# MAPPING EXERCISE Map Projections

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 MAPPING EXERCISE Map Projections All too often emphasis in map production is placed on becoming operational with GIS software while neglecting basic, yet important, map design principals. For many mapmakers, one of the most neglected elements of map compilation is the map projection. Use of an appropriate map projection is essential in mapping as it is the foundation upon which the map is built. It quite literally, shapes the map. At its core, a map projection is nothing more than a transformation of the three-dimensional Earth to a two-dimensional representation such as a piece of paper or computer display. The transformation may use a geometric form (cylinder, plane or cone) or mathematics. Regardless of the method of transformation, no map projections can be formed without distortion taking place. There are hundreds of map projections available to the cartographer and distortion will differ according to how the projection is created. There are four families of map projections azimuthal (planar), cylindrical, conic, and mathematical and there are several individual projections belonging to each family. In the azimuthal family, the grid of a generating globe (a model based on spherical, ellipsoidal, or geoidal representations of the Earth) is projected onto a plane. Cylindrical projections are created by first wrapping a plane into a cylinder and then projecting the grid is projected onto that cylinder. The cylinder is then unrolled into a flat map. Conic projections are created by first wrapping a plane into a cone onto which the projecting the grid is projected. The cone is then unrolled into a flat map. Mathematical projections oftentimes resemble geometric projections but cannot be developed by projective geometry. Mathematical projections sometimes are subclassified as pseudocylindrical, pseudoconic, and pseudoazimuthal. Area, shape, distance, and direction are the properties of a projection. No projection can maintain all four of these properties simultaneously. There are map projections that do a good job at minimizing distortion of one of these properties. The two most commonly employed are equivalent (equal area) projections and conformal projections. Conformal map projections maintain the angular relationships of the globe the projection surface. On the globe, arcs of latitude and longitude intersect at right (90 ) angles. Thus, on the map projection, graticule lines intersect at right angles creating a rectangular map and the shapes of small areas will be maintained. Equivalent map projections maintain size relationships. No map projection can maintain both conformal and equivalent properties. Refer to Chapter 3 of the textbook for a detailed discussion on maintaining distance and direction as well as minimum error projections. Projection case refers to the location that the projection surface comes in contact with the reference globe. In tangent projections, the projection surface touches the globe at one point (planar projections) or along one line (cylindrical and conic projections). In secant projections, the projection surface cuts through the globe, touching along two lines (cylindrical and conic projections) or one line for planar projections. Reference lines are the locations where the projection surface touches the globe. Distortion will be least on a map along the reference line(s). 1

3 Figure 1. The map of the world with the graticule. The portrayal of the world seen in Figure 1 is the default display for all new projects in ArcMap. Even without experience in working with projections, it should be obvious that this display is not appropriate for all mapping applications. Note, in particular, the distortion of land areas in the high latitudes. Move the cursor around the data view. As you do this, look in the status bar at the bottom of the screen. If you cannot see the status bar, turn it on by selecting View >Status Bar). Notice how the numbers change as the cursor moves. These numbers indicate the location of the cursor. Depending on the properties of your map projection, the units displayed may be DMS (degrees, minutes, seconds), decimal degrees, or coordinates using a linear measurement (like meters). Figure 2. The values will change as your cursor moves. You will explore some of the projections available to you in ArcMap and observe distortion that occurs in the various projections. There are two methods that cartographers use to determine distortion of map projections. The first method is to overlay geometric symbols, usually circles, on the map at multiple locations. When the projection changes, the distortion of the symbols noticeable. The second method is to employ Tissot s indicatrix. Tissot s indicatrix uses a small circle with two perpendicular radii placed on a map. As with the first method, the circle may change shape as the map is reprojected. The difference between the two methods lies in the fact that Tissot s indicatrix employs mathematics to quantitatively describe the distortion. You will use the first method in this exercise to observe map distortion. 3

4 Turn on the Circles layer by clicking its check box in the Table of Contents. You will see 23 circles distributed throughout the graticule. Along individual lines of latitude or longitude, the circles are spaced 80 apart. Figure 3. Your map with 23 identical circles. To get a sense of the types of map projections available to you, let s experiment with selecting different projections and see what happens with our map. Right click the Layers data frame in the Table of Contents and select Properties. Figure 4. Right-click on the data frame, not a layer. Click the Coordinate System tab. A data frame may use either a geographic coordinate system or a projected coordinate system. A geographic coordinate system (GCS) is a geometric model, commonly an ellipsoid, are used as a reference surface for determining location on the Earth s surface. A projected coordinate system, 4

5 or projection, is the specific transformation of the 3-D earth to the 2-D flat surface. All projections use a GCS. Note that the data frame currently employs the GCS_WGS_1984 coordinate system using the WGS_1984 datum. Refer to Chapter 2 for more information regarding ellipsoids and datums. Figure 5. The coordinate system for the data frame. You will first select a projection from the azimuthal family. Cartographers use azimuthal projections primarily to map the polar regions. In the Select a coordinate system box, select the following: Predefined >Projected Coordinate Systems >Polar >North Pole Azimuthal Equidistant. Figure 6. Selecting the North Pole Azimuthal Equidistant projection. Click OK to register the change and close the Properties window. 5

