 2,000 km. The reverse sequence IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 56 (from V to A) is used for southern hemisphere
57 Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 57
58 Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 58
59 Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) UTM zone number, UTM zone, and the two 100 km square characters are followed by an even number of numeric characters representing easting and northing values. If 10 numeric characters are used, a precision of 1 meter is assumed. 2 characters imply a precision of 10 km. From 2 to 10 numeric characters the precision changes from 10 km, 1 km, 100 m 10 m, to 1 m. IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 59
60 Military Grid Reference System (MGRS) Example IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 60
61 World Geographic Reference System (GEOREF) The World Geographic Reference System is used for aircraft navigation. GEOREF is based on latitude and longitude. The globe is divided into twelve bands of latitude and twentyfour zones of longitude, each 15 degrees in extent. IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 61
62 World Geographic Reference System (GEOREF) IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 62
63 World Geographic Reference System (GEOREF) These 15 degree areas are further divided into one degree units identified by 15 characters. IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 63
64 State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) In the United States, the State Plane System was developed in the 1930s and was based on the North American Datum 1927 (NAD27). NAD 27 coordinates are based on the foot While the NAD27 State Plane System has been superseded by the NAD83 System, maps in NAD 27 coordinates (in feet) are still in use. The State Plane System 1983 is based on the North American Datum 1983 (NAD83) NAD 83 coordinates are based on the meter. State plane systems were developed in order to provide local reference systems that were tied to a national datum IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 64
65 State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) Some smaller states use a single state plane zone. Larger states are divided into several zones. State plane zone boundaries often follow county boundaries. Lambert Conformal Conic projections are used for rectangular zones with a larger eastwest than north south extent. Transverse Mercator projections are used to define zones with a larger northsouth extent. IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 65
66 State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 66
67 State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 67
68 State Plane Coordinate System (SPCS) IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 68
69 WV SPCS Has two zones: North and South Uses the Lambert Conformal Conic projection IS 645: Geographic Information Systems, Summer 2000, J. Wolfe 69
Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems
Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems Geodetic Control Network Horizontal Control Network Datum A datum is a set of parameters defining a coordinate system, and a set of control points whose
More informationMap Projections & Coordinates. M. Helper 090115 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1
Map Projections & Coordinates 090115 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1 Laying the earth flat Why? Need convenient means of measuring and comparing distances, directions, areas, shapes. Traditional surveying
More informationEllipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale
Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale Lectures 4 Sept 14, 2006 Why we need it? Earth Shape Models Flat earth models are still used for plane surveying, over distances short
More informationGIS for Educators. Coordinate Reference System. Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems.
GIS for Educators Topic 7: Coordinate Reference Systems Objectives: Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems. Keywords: Coordinate Reference System (CRS), Map Projection, On the Fly Projection, Latitude,
More informationGeographic Coordinates. Measurement: Just use GPS. Geographic Coordinates 1/17/2013
Geographic Coordinates Analytical and Computer Cartography Lecture 3: Review: Coordinate Systems Geographic Coordinates Geographic coordinates are the earth's latitude and longitude system, ranging from
More informationGEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems
UTM Coordinate System GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems Why do we need the UTM coordinate system?  in a rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system, with linear x and
More informationAppendix B: Geographic Coordinates Systems & Map Projections. B.1 Approximating the Earth's Shape
The following is an appendix from: Strindberg, S. In prep. Optimized Automated Survey Design in Wildlife Population Assessment. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of St. Andrews. Appendix B: Geographic
More informationIt is a little challenging suppose you are to describe a point on the surface of a basketball.
Coordinate Systems 1. Geographic coordinate system To locate a point on a piece of white paper, we usually use the distances of the point to the left/right edge (x) and top/bottom edge (y). Therefore the
More informationWelcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems.
Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems. A GIS without coordinates would simply be a database like Microsoft Excel
More informationEarth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems
Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems How do we model the earth? Datums Datums mathematically describe the surface of the Earth. Accounts for mean sea level, topography, and gravity models. Projections
More informationLecture 2. Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems. Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University
Lecture 2 Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University Map Projections Map projections are mathematical formulas
More informationGIS s s Roots in Cartography
Following up on the last lecture GIS s s Roots in Cartography Getting Started With GIS Chapter 2 Information ordering: Lists and indexes Organizing data and information Information can be organized as
More informationProjections. Shape (angles) Distance Direction Area. Only a sphere can retain all four properties
Projections Projections Map projections are attempts to portray the surface of the earth (or a portion of the earth) on a flat surface. Four spatial relationships (or properties) between locations can
More informationLecture 4. Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS
Lecture 4 Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS GIS in Water Resources Spring 2015 Geodesy, Map Projections and Coordinate Systems Geodesy  the shape of the earth and definition of earth datums Map
More informationSPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS
SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS We will begin today with the first of two classes on aspects of cartography. Cartography is both an art and a science, but we will focus on the scientific aspects. Geographical
More informationGEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections Earth Ellipsoid and Horizontal Datums (cont d) Components of a Geographic Coordinate System Recognize that there are three components to a geographic
More informationMassachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Urban Studies and Planning
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Urban Studies and Planning 11.520: A Workshop on Geographic Information Systems 11.188: Urban Planning and Social Science Laboratory Lecture 3: More
More informationRegistered map layers
Registered map layers Coordinate map systems Coordinate map systems 1. The Earth's Graticule Latitude and Longitude The graticule is the imaginary grid of lines running eastwest lines of latitude (parallels)
More informationWGS AGD GDA: Selecting the correct datum, coordinate system and projection for north Australian applications
internal report WGS AGD GDA: Selecting the correct datum, coordinate system and projection for north Australian applications JBC Lowry Hydrological and Ecological Processes Program Environmental Research
More informationState Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS
State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS An overview of SPCS with emphasis on Grid vs. Ground coordinates. New Jersey Geospatial Forum Meeting Friday, March 18 th 2005 Jesse Kozlowski NJ PLS History of SPCS
More informationMap Coordinates, GIS, and GPS for Enhanced 911
Map Coordinates, GIS, and GPS for Enhanced 911 Keith W. Cunningham, Ph.D. 14 East Eighth Street Lawrence, KS 66044 800/2381911 Maps and coordinates are used to describe features and their locations
More informationGeographic Datums & Coordinates
Geographic Datums & Coordinates What is the shape of the earth? Why is it relevant for GIS? 9042012 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 21 From Conceptual to Pragmatic Dividing a sphere into a stack of pancakes
More informationGEOGRAPHIC INFORMNATION SYSTEMS Lecture 10: State Plane Coordinate System
State Plane Coordinate System GEOGRAPHIC INFORMNATION SYSTEMS Lecture 10: State Plane Coordinate System Why do we need the State Plane Coordinate System?  the SPCS was designed as a state by state rectangular
More informationEarth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems
Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems You will always find parallels and meridians on largescale maps This is done to make the map a very close approximation to the size and shape of the piece of
More informationNGA GRID GUIDE HOW TO USE ArcGIS 8.x ANS 9.x TO GENERATE MGRS AND OTHER MAP GRIDS
GEOSPATIAL SCIENCES DIVISION COORDINATE SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TEAM (CSAT) SEPTEMBER 2005 Minor Revisions March 2006 POC Kurt Schulz NGA GRID GUIDE HOW TO USE ArcGIS 8.x ANS 9.x TO GENERATE MGRS AND OTHER MAP
More informationEPSG. Coordinate Reference System Definition  Recommended Practice. Guidance Note Number 5
European Petroleum Survey Group EPSG Guidance Note Number 5 Coordinate Reference System Definition  Recommended Practice Revision history: Version Date Amendments 1.0 April 1997 First release. 1.1 June
More informationProjections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview
Projections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview Projections Primary data capture Secondary data capture Data transfer Capturing attribute data Managing a data capture project Geodesy Basics for Geospatial
More informationAn Introduction to Coordinate Systems in South Africa
An Introduction to Coordinate Systems in South Africa Centuries ago people believed that the earth was flat and notwithstanding that if this had been true it would have produced serious problems for mariners
More informationThe World Geographic Reference System is used for aircraft navigation. GEOREF is based on latitude and longitude. The globe is divided into twelve
The World Geographic Reference System is used for aircraft navigation. GEOREF is based on latitude and longitude. The globe is divided into twelve bands of latitude and twentyfour zones of longitude,
More informationThe Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual
The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual 'What's the good of Mercator's North Poles and Equators, Tropics, Zones
More informationSESSION 8: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND MAP PROJECTIONS
SESSION 8: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND MAP PROJECTIONS KEY CONCEPTS: In this session we will look at: Geographic information systems and Map projections. Content that needs to be covered for examination
More informationTHE UNIVERSAL GRID SYSTEM
NGA Office of GEOINT Sciences Coordinate Systems Analysis (CSAT) Phone: 3146769124 Unclassified Email: coordsys@nga.mil March 2007 THE UNIVERSAL GRID SYSTEM Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Military
More informationWhat are map projections?
