# Objectives. Vocabulary. Compare and contrast latitude and longitude. Describe how time zones vary.

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1 Objectives Compare and contrast latitude and longitude. Describe how time zones vary. Vocabulary cartography equator latitude longitude prime meridian International Date Line Latitude and Longitude

2 Latitude and Longitude Cartographers use an imaginary grid of parallel lines and vertical lines.. Equator is halfway between the poles. Northern and Southern hemispheres on either side.

3 Latitude and Longitude Latitude Latitude lines-- run parallel to the equator. Equator is 0 degrees. North Pole 90 N South Pole 90 S

4 Latitude Degrees of Latitude Each degree of latitude is equivalent to about 111 km on Earth s surface. Latitude and Longitude Cartographers took Earth s 40,000 km circumference and divided it by 360 degrees since it s a sphere. Degrees are divided into 60 smaller units- minutes A minute is divided into 60 even smaller units known as seconds.

5 Latitude and Longitude Longitude lines are also called meridians** Longitude--- distance in degrees east or west of the prime meridian. The prime meridian, representing 0 longitude, runs thru Greenwich, England.

6 Longitude Latitude and Longitude Points west of the prime meridian are numbered from 0 to 180 west longitude (W). Points east of the prime meridian are numbered from 0 to 180 east longitude (E).

7 Latitude and Longitude Longitude. Lines of longitude are not parallel; they are large semicircles that extend vertically from pole to pole. Degrees of Longitude Distance of a degree of longitude gets less as you get close to the poles! They converge together at the pole in single point.

8 Latitude and Longitude Need both latitude and longitude for a coordinate For example, the location of New Orleans is N, W. Note the symbols for degrees and minutes

9 Time Zones Latitude and Longitude Each time zone is 15 wide, corresponding roughly to lines of longitude. 6 time zones in the USA

10 Latitude and Longitude Time Zones There are six different time zones in the United States.

11 Latitude and Longitude Time Zones Calendar Dates Each time you travel through a time zone, you gain or lose time, eventually gaining or losing an entire day. The International Date Line, or 180 meridian, serves as the transition line for calendar days. Traveling west across the International Date Line, you would advance your calendar one day. Traveling east, you would move your calendar back one day.

12 Section Assessment 1. Match the following terms with their definitions. D latitude B longitude A prime meridian C equator Latitude and Longitude A. the reference point for longitude B. the distance in degrees east or west of 0 C. the reference point for latitude D. the distance in degrees north or south of 0

13 Section Assessment Latitude and Longitude 2. If it is 10 A.M. in Madagascar, what time is it in Washington, D.C.? It is 2 A.M. in Washington, D.C.

14 Section Assessment Latitude and Longitude 3. Identify whether the following statements are true or false. false A degree of longitude always represents the same distance. true If you travel west across the International Date Line, you advance your calendar one day. false Lines of latitude are not perfectly parallel to each other. true When referencing a specific place on Earth by its coordinates, latitude always comes first.

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16 Objectives Compare and contrast different map projections. Analyze topographic maps. Describe map characteristics, such as map scales and map legends Types of Maps Vocabulary Mercator projection conic projection gnomonic projection topographic map contour line contour interval map legend map scale

17 Mercator Projections Types of Maps A Mercator projection uses all parallel lines. Areas distorted especially near poles (Greenland) Best for direction however. Like coastline shapes.

18 Types of Maps Conic Projections A conic projection--image projecting onto a cone. # The cone touches at one latitude. Less distortion near that line Good for small areas-less distortion (road maps)

19 Gnomonic Projections A gnomonic projection --projected onto a piece of paper touching at only one point. Good for long navigation. Called great-circle routes. Types of Maps

20 Types of Maps Topographic Maps Topographic maps are detailed maps showing the elevations of hills and valleys of an area.

21 Types of Maps A contour line connects points of equal elevation. l.

22 The contour interval is the difference in elevation between two side-by-side contour lines. Types of Maps

23 Topographic Maps Depression Contour Lines Depression contour lines are used to represent features that are lower than the surrounding area. On a map, depression contour lines have hachures, or short lines at right angles. Types of Maps

24 Types of Maps Map Legends Topographic maps and most other maps include both humanmade and natural features. A map legend explains what the symbols represent.