6 You may need to adjust the view of the map to see the full extent of the mapped area. To do this click the Full Extent button on the Tools toolbar. Figure 7. The Full Extent tool. Make a note of the appearance of the graticule. Are the latitude and longitude lines straight lines intersecting at right angles? Are the geometric symbols still circles? How are they distorted? Is the distortion the same in all parts of the map? The exercise questions at the end of this exercise include those asking you describe the graticule and circle transformations of each of the projections you will employ. If your instructor requires you to submit the answers to the exercise questions, it is more convenient to answer them as you progress through this exercise rather than once you have completed it. Figure 8. The North Pole Azimuthal Equidistant projection. It should be apparent why azimuthal projections are not suitable for mapping the entire world. Note the distortion in the southern hemisphere, particularly that of Antarctica. Next you will select a projection from the conic family. Cartographers use conic projections primarily to map the areas in the mid-latitudes, especially those with wide east-west dimensions. Right click the Layers data frame in the Table of Contents and select Properties. If it is not already selected, click the Coordinate System tab. 6

7 In the Select a coordinate system box, select the following: Predefined >Projected Coordinate Systems >Continental >Asia >Asia North Albers Equal Area Conic. Click OK to register the change and close the Properties window. You may need to adjust the view of the map to see the full extent of the mapped area. Make a note of the appearance of the graticule and circles. Figure 9. The Asia North Albers Equal Area Conic projection. As with azimuthal projections, conic projections are not well suited for mapping the entire world. Use conic projections for continental areas or larger scales (e.g., countries or country subdivisions). Next you will select a projection from the cylindrical family. Cartographers use cylindrical projections primarily to map the polar regions. Right click the Layers data frame in the Table of Contents and select Properties. If it is not already selected, click the Coordinate System tab. In the Select a coordinate system box, select the following: Predefined >Projected Coordinate Systems >World >Miller Cylindrical. Click OK to register the change and close the Properties window. You may need to adjust the view of the map to see the full extent of the mapped area. Make a note of the appearance of the graticule and circles. 7

9 In the Coordinate System window you can customize the projection so that it is centered on a particular area, simply by redefining the central meridian, standard parallel(s), reference latitude, or false eastings and northings. The choice of parameters varies depends on which projection is being used. Let s briefly define these terms. o Central meridian the longitude on which a map is centered (x-origin). Do not confuse the central meridian with the Prime Meridian, which is 0 longitude. Many world maps use the Prime Meridian as the central meridian, but the central meridian may be any meridian. o Latitude of origin the latitude on which a map is centered (y-origin). o Standard parallel(s) for conic projections, the parallel(s) along which the cone touches the earth. o False easting in ArcMap, the x-coordinate value for the x-origin. For example, if the central meridian for your projected map is , and the false easting is set to 0.00, then all locations along that meridian are assigned a value of All locations to the west of the central meridian (x-origin) are assigned a negative value, and all locations to the east of the central meridian are assigned a positive value, as in a typical Cartesian plane. o False northing in ArcMap, the y-coordinate value for the y-origin. For example, if the reference latitude for a conic projection is 37.00, then all locations along that parallel are assigned a value of All locations to the south of the reference latitude (y-origin) are assigned a negative value, and all locations to the north of the reference latitude are assigned a positive value, as in a typical Cartesian plane. When specifying longitude and/or latitude values in the various properties widow, you do so in decimal degrees. If you have a location where the coordinates are given in degrees, minutes, and seconds (DMS), you will need to convert to decimal degrees. When converting, remember that there are 60 seconds in a minute and 60 minutes in a degree. Also note that positions west of the Prime Meridian and south of the Equator are assigned negative values. For example, Denver, Colorado s DMS coordinates of 39 45' N, ' W would convert to 39.27, Move your cursor around the map and note the position of the cursor in the status bar at the bottom of the window. As you can see, the values given are in meters, which is not particularly useful for simple exploration of map coordinates. You will next change your display units to DMS. Right click the Layers data frame in the Table of Contents and select Properties. This time, click the General tab. In the Units area change the Display to Decimal Degrees. 9

10 Figure 11. Changing the map display units to decimal degrees. Click OK to close the Properties window and return to the map. Now notice the change in the display of the coordinates in the status bar as you move your mouse around the map. Be sure to move the cursor west of the Prime Meridian and south of the Equator to see the negative longitude and latitude values in those locations. Cylindrical projections are much better for mapping the entire world than azimuthal or conic projections. However, most cartographers dissuade using cylindrical projections for world mapping because of the substantial distortion in the high latitudes. For world mapping, cartographers prefer mathematical projections. You will next view your map using two different mathematical projections. The first is the Robinson projection. The Robinson projection is a compromise projection that is commonly used for world mapping. Right click the Layers data frame in the Table of Contents and select Properties. If it is not already selected, click the Coordinate System tab. In the Select a coordinate system box, select the following: Predefined >Projected Coordinate Systems >World >Robinson. Click OK to register the change and close the Properties window. You may need to adjust the view of the map to see the full extent of the mapped area. Make a note of the appearance of the graticule and circles. 10

