# EX 2 GEOREFERENCING. Part I - A theoretical background about Coordinate Systems

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "EX 2 GEOREFERENCING. Part I - A theoretical background about Coordinate Systems"

## Transcription

1 EX 2 GEOREFERENCING Introduction A coordinate system (CS) provides a fundamental spatial framework to support the planning and development of a nation. All spatial data has a coordinate system to define locations on earth. In Pakistan there have been several different CS, but the commonly used are, WGS1984, LCC and UTM. WGS1984 (the geographic CS) is the most commonly used geographic coordinate system, but if the area or length calculations are involved then UTM (a projected CS) should be preferred. Pakistan lies to the north of equator (0 Latitude) and to the east of Prime meridian (Greenwich, 0 Longitude) When working with GIS it is extremely important to understand these different systems and the relationships between them. Poor understanding of these systems will most likely lead to great difficulties to combine data from different sources, difficulties in sharing maps with other departments or organizations, low map accuracy and overall inefficiency. If possible an organization should try to use one standard geographic coordinate system or datum. This document is intended to provide theoretical background about geographic and projected coordinate systems as well as with a technical part describing and guiding people how to use the software ArcGIS as a tool to perform georeferencing and transformations. Part I - A theoretical background about Coordinate Systems The information in the first four chapters of this document is mainly taken from the book Understanding Map Projections written by ESRI Geographic Coordinate Systems A geographic coordinate system (GCS) uses a three dimensional spherical surface to define locations on the earth. A GCS is often incorrectly called a datum, but a datum is only one part of a GCS. A GCS includes an angular unit of measure, a prime meridian, and a datum (based on a spheroid). A point is referenced by its longitude and latitude values. Longitude and latitude are angles measured from the earth s center to a point on the earth s surface. The angles are often measured in degrees (or in grads) (see figure 1). 1

2 Prime Meridian Equator Figure 1. Showing Longitude and latitude angles measured from the earth s center to a point on the earth s surface and prime meridian (0 Longitude) and equator (0 latitude). (modified after ESRI ). In the spherical system, horizontal lines or east west lines are lines of equal latitude, or parallels. Vertical lines, or north south lines, are lines of equal longitude, or meridians. The line of latitude midway between the poles is called the equator. It defines the line of zero latitude. The line of zero longitude is called the prime meridian. For most geographic coordinate systems, the prime meridian is the longitude that passes through Greenwich, England. Latitude and longitude values are traditionally measured either in decimal degrees or in degrees, minutes, and seconds (DMS). Latitude values are measured relative to the equator and range from -90 (90 S) at the South Pole to +90 (90 N) at the North Pole, with 0 at the equator. Longitude values are measured relative to the prime meridian. They range from -180 (180 W) when traveling west, to +180 (180 E) when traveling east, with 0 at the prime meridian. The latitude and longitude reference system assumes that the Earth is a perfect sphere. Unfortunately this is not correct. The earth is actually an oblate spheroid with flatter poles (see figure 2). To complicate matters further the surface of earth is far from smooth and regular. Figure 2, A representation of earth as a sphere or a spheroid. (ESRI ). Ellipsoid models use the major and minor axes of the earth and mathematically account for flattening at the poles (see figure 3). 2

3 Figure 3. (ESRI ). For historical reasons there are several such ellipsoids in use for mapping different countries of the world. Each of these ellipsoids is generally matched to one or several countries. An ellipsoid appropriate for one region of the earth is not always appropriate to other regions (Lao National Geography Department 1997). Another property is needed to uniquely specify geographical positions. This is the position and orientation of the ellipsoid relative to the earth. The term used to describe this fitting of an ellipsoid to the earth is the geodetic datum. Many geodetic datums exist throughout the world, each usually associated with the national survey of a particular country or continent. More recently several new geodetic datums have been successively derived, from steadily accumulating satellite and other data, to provide for a best worldwide fit. A local datum aligns its spheroid to closely fit the earth s surface in a particular area. A point on the surface of the spheroid is matched to a particular position on the surface of the earth. This point is known as the origin point of the datum. The coordinates of the origin point are fixed, and all other points are calculated from it. The coordinate system origin of a local datum is not at the center of the earth. The center of the spheroid of a local datum is offset from the earth s center (see figure 4). Because a local datum aligns its spheroid so closely to a particular area on the earth s surface, it is not suitable for use outside the area for which it was designed. The Lao national datum 1997 is an example of a local datum, which has a spheroid with a good approximation to the size, and shape of the sea-level surface in the region of Lao PDR. 3