25 Map Scales On topographic maps, GRADIENT is the elevation difference between 2 points divided by the distance. Close contour lines means steep! Types of Maps

26 Types of Maps Map Scales 3 Kinds of map scales A verbal scale expresses distance as a statement, such as One centimeter is equal to one kilometer. A graphic scale consists of a line that represents a certain distance, such as 5 km or 5 miles. A fractional scale expresses distance as a ratio, such as 1: One unit from map=that many units in real life. Smaller ratio is more detailed!

27 Section Assessment 1. Match the following terms with their definitions. C projection A contour interval D map legend B map scale Types of Maps A. the difference in elevation between two side-by-side contour lines B. a diagram that explains what the symbols on a map represent C. a map made by transferring points and lines on a globe s surface onto a sheet of paper D. the ratio between distances on a map and actual distances on the surface of Earth

28 Section Assessment Types of Maps 2. Which type of map would be best suited for the following applications? C An aviator is trying to identify the shortest route between New York and London. B A cartographer for the state department of transportation has been tasked with making a new state road map. D A group of friends is planning on hiking in the back country of Idaho. A A sailor is sailing up the coast from South America to North America. A. Mercator projection B. conic projection C. gnomonic projection D. topographic

29 Section Assessment 3. What does it mean if a map says Scale 1: ? Types of Maps This fractional scale means that one unit on the map represents units on Earth s surface. For example, one inch on the map would equal inches on Earth s surface.

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31 Objectives Compare and contrast the different forms of radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum. Discuss how satellites and sonar are used to map Earth s surface and its oceans. Describe the Global Positioning System. Vocabulary Remote Sensing remote sensing electromagnetic spectrum frequency Landsat satellite Topex/Poseidon satellite Global Positioning System sonar

32 Remote Sensing Remote sensing -- collecting data about Earth from far above Earth s surface using many different techniques.

33 The Electromagnetic Spectrum Wave Characteristics All electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of km/s in a vacuum Remote Sensing Electromagnetic waves have distinct wavelengths and frequenci. The electromagnetic spectrum is the arrangement of all electromagnetic radiation. Frequency is the number of waves that pass a particular point each second. These unique characteristics help determine how the energy is used by different satellites to map Earth.

34 Remote Sensing The Electromagnetic Spectrum Wave Characteristics

35 Landsat Satellites Remote Sensing A Landsat satellite receives infrared to track crops, movement of Earth s plates, and pollution. Computers change the data into color coded digital images see pg. 38.

36 Topex/Poseidon Satellite The Topex/Poseidon satellite uses radar to map the ocean floor. Topex stands for topography experiment Remote Sensing Also used to study ocean currents.

37 The Global Positioning System The Global Positioning System, or GPS, Exact position on Earth. Remote Sensing Uses 24 satellites or more transmitting microwave frequencies Several satellites can be picked up at any moment

38 Section Assessment 1. Match the following terms with their definitions. B remote sensing D frequency A Landsat C Topex/Poseidon A. a satellite that receives reflected wavelengths of energy emitted by Earth s surface Remote Sensing B. the process of collecting data about Earth from far above Earth s surface C. a satellite that uses radar to map features on the ocean floor D. the number of waves that pass a particular point each second

39 Remote Sensing Section Assessment 2. Number the following wave types beginning with the longest wavelength. 3 Infrared radiation 4 Visible light 6 X rays 1 Radio waves 7 Gamma rays 2 Microwaves 5 Ultraviolet radiation

40 Section Assessment Remote Sensing 3. How does the Global Positioning System work? Each Global Positioning Satellite orbits Earth and transmits high frequency microwaves that contain information about the satellite s position and the time of transmission. The orbits of the satellites are arranged so that signals from several satellites can be picked up at any given moment by a GPS user equipped with a receiver. The receiver calculates the user s precise latitude and longitude by processing the signals emitted by multiple satellites.