Page 1 of 155 What are map projections? ArcGIS 10 Within ArcGIS, every dataset has a coordinate system, which is used to integrate it with other geographic data layers within a common coordinate framework
More informationSurveying & Positioning Guidance note 5
Surveying & Positioning Guidance note 5 Coordinate reference system definition recommended practice Revision history Version Date Amendments 2.1 January 2009 In example c corrected value for inverse flattening
More informationWorld Geography Unit 1  Test Introduction to World of Geography
Name World Geography Unit 1  Test Introduction to World of Geography Term Identification Directions: Pick a word from the box that best completes the sentences below. distortion longitude Equator geography
More informationLatitude and Longitudes in Geodesy James R. Clynch February 2006
Latitude and Longitudes in Geodesy James R. Clynch February 2006 I. Latitude and Longitude on Spherical Earth Latitude and longitude are the grid lines you see on globes. For a spherical earth these are
More informationAn Introduction to GIS using ArcGIS Spring Lab Workshop 5 March S.P.Harish PhD Candidate Department of Politics New York University
An Introduction to GIS using ArcGIS Spring Lab Workshop 5 March 2013 S.P.Harish PhD Candidate Department of Politics New York University Agenda What is GIS? Basic GIS Concepts Introduction to ArcGIS Coordinates
More informationNATIONAL GEOSPATIALINTELLIGENCE AGENCY (NGA) STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENT
NGA.STND.0037_2.0.0_GRIDS NATIONAL GEOSPATIALINTELLIGENCE AGENCY (NGA) STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENT UNIVERSAL GRIDS AND GRID REFERENCE SYSTEMS 20140228 Version 2.0.0 OFFICE OF GEOMATICS CONTENTS LIST OF
More information量 說 Explanatory Notes on Geodetic Datums in Hong Kong
量 說 Explanatory Notes on Geodetic Datums in Hong Kong Survey & Mapping Office Lands Department 1995 All Right Reserved by Hong Kong Government 留 CONTENTS INTRODUCTION............... A1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND............
More informationUnderstanding Map Projections
Understanding Map Projections Melita Kennedy ArcInfo 8 Copyright 1994, 1997, 1999, 2000 Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. The
More informationCoordinate Systems. Orbits and Rotation
Coordinate Systems Orbits and Rotation Earth orbit. The earth s orbit around the sun is nearly circular but not quite. It s actually an ellipse whose average distance from the sun is one AU (150 million
More informationEngineering Geometry
Engineering Geometry Objectives Describe the importance of engineering geometry in design process. Describe coordinate geometry and coordinate systems and apply them to CAD. Review the righthand rule.