4 Figure 4. (ESRI ). 2. Projected Coordinate Systems A projected coordinate system is any coordinate system designed for a flat surface such as a printed map or a computer screen. Whether you treat the earth as a sphere or a spheroid, you must transform its three-dimensional surface to create a flat map sheet. This mathematical transformation is commonly referred to as a map projection. A map projection uses mathematical formulas to relate spherical coordinates on the globe to flat, planar coordinates. There are three main ways to project a map: 2.1. Azimuthal or Planar Map Projections Planar projections project map data onto a flat surface touching the globe (see figure 5). This type of projection is usually tangent to the globe at one point but may also be secant. The point of contact may be the North Pole, the South Pole, a point on the equator, or any point in between. This point specifies the aspect and is the focus of the projection. The distortion is the smallest at the point of tangent. Planar projections are used most often to map Polar Regions. Figure 5. Planar projections project map data onto a flat surface touching the globe (ESRI ). 4

5 2.2. Conical Map Projections This way to project a map is based on that you place a cone over the globe (Eklundh et al 1999) (see figure 6). The simplest conic projection is tangent to the globe along one line of latitude. This line is called the standard parallel. In general, the further you get from the standard parallel, the more distortion increases. Figure 6. The conical map projection (ESRI ). Conic projections are mostly used for mid latitude zones that have an east west orientation, for example Canada. Conic projections can also have contact with two locations on the globe (see figure 7). These projections are called secant projections and are defined by two standard parallels. Figure 7. Conic projections - two standard parallels (ESRI ). Generally, a secant projection with two standard parallels has less overall distortion than a tangent projection with one standard parallel. An even more complex conic projection is called oblique where the axis of the cone does not line up with the polar axis of the globe Cylindrical Map Projections Like conic projections, cylindrical projections also have tangent or secant cases. There are three main different cylindrical map projections (see figure 8). A normal cylinder projection has a cylinder in which the equator is the line of tangency. A transverse cylinder projection has its tangency at a meridian and an oblique cylinder is rotated around a great circle line, located anywhere between the equator and the meridians. In all cylindrical projections, the line of tangency or lines of secancy have no distortion and thus are lines of equidistance. 5

6 Figure 8. Types of cylindrical map projections (ESRI ). There are three main properties of a map projection related to distortions. Some projections preserve both distances and directions from a single given point. Such projection is called equidistant. There are also projections, which preserve directions at any point on the globe. Such projections are called conformal. Finally, there are projections, which preserve area sizes, and they are called equal area. However, no projection can possess more than one of the three qualities: conformality, equidistance, and equal-area Conformal Projections A conformal projection shows perpendicular graticule lines intersecting at 90-degree angles on the map and therefore keeps the shape of objects. For example, the angles between two roads should be the same in the map as in reality (Eklundh et al 1999). There are four conformal projections in common use: The Mercator, the Transverse Mercator, and Lamberts Conformal Conic with two standard parallels, and the Stereographic Azimuthal Mercator s Projection (Robinson et al 1995) Equal-Area Projections Equal area projections preserve the area of displayed features. This is an important quality if you want to calculate areas (Eklundh et al 1999). In equal area projections, the meridians and parallels may not intersect at right angles like in the conformal projection. In some cases, especially maps of smaller regions, shapes are not obviously distorted, and distinguishing an equal area projection from a conformal projection is difficult unless documented or measured. Commonly used equal-area projections are Alberts Equal Area Conic Projection, and Lambert s Equal-Area Equidistant Projections An equidistant map keeps the distances between certain points. Scale is not maintained correctly by any projection throughout an entire map; however, there are, in most cases, one or more lines on a map along which scale are maintained correctly. Most equidistant projections have one or more lines, for which the length of the line on a map is the same length (at map scale) as the same line on the globe. Keep in mind that no projection is equidistant to and from all points on a map. 6