11 Figure 12. The Robinson projection. It is important to note that not all the projections listed in the World subsection of the projected coordinate systems are ideal for maps of the world. The Bonne projection is an equal area conical projection is noteworthy for its distinct heart (cordiform) shape. Right click the Layers data frame in the Table of Contents and select Properties. If it is not already selected, click the Coordinate System tab. In the Select a coordinate system box, select the following: Predefined >Projected Coordinate Systems >World >Bonne. Click OK to register the change and close the Properties window. You may need to adjust the view of the map to see the full extent of the mapped area. Figure 13. The Bonne projection. Cartographers use the Bonne projection for continental areas and countries in the mid-latitudes. 11

12 Creating a Map to Turn In The final projection you will use in this exercise is the Orthographic projection. Referred to as the Vertical Perspective projection in ArcMap, this projection is used primarily to view the Earth as if from space. Before changing the projection, turn off the circles layer. Right click the Layers data frame in the Table of Contents and select Properties. If it is not already selected, click the Coordinate System tab. In the Select a coordinate system box, select the following: Predefined >Projected Coordinate Systems >World >Vertical Perspective. Click OK to register the change and close the Properties window. It may take slightly longer to draw the map using this projection than the other projections. If so, be patient, it will draw completely. The map may appear relatively small in the data view. If so, click the Full Extent button to enlarge it. You will now see the world as if you were in a position in space above the intersection of the Prime Meridian and the Equator. Figure 14. The Vertical Perspective (Orthographic) projection. Next you will change the aspect of the projection so that you are viewing the Earth from above your current position. Use an atlas, online site (such as for U.S. cities), or 12

13 program like Google Earth (if you have it installed) to determine your coordinates. Your instructor may also provide coordinates for you to use. Return to the Coordinate System tab of the Data Frame Properties window. Click the Modify button. The Projected Coordinate System Properties window will open. Change the values of both Longitude Of Center and Latitude Of Center to your coordinates. Remember that you must use decimal degrees and also use negative numbers for longitudes west of the Prime Meridian and latitudes south of the equator. Do not change the Height or Linear Unit values. Figure 15. The Orthographic projection reoriented over Macomb, Illinois. Click OK to register the change Creating the Layout Switch to the Layout View (View >Layout View). Using the Page and Print Setup menu item (right-click outside the page in the layout view to get the context menu where this is located), change the Orientation to Landscape. Also make sure the Use Printer Paper Settings and Show Printer Margins on Layout boxes are checked. 13

14 Figure 16. Page and Print Setup. Click OK to register your changes and close the window. When you changed the orientation of the page from portrait to landscape, your data frame did not resize. You will need to resize the data frame to fit in the layout. Resizing is accomplished in one of two ways: clicking and dragging one of the sizing handles (boxes that appear along the edge of the data frame when the data frame is selected) or adjusting the size of the frame in the Data Frame Properties window. You will do the latter. Figure 17. Your data frame no longer fits the layout following the switch to landscape orientation. Right-click the data frame (mapped area) and select Properties. Click the Size and Position tab. Change both the width and height to 7.5 in. 14

15 Figure 18. Setting the dimensions of the data frame. Before closing the Data Frame Properties window, click the Frame tab. Change the Border to <None>. Figure 19. Click the Border box to make the change. Click OK to register your changes and close the Data Frame Properties window. By resizing the data frame, the scale of the map may have changed it is common for you to be at a smaller scale than you were in the data view following the resizing. If necessary, zoom to fill the data frame with the mapped area. Use the Full Extent button (it looks like a globe) to do so. Click OK to register your changes and close the Properties window. Insert a neatline (Insert >Neatline). Make it 2 points thick and place it inside the print margins with a 5 point gap. 15

16 Next, reposition the data frame so it is near the right edge of the layout, inside the neatline. Add the map title (Insert >Title). Make your map title Orthographic Projection of the World. Reposition the title so it is in the space to the left of the mapped area. The current size of the text used in the title should be a little bigger but making the title bigger will likely cause overlap with the map. The solution to the dilemma of how to make the title bigger but not overlap the map is to use multiple lines for the title. To change your text to multiple lines, double-click the title. The Text Properties window opens. Place your cursor between Orthographic and Projection and press the Enter key on your keyboard. Make sure you delete the space that was between the two words. Repeat the procedure to put of the World on a third line. Keep the alignment as center-aligned. Figure 20. The title on multiple lines. Using the Drawing toolbar (placed by default at the bottom of the ArcMap window), make the title text bold and increase its size (try between 28 and 34 points). Reposition the title if necessary to fit in the available space. 16