More informationUnderstanding Map Projections
Understanding Map Projections GIS by ESRI Copyright 1994 2001, 2003 2004 ESRI All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. The information contained in this document is the exclusive property
More informationImplementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection
NGA.SIG.0011_1.0.0_WEBMERC NATIONAL GEOSPATIALINTELLIGENCE AGENCY (NGA) STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENT Implementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection 20140218 Version 1.0.0 OFFICE OF GEOMATICS NGA.SIG.0011_1.0.0_WEBMERC
More informationWHAT YOU NEED TO USE THE STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEMS
WHAT YOU NEED TO USE THE STATE PLANE COORDINATE SYSTEMS N & E State Plane Coordinates for Control Points AZIMUTHS  True, Geodetic, or Grid  Conversion from Astronomic to Geodetic (LaPlace Correction)
More informationUTM Zones for the US UTM UTM. Uniform strips Scalable coordinates
UTM UTM Uniform strips Scalable coordinates Globally consistent, most popular projection/coordinate system for regional to global scale geospatial data (i.e. satellite images global scale datasets USGS/EDC)
More informationMap Projections And State Plane Coordinate Systems. Thomas Maxell Beer, PLS
Map Projections And State Plane Coordinate Systems By Thomas Maxell Beer, PLS Introduction The origin for the modern State Plane Coordinate System in the United States began with two highway engineers
More informationSurveying on NAD83 State Plane Coordinate System
Surveying on NAD83 State Plane Coordinate System By Dr. Joshua Greenfeld Surveying Program Coordinator NJ Institute of Technology Objective Modern surveying operations which involves working with GIS/LIS
More informationAn ArcGIS Tutorial Concerning Transformations of Geographic Coordinate Systems, with a Concentration on the Systems Used in Lao PDR.
An ArcGIS Tutorial Concerning Transformations of Geographic Coordinate Systems, with a Concentration on the Systems Used in Lao PDR. Introduction...3 PART 1, A Theoretical Background about Coordinate Systems...3
More informationINTRODUCTION: BASIC GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS. Eric Jessup Associate Professor School of Economic Sciences
INTRODUCTION: BASIC GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS Eric Jessup Associate Professor School of Economic Sciences September 13, 2010 Outline What is geographical / spatial analysis and why do we care? Different types
More informationGeography I Pre Test #1
Geography I Pre Test #1 1. The sun is a star in the galaxy. a) Orion b) Milky Way c) Proxima Centauri d) Alpha Centauri e) Betelgeuse 2. The response to earth's rotation is a) an equatorial bulge b) polar
More informationSection 3 Mapping Earth s Surface
Section 3 Mapping Earth s Surface Key Concept Maps are tools that are used to display data about a given area of a physical body. What You Will Learn Maps can be used to find locations on Earth and to
More information11.1. Objectives. Component Form of a Vector. Component Form of a Vector. Component Form of a Vector. Vectors and the Geometry of Space
11 Vectors and the Geometry of Space 11.1 Vectors in the Plane Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 2 Objectives! Write the component form of
More informationKeywords: coordinate systems, latitude, longitude, georeferencing, global positioning system, GPS, geodetic datum, ellipsoid, geocoding, postal code
Core CurriculumGeographic Information Science (19972000) UCSB Peer Reviewed Title: Units 012017  Position on the Earth Book Title: Core Curriculum in Geographic Information Science Author: 012017,
More informationThe Earth Really is Flat! The Globe and Coordinate Systems. Long History of Mapping. The Earth is Flat. Long History of Mapping
The Earth Really is Flat! The Globe and Coordinate Systems Intro to Mapping & GIS The Earth is Flat Day to day, we live life in a flat world sun rises in east, sets in west sky is above, ground is below
More informationSun Earth Relationships
1 ESCI61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology Sun Earth Relationships Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. Spring (sun aims directly at equator) Winter (northern hemisphere tilts away from sun) 23.5 2 Solar radiation
More informationDRAFTING MANUAL. Dimensioning and Tolerancing Symbols GENIUM PUBLISHING. Section 6.1 Page 1 February 1997* Update by: Bruce 56A. Wilson.