7 PART II - ArcGIS as a tool to transform between different coordinate systems Introduction: Frequently digital geographic data are acquired by scanning aerial photographs or paper maps. Once the data are input they need to be assigned their proper map coordinates so that they will occupy a real world space. Georeferencing defines the location of a dataset using known map coordinates and assigns it a coordinate system. This allows for the dataset to be viewed, queried, and analyzed with other geographic data. Typically in a GIS environment such as ArcMap, raster datasets (such as images) are georeferenced using a control layer. This layer contains known coordinates and is used as a point of reference for the georeferencing process. Georeferencing is a tool that allows you to transform paper maps or other images into an ArcGIS layer. It is not always possible to find maps or aerial photos (raster images) that are digitized and georeferenced. Historic maps, aerial photos, and other maps found online or in print are often not georeferenced. This step by step process will guide you towards georeferencing. This first part of the tutorial shows you the steps involved in georeferencing a scanned map that contains reference ticks or graticules in a known Coordinate System and Datum. 1. Open ArcMap and create a new empty map. 2. In the main menu, go to View, Toolbars, and add Georeferencing tool bar. If it is floating, you can dock it in the position of your choice. Within this toolbar, there are several georeferencing tools that can be used. This tool will rotate your image. This tool adds control points. 3. Click on the Add Data button and browse to your D:\ GIS Training\Exercises\EX2_Data\ Folder 7

8 4. Select Pakistan.tif file and click the Add. 5. A dialogue box will appear asking if you want to build pyramids. Choose yes. Do not worry if you get an error message saying that the image lacks projection information unknown spatial reference. That s what you re about to do. 6. The very first step towards gereferencing is to set the properties of the data frame. You can do it either by right clicking on the layers in the table of content and selecting properties or by selecting the data frame properties from the view menu. 7. A new window will pop up as shown in figure at the right. From the 8. A new window will open, from the window either i. Select the already created coordinate systems (projected or geographic) from the select a coordinate system tab, or ii. Import from any of the spatially referenced data (it could be any spatially referenced map or shape file, but should have the same coordinate system that you are interested in) by clicking import option and selecting the respective file, or iii. By creating a new one for your region (e.g. LCC in case of Pakistan) by clicking on the new option and filling the fields with appropriate information. Note that coordinate systems commonly used in Pakistan are WGS1984 (GCS) or UTM zones (PCS). Moreover, the UTM zones for Pakistan are 41N, 42N and 43N (Pakistan lies to the north of the equator). 9. Select from the predefined CS from select a coordinate system tab. 10. You have 2 options either select Geographic CS > world > WGS1984 or Projected CS > UTM > WGS1984 > UTM zone 42N. For now go with the GCS > world > WGS Make sure that the Pakistan.tif layer is selected in the Layer: field of the Georeferencing Toolbar. 12. Click on the Georeferencing Button and select Fit To Display to bring your Pakistan.tif layer into view. 13. Select ZOOM IN button and zoom into the left corner of the map by dragging the box as shown in figure. 8

9 14. Select the Add Control Points Tool from the Georeferencing Toolbar and Add a control point by clicking on the scanned map cornermake sure you click at the point where Lat/Long Lines meet (as shown in figure below), then right click on the added point and select input x and y data. Note: Vertical lines (Longitudes) increase along the x-axis, whereas horizontal lines (Latitudes) increase along y-axis, therefore, we take Longitude along X field and Latitude along the Y field. 15. Continue adding control points, add at least four points in such a way that they cover the map i.e. try to take control points at four corners of the map. 9

11 21. You can change the output location, name and format of the layer. 22. The image will now be saved as a new file. Add the saved file to your project. Right click on the layer, select properties and under the extent tab, you will see that your image now has spatial information. NCE in Geology, University of Peshawar 11

### Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale

Ellipsoid and Datum, Projection, Coordinate system, and Map Scale Lectures 4 Sept 14, 2006 Why we need it? Earth Shape Models Flat earth models are still used for plane surveying, over distances short

### Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems

Map Projection, Datum and Plane Coordinate Systems Geodetic Control Network Horizontal Control Network Datum A datum is a set of parameters defining a coordinate system, and a set of control points whose

### Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems.