17 Next, add a new text element indicating the orientation of the map (substitute your information for the items in brackets): Position this text below the title. Map oriented on [your location] [your latitude and longitude coordinates] In the lower left-hand corner of the page, add the cartographer information (two lines, left-aligned): Your name Today s date To print a hard-copy of the map: Click on the print button or select File >Print (you may also print preview using File >Print Preview) To create a PDF document (for digital submissions): Export the map by selecting File >Export Map Change the Save as type: to PDF (*.pdf). The Resolution should be 300 dpi and the Output Image Quality should be best. Keep these settings unless directed otherwise. 17

18 Exercise Questions 1. What are the steps to applying a projection (projected coordinate system) to a data frame? 2. Which projection family is most suited to map (a) the world, (b) the mid-latitudes, and (c) the polar regions? 3. What is a central meridian and how do you change it in ArcMap? 4. What is the latitude of origin and how do you change it in ArcMap? 5. How do you specify your display units as Degrees, Minutes & Seconds? 6. What is a generating globe? 7. What are conformal and equivalent projections? 8. What is a projection s aspect? 9. Describe the graticule of the North Pole Azimuthal Equidistant, Asia North Albers Equal Area Conic, Miller Cylindrical, and Robinson projections. 10. Describe the transformation of the circles when you applied the each of the projections. Are there any true circles in this projection? If so, which ones? 18

### NGA GRID GUIDE HOW TO USE ArcGIS 8.x ANS 9.x TO GENERATE MGRS AND OTHER MAP GRIDS

GEOSPATIAL SCIENCES DIVISION COORDINATE SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TEAM (CSAT) SEPTEMBER 2005 Minor Revisions March 2006 POC Kurt Schulz NGA GRID GUIDE HOW TO USE ArcGIS 8.x ANS 9.x TO GENERATE MGRS AND OTHER MAP

### Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems

Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems Geodetic Control Network Horizontal Control Network Datum A datum is a set of parameters defining a coordinate system, and a set of control points whose

### Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems.

Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems. A GIS without coordinates would simply be a database like Microsoft Excel

### GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections Earth Ellipsoid and Horizontal Datums (cont d) Components of a Geographic Coordinate System Recognize that there are three components to a geographic

### Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale

Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale Lectures 4 Sept 14, 2006 Why we need it? Earth Shape Models Flat earth models are still used for plane surveying, over distances short

### GIS for Educators. Coordinate Reference System. Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems.

GIS for Educators Topic 7: Coordinate Reference Systems Objectives: Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems. Keywords: Coordinate Reference System (CRS), Map Projection, On the Fly Projection, Latitude,

### An Introduction to GIS using ArcGIS Spring Lab Workshop 5 March S.P.Harish PhD Candidate Department of Politics New York University

An Introduction to GIS using ArcGIS Spring Lab Workshop 5 March 2013 S.P.Harish PhD Candidate Department of Politics New York University Agenda What is GIS? Basic GIS Concepts Introduction to ArcGIS Coordinates

### Tutorial 2 Exploring Map Projections and Grid Systems in ArcGIS 10

Tutorial 2 Exploring Map Projections and Grid Systems in ArcGIS 10 NOTE: Before beginning this tutorial, make sure your GEOGSV01 server folder is mapped on the computer you are using (as we did last week).

### Map Projections & Coordinates. M. Helper 09-01-15 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1

Map Projections & Coordinates 09-01-15 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1 Laying the earth flat Why? Need convenient means of measuring and comparing distances, directions, areas, shapes. Traditional surveying

### GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems

UTM Coordinate System GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems Why do we need the UTM coordinate system? - in a rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system, with linear x and

### Lecture 2. Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems. Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University

Lecture 2 Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University Map Projections Map projections are mathematical formulas

### Projections. Shape (angles) Distance Direction Area. Only a sphere can retain all four properties

Projections Projections Map projections are attempts to portray the surface of the earth (or a portion of the earth) on a flat surface. Four spatial relationships (or properties) between locations can

### SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS

SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS We will begin today with the first of two classes on aspects of cartography. Cartography is both an art and a science, but we will focus on the scientific aspects. Geographical

### Chapter 11. Assembly Modeling. Evaluation chapter. Logon to for more details. Learning Objectives

Chapter 11 Assembly Modeling Learning Objectives After completing this chapter you will be able to: Insert components into an assembly file. Create bottom-up assemblies. Insert components into a product

### Understand the Sketcher workbench of CATIA V5.

Chapter 1 Drawing Sketches in Learning Objectives the Sketcher Workbench-I After completing this chapter you will be able to: Understand the Sketcher workbench of CATIA V5. Start a new file in the Part

### Map Projection Using ArcGIS

Map Projection Using ArcGIS Prepared by Francisco Olivera, Ph.D., P.E., Srikanth Koka and Lauren Walker Department of Civil Engineering September 25, 2006 Contents: Brief Overview of Map Projection Using