Update 56 Update by: Bruce 56A. Wilson Symbols Section 6.1 Page 1 SYMBOLS 1.0 GENERAL 1 2.1 Diameter  A diameter symbol is placed in front of any dimension value that is a diameter. See Figure 2. This
More information2 GIS concepts. 2.1 General GIS principles
2 GIS concepts To use GIS effectively, it is important to understand the basic GIS terminology and functionality. While each GIS software has slightly different naming conventions, there are certain principles
More informationProject 1: Plotting Coordinates and Projections
1 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM Project 1: Plotting Coordinates and Projections Dan Uhrhan dfu101@psu.edu 2 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM 3 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM 4 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM 5 of 6 8/3/2007 1:54 PM [Replace
More informationThe Globe Latitudes and Longitudes
INDIAN SCHOOL MUSCAT MIDDLE SECTION DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL SCIENCE The Globe Latitudes and Longitudes NAME: CLASS VI SEC: ROLL NO: DATE:.04.2015 I NAME THE FOLLOWING: 1. A small spherical model of the Earth:
More informationGIS IN ECOLOGY: SPATIAL REFERENCING
GIS IN ECOLOGY: SPATIAL REFERENCING Contents Introduction... 2 Coordinate Systems... 2 Map Projections... 3 Georeferencing... 5 Data Sources... 7 Tasks... 7 Undefined versus Unprojected Data... 7 Setting
More informationP153. NICA D.C. Al. I. Cuza University, IASI, ROMANIA
P153 CONVERSION OF COORDINATES BETWEEN THE GAUSSKRÜGER AND UTM CARTOGRAPHIC PROJECTION SYSTEMS ON TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS IN ROMANIA AND REPUBLIC OF MOLDAVIA FOR GIS USE NICA D.C. Al. I. Cuza University, IASI,
More informationSolar Angles and Latitude
Solar Angles and Latitude Objectives The student will understand that the sun is not directly overhead at noon in most latitudes. The student will research and discover the latitude ir classroom and calculate
More information4 The Rhumb Line and the Great Circle in Navigation
4 The Rhumb Line and the Great Circle in Navigation 4.1 Details on Great Circles In fig. GN 4.1 two Great Circle/Rhumb Line cases are shown, one in each hemisphere. In each case the shorter distance between
More informationModule 1 : A Crash Course in Vectors Lecture 2 : Coordinate Systems
Module 1 : A Crash Course in Vectors Lecture 2 : Coordinate Systems Objectives In this lecture you will learn the following Define different coordinate systems like spherical polar and cylindrical coordinates
More informationOregon Geographic Information Council (OGIC) GIS Program Leaders Cartographic Elements Best Practices Version 1.0.7
Oregon Geographic Information Council (OGIC) GIS Program Leaders Cartographic Elements Best Practices Version 1.0.7 Introduction The purpose of this document is to serve as a set of Oregon best practices
More informationMeasuring the Earth Using a GPS M. Scott Wilkerson & M. Beth Wilkerson, DePauw University, May 10, 2007
Measuring the Earth Using a GPS M. Scott Wilkerson & M. Beth Wilkerson, DePauw University, May 10, 2007 Modified from: Kerski, J.J., 2007, Measuring the Earth s Circumference with GPS, Copyright ESRI,
More informationGeodesy and Datums. Ellipsoid and Geoid Geographic Coordinate system
Geodesy and Datums Ellipsoid and Geoid Geographic Coordinate system Defining the Ellipsoid The Earth is not perfectly round Fatter around the waist (equator) Flattened at the Poles To define this unique
More informationPEOPLE & SITES PEOPLE BIOGRAPHIES
16 PEOPLE & SITES The People & Sites sections contain fields to help you provide contextual information for your collections. Artifacts, archival materials, photographs, and publications reveal something
More informationMAP PROJECTIONS AND VISUALIZATION OF NAVIGATIONAL PATHS IN ELECTRONIC CHART SYSTEMS
MAP PROJECTIONS AND VISUALIZATION OF NAVIGATIONAL PATHS IN ELECTRONIC CHART SYSTEMS Athanasios PALLIKARIS [1] and Lysandros TSOULOS [2] [1] Associate Professor. Hellenic Naval Academy, Sea Sciences and
More informationUTM: Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System