Welcome to Lesson 3. It is important for a GIS analyst to have a thorough understanding of map projections and coordinate systems. A GIS without coordinates would simply be a database like Microsoft Excel

### GIS for Educators. Coordinate Reference System. Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems.

GIS for Educators Topic 7: Coordinate Reference Systems Objectives: Understanding of Coordinate Reference Systems. Keywords: Coordinate Reference System (CRS), Map Projection, On the Fly Projection, Latitude,

### An ArcGIS Tutorial Concerning Transformations of Geographic Coordinate Systems, with a Concentration on the Systems Used in Lao PDR.

An ArcGIS Tutorial Concerning Transformations of Geographic Coordinate Systems, with a Concentration on the Systems Used in Lao PDR. Introduction...3 PART 1, A Theoretical Background about Coordinate Systems...3

### An Introduction to GIS using ArcGIS Spring Lab Workshop 5 March S.P.Harish PhD Candidate Department of Politics New York University

An Introduction to GIS using ArcGIS Spring Lab Workshop 5 March 2013 S.P.Harish PhD Candidate Department of Politics New York University Agenda What is GIS? Basic GIS Concepts Introduction to ArcGIS Coordinates

### GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 09: Map Projections Earth Ellipsoid and Horizontal Datums (cont d) Components of a Geographic Coordinate System Recognize that there are three components to a geographic

### Lecture 2. Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems. Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University

Lecture 2 Map Projections and GIS Coordinate Systems Tomislav Sapic GIS Technologist Faculty of Natural Resources Management Lakehead University Map Projections Map projections are mathematical formulas

### Map Projections & Coordinates. M. Helper 09-01-15 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1

Map Projections & Coordinates 09-01-15 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 1 Laying the earth flat Why? Need convenient means of measuring and comparing distances, directions, areas, shapes. Traditional surveying

### SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS

SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEMS We will begin today with the first of two classes on aspects of cartography. Cartography is both an art and a science, but we will focus on the scientific aspects. Geographical

### GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems

UTM Coordinate System GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS Lecture 11: Projected Coordinate Systems Why do we need the UTM coordinate system? - in a rectangular (Cartesian) coordinate system, with linear x and

### What are map projections?

Page 1 of 155 What are map projections? ArcGIS 10 Within ArcGIS, every dataset has a coordinate system, which is used to integrate it with other geographic data layers within a common coordinate framework

### GIS s s Roots in Cartography

Following up on the last lecture GIS s s Roots in Cartography Getting Started With GIS Chapter 2 Information ordering: Lists and indexes Organizing data and information Information can be organized as

### GIS IN ECOLOGY: SPATIAL REFERENCING

GIS IN ECOLOGY: SPATIAL REFERENCING Contents Introduction... 2 Coordinate Systems... 2 Map Projections... 3 Georeferencing... 5 Data Sources... 7 Tasks... 7 Undefined versus Unprojected Data... 7 Setting

### Lecture 4. Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS

Lecture 4 Map Projections & Coordinate System in GIS GIS in Water Resources Spring 2015 Geodesy, Map Projections and Coordinate Systems Geodesy - the shape of the earth and definition of earth datums Map

### An Introduction to Coordinate Systems in South Africa

An Introduction to Coordinate Systems in South Africa Centuries ago people believed that the earth was flat and notwithstanding that if this had been true it would have produced serious problems for mariners

### Projections. Shape (angles) Distance Direction Area. Only a sphere can retain all four properties

Projections Projections Map projections are attempts to portray the surface of the earth (or a portion of the earth) on a flat surface. Four spatial relationships (or properties) between locations can

### Appendix B: Geographic Coordinates Systems & Map Projections. B.1 Approximating the Earth's Shape

The following is an appendix from: Strindberg, S. In prep. Optimized Automated Survey Design in Wildlife Population Assessment. Unpublished PhD Thesis. University of St. Andrews. Appendix B: Geographic