### Map Projection Using ArcGIS

Map Projection Using ArcGIS Francisco Olivera, Ph.D., P.E. Srikanth Koka Lauren Walker Aishwarya Vijaykumar Department of Civil Engineering December 5, 2011 Contents Brief Overview of Map Projection Using

### Lab 2: Projecting Geographic Data

Lab 2: Projecting Geographic Data What you ll Learn: In this Lab we will describe the basic methods for using map projections and datum transformations in ArcMap. The readings in Chapter 3, Map Projections

### How To Set Up A GIS Project

--- Chapter Thirteen --- How To Set Up A GIS Project 1. How to start a new GIS project: The first step in using GIS in your research is to create a GIS project. A GIS project can be thought of as a space

### Creating a Poster in PowerPoint 2010. A. Set Up Your Poster

View the Best Practices in Poster Design located at http://www.emich.edu/training/poster before you begin creating a poster. Then in PowerPoint: (A) set up the poster size and orientation, (B) add and

### Lecture 4. Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS

Lecture 4 Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS GIS in Water Resources Spring 2015 Geodesy, Map Projections and Coordinate Systems Geodesy - the shape of the earth and definition of earth datums Map

### Introduction to CATIA V5

Introduction to CATIA V5 Release 16 (A Hands-On Tutorial Approach) Kirstie Plantenberg University of Detroit Mercy SDC PUBLICATIONS Schroff Development Corporation www.schroff.com www.schroff-europe.com

### Implementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection

NGA.SIG.0011_1.0.0_WEBMERC NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL-INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (NGA) STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENT Implementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection 2014-02-18 Version 1.0.0 OFFICE OF GEOMATICS NGA.SIG.0011_1.0.0_WEBMERC

### Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 4.0 Basic Design

Introduction Datum features are non-solid features used during the construction of other features. The most common datum features include planes, axes, coordinate systems, and curves. Datum features do

### Excel 2007 Basic knowledge

Ribbon menu The Ribbon menu system with tabs for various Excel commands. This Ribbon system replaces the traditional menus used with Excel 2003. Above the Ribbon in the upper-left corner is the Microsoft

### Creating Figure Ground Maps in ArcMap 10.x: Basic procedures to download, open, manipulate and print spatial data

Creating Figure Ground Maps in ArcMap 10.x: Basic procedures to download, open, manipulate and print spatial data These procedures outline: A. Retrieving Property Data B. Uncompressing the Downloaded Files

### GIS IN ECOLOGY: SPATIAL REFERENCING

GIS IN ECOLOGY: SPATIAL REFERENCING Contents Introduction... 2 Coordinate Systems... 2 Map Projections... 3 Georeferencing... 5 Data Sources... 7 Tasks... 7 Undefined versus Unprojected Data... 7 Setting

### What are map projections?

Page 1 of 155 What are map projections? ArcGIS 10 Within ArcGIS, every dataset has a coordinate system, which is used to integrate it with other geographic data layers within a common coordinate framework

### Sketcher. Preface What's New? Getting Started Basic Tasks Customizing Workbench Description Glossary Index

Sketcher Preface What's New? Getting Started Basic Tasks Customizing Workbench Description Glossary Index Dassault Systèmes 1994-99. All rights reserved. Preface CATIA Version 5 Sketcher application makes

### Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems

Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems How do we model the earth? Datums Datums mathematically describe the surface of the Earth. Accounts for mean sea level, topography, and gravity models. Projections

### WGS AGD GDA: Selecting the correct datum, coordinate system and projection for north Australian applications

internal report WGS AGD GDA: Selecting the correct datum, coordinate system and projection for north Australian applications JBC Lowry Hydrological and Ecological Processes Program Environmental Research

### Registered map layers

Registered map layers Coordinate map systems Coordinate map systems 1. The Earth's Graticule Latitude and Longitude The graticule is the imaginary grid of lines running east-west lines of latitude (parallels)

### Working with Wireframe and Surface Design

Chapter 9 Working with Wireframe and Surface Design Learning Objectives After completing this chapter you will be able to: Create wireframe geometry. Create extruded surfaces. Create revolved surfaces.

### Excel -- Creating Charts

Excel -- Creating Charts The saying goes, A picture is worth a thousand words, and so true. Professional looking charts give visual enhancement to your statistics, fiscal reports or presentation. Excel

### Appendix B: Geographic Coordinates Systems & Map Projections. B.1 Approximating the Earth's Shape

The following is an appendix from: Strindberg, S. In prep. Optimized Automated Survey Design in Wildlife Population Assessment. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of St. Andrews. Appendix B: Geographic

### Microsoft Publisher Quick Reference

Microsoft Publisher Quick Reference Microsoft Publisher is a desktop publishing program. It is also called a layout program. It is designed to allow you to quickly and easily design and lay out newsletters,

### Guide To Creating Academic Posters Using Microsoft PowerPoint 2010

Guide To Creating Academic Posters Using Microsoft PowerPoint 2010 INFORMATION SERVICES Version 3.0 July 2011 Table of Contents Section 1 - Introduction... 1 Section 2 - Initial Preparation... 2 2.1 Overall