Practical Cartographer s Reference #01 UTM: Universal Transverse Mercator Coordinate System 180 174w 168w 162w 156w 150w 144w 138w 132w 126w 120w 114w 108w 102w 96w 90w 84w 78w 72w 66w 60w 54w 48w 42w
More informationA COMPARISON OF EQUALAREA MAP PROJECTIONS FOR REGIONAL AND GLOBAL RASTER DATA
A COMPARISON OF EQUALAREA MAP PROJECTIONS FOR REGIONAL AND GLOBAL RASTER DATA E. Lynn Usery, Research Geographer U.S. Geological Survey 1400 Independence Road Rolla, Missouri, USA 65401 (usery@usgs.gov)
More informationCoordinate Conversions and Transformations including Formulas
Geomatics Guidance Note Number 7, part 2 Coordinate Conversions and Transformations including Formulas Revised  April 2015 Page 1 of 145 Index Preface 4 Revision history 5 1 MAP PROJECTIONS AND THEIR
More informationCHAPTER 9 SURVEYING TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS
CHAPTER 9 SURVEYING TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS Surveying Terms 92 Standard Abbreviations 96 91 A) SURVEYING TERMS Accuracy  The degree of conformity with a standard, or the degree of perfection attained
More informationEECS467: Autonomous Robotics Laboratory Prof. Edwin Olson. Map Projections and GPS
EECS467: Autonomous Robotics Laboratory Prof. Edwin Olson Map Projections and GPS Cartography Several purposes of maps Geographic Information Systems (GIS)  Where is stuff? Measure distances, etc. Navigation
More informationMap Projection Using ArcGIS
Map Projection Using ArcGIS Francisco Olivera, Ph.D., P.E. Srikanth Koka Lauren Walker Aishwarya Vijaykumar Department of Civil Engineering December 5, 2011 Contents Brief Overview of Map Projection Using
More informationINTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 201617
INTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 201617 STD V WORKSHEET Page 1 of 7 SOCIAL STUDIES LESSON  1. KNOW YOUR PLANET Fill in the blanks: 1. A book containing maps is called an. 2. A Flemish map maker,
More informationME 111: Engineering Drawing
ME 111: Engineering Drawing Lecture # 14 (10/10/2011) Development of Surfaces http://www.iitg.ernet.in/arindam.dey/me111.htm http://www.iitg.ernet.in/rkbc/me111.htm http://shilloi.iitg.ernet.in/~psr/ Indian
More informationELEMENTS OF SURVEYING FOR CADASTRAL MAPPING
ELEMENTS OF SURVEYING FOR CADASTRAL MAPPING Chapter 4 2015 Cadastral Mapping Manual 40 Elements of Surveying and Mapping Utah's system of land surveying is the rectangular survey system as set forth on
More informationBasic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide
Name: Basic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide There are three main sections to this module: terrestrial coordinates, celestial equatorial coordinates, and understanding how the ecliptic is related to
More informationUsed by New Zealand. Emergency Services. Map Reading Guide 1:50 000. How to use a Topographic map
Used by New Zealand Emergency Services Map Reading Guide How to use a Topographic map 1:50 000 This guide provides information on: datums projections the New Zealand topographic map series Topo50 (and
More informationDetermine whether the following lines intersect, are parallel, or skew. L 1 : x = 6t y = 1 + 9t z = 3t. x = 1 + 2s y = 4 3s z = s
Homework Solutions 5/20 10.5.17 Determine whether the following lines intersect, are parallel, or skew. L 1 : L 2 : x = 6t y = 1 + 9t z = 3t x = 1 + 2s y = 4 3s z = s A vector parallel to L 1 is 6, 9,
More informationGEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS CERTIFICATION
GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS CERTIFICATION GIS Syllabus  Version 1.2 January 2007 Copyright AICACEPIS 2009 1 Version 1 January 2007 GIS Certification Programme 1. Target The GIS certification is aimed
More informationMap Projection Using ArcGIS
Map Projection Using ArcGIS Prepared by Francisco Olivera, Ph.D., P.E., Srikanth Koka and Lauren Walker Department of Civil Engineering September 25, 2006 Contents: Brief Overview of Map Projection Using
More informationThe Chief Directorate: National
Surveying The South African Coordinate Reference System (Part 1) by Aslam Parker, Chief Directorate: National Geospatial Information This article will define the various elements of the South African
More informationWILD 3710 Lab 3: GIS Data Exploration Camp W.G. Williams