### Geographic Datums & Coordinates

Geographic Datums & Coordinates What is the shape of the earth? Why is it relevant for GIS? 9-04-2012 GEO327G/386G, UT Austin 2-1 From Conceptual to Pragmatic Dividing a sphere into a stack of pancakes

### NGA GRID GUIDE HOW TO USE ArcGIS 8.x ANS 9.x TO GENERATE MGRS AND OTHER MAP GRIDS

GEOSPATIAL SCIENCES DIVISION COORDINATE SYSTEMS ANALYSIS TEAM (CSAT) SEPTEMBER 2005 Minor Revisions March 2006 POC Kurt Schulz NGA GRID GUIDE HOW TO USE ArcGIS 8.x ANS 9.x TO GENERATE MGRS AND OTHER MAP

### WGS AGD GDA: Selecting the correct datum, coordinate system and projection for north Australian applications

internal report WGS AGD GDA: Selecting the correct datum, coordinate system and projection for north Australian applications JBC Lowry Hydrological and Ecological Processes Program Environmental Research

### Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems

Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems How do we model the earth? Datums Datums mathematically describe the surface of the Earth. Accounts for mean sea level, topography, and gravity models. Projections

### Registered map layers

Registered map layers Coordinate map systems Coordinate map systems 1. The Earth's Graticule Latitude and Longitude The graticule is the imaginary grid of lines running east-west lines of latitude (parallels)

### It is a little challenging suppose you are to describe a point on the surface of a basketball.

Coordinate Systems 1. Geographic coordinate system To locate a point on a piece of white paper, we usually use the distances of the point to the left/right edge (x) and top/bottom edge (y). Therefore the

### GEOREFERENCING HISTORIC MAPS USING ARCGIS DESKTOP 10

5/20/2011 BALL STATE UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES GIS RESEARCH AND MAP COLLECTION GEOREFERENCING HISTORIC MAPS USING ARCGIS DESKTOP 10 GEOREFERENCING HISTORIC MAPS USING ARCGIS DESKTOP 10 *This tutorial is appropriate

### Tutorial 2 Exploring Map Projections and Grid Systems in ArcGIS 10

Tutorial 2 Exploring Map Projections and Grid Systems in ArcGIS 10 NOTE: Before beginning this tutorial, make sure your GEOGSV01 server folder is mapped on the computer you are using (as we did last week).

### Implementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection

NGA.SIG.0011_1.0.0_WEBMERC NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL-INTELLIGENCE AGENCY (NGA) STANDARDIZATION DOCUMENT Implementation Practice Web Mercator Map Projection 2014-02-18 Version 1.0.0 OFFICE OF GEOMATICS NGA.SIG.0011_1.0.0_WEBMERC

### How to georectify an image in ArcMap 10

How to georectify an image in ArcMap 10 The University Library has a large collection of historical aerial photos for some North Carolina Counties ( http://www.lib.unc.edu/reference/gis/usda/index.html

### Map Coordinates, GIS, and GPS for Enhanced 9-1-1

Map Coordinates, GIS, and GPS for Enhanced 9-1-1 Keith W. Cunningham, Ph.D. 14 East Eighth Street Lawrence, KS 66044 800/238-1911 Maps and coordinates are used to describe features and their locations

### Projections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview

Projections & GIS Data Collection: An Overview Projections Primary data capture Secondary data capture Data transfer Capturing attribute data Managing a data capture project Geodesy Basics for Geospatial

### Using Geocoded TIFF & JPEG Files in ER Mapper 6.3 with SP1. Eric Augenstein Earthstar Geographics Web: www.es-geo.com

Using Geocoded TIFF & JPEG Files in ER Mapper 6.3 with SP1 Eric Augenstein Earthstar Geographics Web: www.es-geo.com 1 Table of Contents WHAT IS NEW IN 6.3 SP1 REGARDING WORLD FILES?...3 WHAT IS GEOTIFF

### How To Set Up A GIS Project

--- Chapter Thirteen --- How To Set Up A GIS Project 1. How to start a new GIS project: The first step in using GIS in your research is to create a GIS project. A GIS project can be thought of as a space

### Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Urban Studies and Planning