### First Level: 2D Fundamentals. by Randy H. Shih Oregon Institute of Technology

AutoCAD 2008 Tutorial First Level: 2D Fundamentals by Randy H. Shih Oregon Institute of Technology MultiMedia CD by Jack Zecher Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis SDC PUBLICATIONS Schroff

### Create a Poster Using Publisher

Contents 1. Introduction 1. Starting Publisher 2. Create a Poster Template 5. Aligning your images and text 7. Apply a background 12. Add text to your poster 14. Add pictures to your poster 17. Add graphs

### SDC. Schroff Development Corporation WWW.SDCACAD.COM PUBLICATIONS. MultiMedia CD by Jack Zecher

MultiMedia CD by Jack Zecher An audioi/visual presentation of the tutorial exercises SDC PUBLICATIONS Schroff Development Corporation WWW.SDCACAD.COM AutoCAD 2002 Tutorial 2-1 Lesson 2 Geometric Construction

### Office: Word for Beginners

Office: Word for Beginners What is Word? Word 2013 is a word processing application that allows you to create a variety of documents like letters, flyers, and reports. Additional Resources: http://www.gcflearnfree.org/office2013/word2013

### PEOPLE & SITES PEOPLE BIOGRAPHIES

16 PEOPLE & SITES The People & Sites sections contain fields to help you provide contextual information for your collections. Artifacts, archival materials, photographs, and publications reveal something

### Mapping Locations Using XY Coordinates

Mapping Locations Using XY Coordinates ArcGIS Desktop 10 Instructional Guide Kim Ricker GIS/Data Center Head (713) 348-5691 Jean Niswonger GIS Support Specialist (713) 348-2595 1 This guide was created

### means of the Orologi Solari program

How to design a vertical sundial by means of the Orologi Solari program It is not that difficult to design and to build a vertical sundial: everyone could experiment. For sundial design the following parameters

### It is a little challenging suppose you are to describe a point on the surface of a basketball.

Coordinate Systems 1. Geographic coordinate system To locate a point on a piece of white paper, we usually use the distances of the point to the left/right edge (x) and top/bottom edge (y). Therefore the

### Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Urban Studies and Planning

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Urban Studies and Planning 11.520: A Workshop on Geographic Information Systems 11.188: Urban Planning and Social Science Laboratory Lecture 3: More

### INTRODUCTION to ESRI ARCGIS For Visualization, CPSC 178

INTRODUCTION to ESRI ARCGIS For Visualization, CPSC 178 1) Navigate to the C:/temp folder 2) Make a directory using your initials. 3) Use your web browser to navigate to www.library.yale.edu/mapcoll/ and

### Introduction to SolidWorks Software

Introduction to SolidWorks Software Marine Advanced Technology Education Design Tools What is SolidWorks? SolidWorks is design automation software. In SolidWorks, you sketch ideas and experiment with different

### Introduction to Autodesk Inventor for F1 in Schools

Introduction to Autodesk Inventor for F1 in Schools F1 in Schools Race Car In this course you will be introduced to Autodesk Inventor, which is the centerpiece of Autodesk s digital prototyping strategy

### Projections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview

Projections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview Projections Primary data capture Secondary data capture Data transfer Capturing attribute data Managing a data capture project Geodesy Basics for Geospatial

### SpaceClaim Introduction Training Session. A SpaceClaim Support Document

SpaceClaim Introduction Training Session A SpaceClaim Support Document In this class we will walk through the basic tools used to create and modify models in SpaceClaim. Introduction We will focus on:

### Module 1 : A Crash Course in Vectors Lecture 2 : Coordinate Systems

Module 1 : A Crash Course in Vectors Lecture 2 : Coordinate Systems Objectives In this lecture you will learn the following Define different coordinate systems like spherical polar and cylindrical coordinates

### Layout Tutorial. Getting Started

Getting Started Layout Tutorial This tutorial will explain how create a layout template, send views to a layout page, then save the document in PDF format. In this tutorial you will learn about: Creating

### Working with sections in Word

Working with sections in Word Have you have ever wanted to create a Microsoft Word document with some pages numbered in Roman numerals and the rest in Arabic, or include a landscape page to accommodate

### Data Visualization. Prepared by Francisco Olivera, Ph.D., Srikanth Koka Department of Civil Engineering Texas A&M University February 2004

Data Visualization Prepared by Francisco Olivera, Ph.D., Srikanth Koka Department of Civil Engineering Texas A&M University February 2004 Contents Brief Overview of ArcMap Goals of the Exercise Computer

### State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS

State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS An overview of SPCS with emphasis on Grid vs. Ground coordinates. New Jersey Geospatial Forum Meeting Friday, March 18 th 2005 Jesse Kozlowski NJ PLS History of SPCS

### House Design Tutorial

Chapter 2: House Design Tutorial This House Design Tutorial shows you how to get started on a design project. The tutorials that follow continue with the same plan. When we are finished, we will have created