WILD 3710 Lab 3: GIS Data Exploration Camp W.G. Williams Laboratory TAs and Lab Instructors: Chris McGinty chris@gis.usu.edu Office: JQL 146 Office Hours: W 2:30 3:30 or by appt. Alex Hernandez alex@gis.usu.edu
More informationPLOTTING SURVEYING DATA IN GOOGLE EARTH
PLOTTING SURVEYING DATA IN GOOGLE EARTH D M STILLMAN Abstract Detail surveys measured with a total station use local coordinate systems. To make the data obtained from such surveys compatible with Google
More informationGeomatics Guidance Note 3
Geomatics Guidance Note 3 Contract area description Revision history Version Date Amendments 5.1 December 2014 Revised to improve clarity. Heading changed to Geomatics. 4 April 2006 References to EPSG
More informationStructural Geology. Practical 1. Introduction to Stereographic Projection
Structural Geology Practical 1 Introduction to Stereographic Projection Lecture Practical Course Homepage Contact Staff 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 71 8 9 10 STEREONETS 1 INTRODUCTION TO STEREOGRAPHIC
More informationAlgebra Geometry Glossary. 90 angle
lgebra Geometry Glossary 1) acute angle an angle less than 90 acute angle 90 angle 2) acute triangle a triangle where all angles are less than 90 3) adjacent angles angles that share a common leg Example:
More informationFUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS IN GEOGRAPHY. Spring
FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS IN GEOGRAPHY Spring 2010 1 FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPTS IN GEOGRAPHY Geog 5 People, place & Environment What is Geography? Geo [earth] graphy [write, describe] The study of earth as our home
More informationCelestial Observations
Celestial Observations Earth experiences two basic motions: Rotation WesttoEast spinning of Earth on its axis (v rot = 1770 km/hr) (v rot Revolution orbit of Earth around the Sun (v orb = 108,000 km/hr)
More informationCADEarth User s Manual
CADEarth User s Manual Table of Contents Introduction... 2 CADEarth commands Import image from Google Earth... 4 Export CAD screenshot to Google Earth... 7 Import objects from Google Earth... 10 Export
More informationU.K. OFFSHORE OPERATORS ASSOCIATION (SURVEYING AND POSITIONING COMMITTEE) UKOOA DATA EXCHANGE FORMAT P6/98 DEFINITION OF 3D SEISMIC BINNING GRIDS
U.K. OFFSHORE OPERATORS ASSOCIATION (SURVEYING AND POSITIONING COMMITTEE) UKOOA DATA EXCHANGE FORMAT P6/98 DEFINITION OF 3D SEISMIC BINNING GRIDS Revision 3.0 May 2000 SUMMARY The Guidelines For The Definition
More information1.7 Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates
56 CHAPTER 1. VECTORS AND THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE 1.7 Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates 1.7.1 Review: Polar Coordinates The polar coordinate system is a twodimensional coordinate system in which the
More informationFull credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston
Chapter 6: SOLAR GEOMETRY Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston SOLAR GEOMETRY AS A DETERMINING FACTOR OF HEAT GAIN, SHADING AND THE POTENTIAL OF DAYLIGHT PENETRATION...
More informationIntroduction to CATIA V5
Introduction to CATIA V5 Release 16 (A HandsOn Tutorial Approach) Kirstie Plantenberg University of Detroit Mercy SDC PUBLICATIONS Schroff Development Corporation www.schroff.com www.schroffeurope.com
More informationThe following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading:
Seasons Vocabulary: The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading: sphere any round object that has a surface that is the same distance from its center
More informationEmpire Survey Review No. 51, Vol. VII January 1944 Pages 190200
Empire Survey Review No. 51, Vol. VII January 1944 Pages 190200 The Nomenclature and Classification of Map projections L. P. Lee, Lands and Survey Department, Wellington, N. Z. The Nomenclature and Classification
More informationEDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1
Instructor: L. M. Khandro EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1 1. An arc second is a measure of a. time interval between oscillations of a standard clock b. time
More information