41

42 Chapter Resources Menu Study Guide Section 2.1 Section 2.2 Section 2.3 Chapter Assessment Image Bank

43 Section 2.1 Main Ideas Section 2.1 Study Guide Cartographers use a grid system to locate exact positions on Earth. Lines of latitude refer to distances north and south of the equator. Lines of longitude refer to distances east and west of the prime meridian. Earth is divided into 24 time zones. Each zone represents a different hour. The International Date Line, or 180 meridian, is the transition line for calendar days. The calendar advances to the next day in each time zone at midnight.

44 Section 2.2 Main Ideas Section 2.2 Study Guide Maps are flat models of Earth s surface. All maps contain some sort of distortion in the shapes or areas of landmasses. Maps are made by transferring points and lines on a globe onto paper. Mercator projections and gnomonic projections are commonly used for navigation by ships and planes. Conic projections are best suited for mapping small areas. Topographic maps show changes in elevation of Earth s surface. Contour lines connect points of equal elevation. A map legend explains the symbols on a map. A map scale shows the relationship between distances on a map and actual distances on Earth.

45 Section 2.3 Main Ideas Section 2.3 Study Guide The process of gathering data about Earth from far above the planet is called remote sensing. The electromagnetic spectrum shows the arrangement of electromagnetic radiation, which is often used by remote-sensing devices to map Earth. Landsat satellites use visible light and infrared radiation to map Earth s surface. The Topex/Poseidon satellite uses radar to map features on the ocean floor. The Global Positioning System is a satellite-based navigation system that allows a user to pinpoint his or her exact location on Earth.

46 Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following is NOT true about lines of latitude. a. They are parallel to each other. b. They connect the north and south poles. c. They are either referenced as north or south. d. Latitude is measured from 0º to 90º. Chapter Assessment Lines of latitude are parallel to the equator. The equator is 0º and each pole is 90º. Lines of longitude connect the north and south pole.

47 Multiple Choice 2. What is the reference point for lines of longitude? a. the equator b. the International Date Line c. the prime meridian d. Earth s center Chapter Assessment The prime meridian, which runs through Greenwich, England, is 0º longitude. The equator is the reference for latitude. The International Date Line, which is 180º E or W, is opposite the prime meridian. Earth s center is used to find the line of latitude but it is not a reference point.

48 Multiple Choice 3. What represents equal elevation on a topographical map? a. great circles c. hachures b. a map scale d. contour lines Chapter Assessment Great circles represent the shortest distance between two points on a sphere. A map scale is the ratio between distances on a map and actual distances on the surface of Earth. Hachures are short lines at right angles to the contour line, to indicate depressions.

49 Chapter Assessment Multiple Choice 4. What is the distance between one degree of longitude? a. 111 km b. 48 km c. 2 km d. all of the above Remember the lines of longitude are not parallel. The distance between lines of longitude ranges from 111 km to essentially the distance covered by a point at the poles.

50 Multiple Choice 5. The Topex/Poseidon satellite uses to map features on the ocean floor. a. radar c. gamma rays b. sonar d. GPS Chapter Assessment Sea Beam uses sonar, which is the use of sound waves to detect and measure objects underwater. Gamma rays are at the high end of the electromagnetic spectrum, beyond the frequency that radar uses. GPS is the global positioning system which is a navigation system.

51 Short Answer 6. What characteristic do all electromagnetic waves share? Chapter Assessment All electromagnetic waves travel at the speed of km/s in a vacuum, a value commonly referred to as the speed of light.

52 Short Answer 7. If it is 6:00 P.M. on July 4 in Los Angeles, California, what day and time is it in Tokyo, Japan? It would be 10:00 A.M. on July 5. Chapter Assessment

53 True or False 8. Identify whether the following statements are true or false. false Contour lines can cross each other. true There are 3600 seconds in a degree. true By connecting points on a gnomonic projection, navigators can plot great-circle routes. false The United States has six time zones. Chapter Assessment true If you travel east across the International Date Line, you would move your calendar back one day.

54 Image Bank Chapter 2 Images

55 Chapter 2 Images Image Bank

56 Chapter 2 Images Image Bank

57 Image Bank Chapter 2 Images

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