### GIS s s Roots in Cartography

Following up on the last lecture GIS s s Roots in Cartography Getting Started With GIS Chapter 2 Information ordering: Lists and indexes Organizing data and information Information can be organized as

### PowerPoint PowerPoint 2010 for Academic Posters. IT Services

IT Services PowerPoint 2010 PowerPoint 2010 for Academic Posters University Templates Page Layout Text Images Position and Alignment Tables and Charts Print your Poster Further Help UNIVERSITY OF LEICESTER

### Impress Guide. Chapter 2 Using Slide Masters, Styles, and Templates

Impress Guide Chapter 2 Using Slide Masters, Styles, and Templates Copyright This document is Copyright 2005 2009 by its contributors as listed in the section titled Authors. You may distribute it and/or

TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction... 1 Wireframe & Surfaces... 2 Pull Down Menus... 3 Edit... 3 Insert... 4 Tools... 6 Generative Shape Design Workbench... 7 Bottom Toolbar... 9 Tools... 9 Analysis... 10

### Generative Drafting. Page 1 1997 2001 DASSAULT SYSTEMES. IBM Product Lifecycle Management Solutions / Dassault Systemes

Generative Drafting Page 1 Tutorial Objectives Description This Tutorial is an introduction to Generative Drafting. Message To show how CATIA V5 allows the user to automatically generate associative drafting

### Using 3 D SketchUp Design Software. Building Blocks Tools

Using 3 D SketchUp Design Software Building Blocks Tools Introduction Google s SketchUp is an easy to use drawing program capable of building 3 dimensional (or 3 D) objects (SketchUp also does 2 D easily).

### Chapter 23: Drafting in Worksheet View

Chapter 23: Drafting in Worksheet View Worksheet View is a powerful, 2D production drafting module. Here you can find all of the drawing and editing tools needed to create fast, accurate, detailed working

### WORD 2013 FORMATTING TEXT and USING STYLES

WORD 2013 FORMATTING TEXT and USING STYLES Information Technology September 1, 2014 1 P a g e TABLE OF CONTENTS Paragraph Format Options... 3 Paragraph group under the Home tab... 3 First Line Indent...

### Chapter 1. Creating Sketches in. the Sketch Mode-I. Evaluation chapter. Logon to www.cadcim.com for more details. Learning Objectives

Chapter 1 Creating Sketches in Learning Objectives the Sketch Mode-I After completing this chapter you will be able to: Use various tools to create a geometry. Dimension a sketch. Apply constraints to

### Excel 2003 A Beginners Guide

Excel 2003 A Beginners Guide Beginner Introduction The aim of this document is to introduce some basic techniques for using Excel to enter data, perform calculations and produce simple charts based on

### Geographic Coordinates. Measurement: Just use GPS. Geographic Coordinates 1/17/2013

Geographic Coordinates Analytical and Computer Cartography Lecture 3: Review: Coordinate Systems Geographic Coordinates Geographic coordinates are the earth's latitude and longitude system, ranging from

### Designing a Poster Presentation in PowerPoint

Designing a Poster Presentation in PowerPoint This document is intended to acquaint you with the basic tools need for creating a poster in MS Office PowerPoint for PC. Contents Getting Started... 2 Backgrounds

### Getting Started in Microsoft Word Click on the Start menu > All Programs > Microsoft Office and select Microsoft Office Word 2007 from the list.

Microsoft Word Part 1 Office 2007 Getting Started in Microsoft Word 2007 Opening Word Double click the Word icon on the desktop. OR If there is no shortcut icon on the desktop: Click on the Start menu

### Word Processing with Microsoft Word 2000

Word Processing with Microsoft Word 2000 1. Launch Microsoft Word by clicking on the Start button in the Task Bar. 2. Click on Programs. 3. Choose Microsoft Word from the list of programs. 4. The Office

### Excel 2007 A Beginners Guide

Excel 2007 A Beginners Guide Beginner Introduction The aim of this document is to introduce some basic techniques for using Excel to enter data, perform calculations and produce simple charts based on

### Introduction to Autodesk Inventor for F1 in Schools

F1 in Schools race car Introduction to Autodesk Inventor for F1 in Schools In this course you will be introduced to Autodesk Inventor, which is the centerpiece of Autodesk s Digital Prototyping strategy

### Data Visualization. Brief Overview of ArcMap

Data Visualization Prepared by Francisco Olivera, Ph.D., P.E., Srikanth Koka and Lauren Walker Department of Civil Engineering September 13, 2006 Contents: Brief Overview of ArcMap Goals of the Exercise

Poster PowerPoint Presentations 1: Using Essentials PowerPoint 2007 Using Microsoft PowerPoint 2007 Produced by the IT Training and Assessment Unit Produced by the IT Training 2007 and Assessment Unit

### In this session, we will explain some of the basics of word processing. 1. Start Microsoft Word 11. Edit the Document cut & move

WORD PROCESSING In this session, we will explain some of the basics of word processing. The following are the outlines: 1. Start Microsoft Word 11. Edit the Document cut & move 2. Describe the Word Screen

### 6. If you want to enter specific formats, click the Format Tab to auto format the information that is entered into the field.

Adobe Acrobat Professional X Part 3 - Creating Fillable Forms Preparing the Form Create the form in Word, including underlines, images and any other text you would like showing on the form. Convert the

### INTRODUCTION: BASIC GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS. Eric Jessup Associate Professor School of Economic Sciences

INTRODUCTION: BASIC GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS Eric Jessup Associate Professor School of Economic Sciences September 13, 2010 Outline What is geographical / spatial analysis and why do we care? Different types

### Advanced. Creating Boxes and Borders. Boxes

Advanced Word Creating Boxes and Borders Boxes Boxes, which look like this, can be placed around single words, groups of words, or entire paragraphs. To create a box, you first need to select (or highlight)

### PowerPoint PowerPoint 2010 for Academic Posters. IT Services

IT Services PowerPoint 2010 PowerPoint 2010 for Academic Posters University Templates Page Layout Text Images Position and Alignment Tables and Charts Print your Poster Further Help UNIVERSITY OF LEICESTER

### Publication Number spse01510

Sketching Publication Number spse01510 Sketching Publication Number spse01510 Proprietary and restricted rights notice This software and related documentation are proprietary to Siemens Product Lifecycle

### Google Earth SWAC Module 7: GeoViewers

Google Earth SWAC Module 7: GeoViewers 1. Introduction: Google Earth is a free web-based geospatial data viewer maintained by Google in Mountainview, California. The program was developed under a different

### Understanding Map Projections

Understanding Map Projections Melita Kennedy ArcInfo 8 Copyright 1994, 1997, 1999, 2000 Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. The

### Extracting Aerial Images From GIS Based Ortho Photos Using ArcMap 9

Extracting Aerial Images From GIS Based Ortho Photos Using ArcMap 9 Tutorial Updated August 2006 CP-208 Plan Preparation Studio - Prof. Elizabeth Macdonald 2 In this tutorial we will learn to extract aerial

### Basic AutoSketch Manual

Basic AutoSketch Manual Instruction for students Skf-Manual.doc of 3 Contents BASIC AUTOSKETCH MANUAL... INSTRUCTION FOR STUDENTS... BASIC AUTOSKETCH INSTRUCTION... 3 SCREEN LAYOUT... 3 MENU BAR... 3 FILE

### SDC. Parametric Modeling with Creo Parametric. An Introduction to Creo Parametric 1.0. Randy H. Shih Oregon Institute of Technology

Parametric Modeling with Creo Parametric An Introduction to Creo Parametric 1.0 Randy H. Shih Oregon Institute of Technology SDC PUBLICATIONS www.sdcpublications.com Schroff Development Corporation Visit

### INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2010 Creating a Basic Spreadsheet

INTRODUCTION TO MICROSOFT EXCEL 2010 Creating a Basic Spreadsheet Documented by Vincent J. Yanusauskas Computer Training Coordinator Table of Contents Introduction... 1 Backstage View... 1 Quick access

### Latitude and Longitudes in Geodesy James R. Clynch February 2006

Latitude and Longitudes in Geodesy James R. Clynch February 2006 I. Latitude and Longitude on Spherical Earth Latitude and longitude are the grid lines you see on globes. For a spherical earth these are

### Microsoft Excel 2010 Prepared by Computing Services at the Eastman School of Music July 2010

Microsoft Excel 2010 Prepared by Computing Services at the Eastman School of Music July 2010 Contents Microsoft Office Interface... 4 File Ribbon Tab... 5 Microsoft Office Quick Access Toolbar... 6 Appearance

### Creo Parametric 2.0 Tutorial

Creo Parametric 2.0 Tutorial Creo Parametric 1.0 Tutorial and MultiMedia DVD was written for Creo Parametric1.0. PTC released Creo Parametric 2.0 in the Spring of 2012. This book is fully compatible with

### Geographic Datums & Coordinates

Geographic Datums & Coordinates What is the shape of the earth? Why is it relevant for GIS? 9-04-2012 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 2-1 From Conceptual to Pragmatic Dividing a sphere into a stack of pancakes

### Microsoft Word 2010 Prepared by Computing Services at the Eastman School of Music July 2010

Microsoft Word 2010 Prepared by Computing Services at the Eastman School of Music July 2010 Contents Microsoft Office Interface... 4 File Ribbon Tab... 5 Microsoft Office Quick Access Toolbar... 6 Appearance

Intro to Excel spreadsheets What are the objectives of this document? The objectives of document are: 1. Familiarize you with what a spreadsheet is, how it works, and what its capabilities are; 2. Using

### Word Lesson 1 Microsoft Word Basics. Microsoft Office 2010 Introductory

Microsoft Word Basics Microsoft Office 2010 Introductory 1 Objectives Start Word and understand the ways to view your document. Enter text in a document and navigate a document. Use Backspace and Delete