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Urban Studies and Planning 11.520: A Workshop on Geographic Information Systems 11.188: Urban Planning and Social Science Laboratory Lecture 3: More

### INTRODUCTION: BASIC GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS. Eric Jessup Associate Professor School of Economic Sciences

INTRODUCTION: BASIC GEOGRAPHIC CONCEPTS Eric Jessup Associate Professor School of Economic Sciences September 13, 2010 Outline What is geographical / spatial analysis and why do we care? Different types

### Geodesy and Datums. Ellipsoid and Geoid Geographic Coordinate system

Geodesy and Datums Ellipsoid and Geoid Geographic Coordinate system Defining the Ellipsoid The Earth is not perfectly round Fatter around the waist (equator) Flattened at the Poles To define this unique

### Map Projection Using ArcGIS

Map Projection Using ArcGIS Prepared by Francisco Olivera, Ph.D., P.E., Srikanth Koka and Lauren Walker Department of Civil Engineering September 25, 2006 Contents: Brief Overview of Map Projection Using

### Geographic Coordinates. Measurement: Just use GPS. Geographic Coordinates 1/17/2013

Geographic Coordinates Analytical and Computer Cartography Lecture 3: Review: Coordinate Systems Geographic Coordinates Geographic coordinates are the earth's latitude and longitude system, ranging from

### Map Projection Using ArcGIS

Map Projection Using ArcGIS Francisco Olivera, Ph.D., P.E. Srikanth Koka Lauren Walker Aishwarya Vijaykumar Department of Civil Engineering December 5, 2011 Contents Brief Overview of Map Projection Using

### PEOPLE & SITES PEOPLE BIOGRAPHIES

16 PEOPLE & SITES The People & Sites sections contain fields to help you provide contextual information for your collections. Artifacts, archival materials, photographs, and publications reveal something

### SESSION 8: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND MAP PROJECTIONS

SESSION 8: GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND MAP PROJECTIONS KEY CONCEPTS: In this session we will look at: Geographic information systems and Map projections. Content that needs to be covered for examination

### Latitude and Longitudes in Geodesy James R. Clynch February 2006

Latitude and Longitudes in Geodesy James R. Clynch February 2006 I. Latitude and Longitude on Spherical Earth Latitude and longitude are the grid lines you see on globes. For a spherical earth these are

### Oasis montaj Coordinate Systems

Oasis montaj Coordinate Systems In Oasis montaj, working with map coordinate systems requires that the map coordinate system information be attached to any database, grid or map. Once you have attached

### EPSG. Coordinate Reference System Definition - Recommended Practice. Guidance Note Number 5

European Petroleum Survey Group EPSG Guidance Note Number 5 Coordinate Reference System Definition - Recommended Practice Revision history: Version Date Amendments 1.0 April 1997 First release. 1.1 June

### What do I do first in ArcView 8.x? When the program starts Select from the Dialog box: A new empty map

www.library.carleton.ca/find/gis Introduction Introduction to Georeferenced Images using ArcGIS Georeferenced images such as aerial photographs or satellite images can be used in many ways in both GIS

### 2 GIS concepts. 2.1 General GIS principles

2 GIS concepts To use GIS effectively, it is important to understand the basic GIS terminology and functionality. While each GIS software has slightly different naming conventions, there are certain principles

### Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems

Earth Coordinates & Grid Coordinate Systems You will always find parallels and meridians on largescale maps This is done to make the map a very close approximation to the size and shape of the piece of

### Understanding Map Projections

Understanding Map Projections GIS by ESRI Copyright 1994 2001, 2003 2004 ESRI All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. The information contained in this document is the exclusive property

### PLOTTING SURVEYING DATA IN GOOGLE EARTH

PLOTTING SURVEYING DATA IN GOOGLE EARTH D M STILLMAN Abstract Detail surveys measured with a total station use local coordinate systems. To make the data obtained from such surveys compatible with Google

### Understanding Map Projections

Understanding Map Projections Melita Kennedy ArcInfo 8 Copyright 1994, 1997, 1999, 2000 Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Printed in the United States of America. The

### GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS CERTIFICATION

GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS CERTIFICATION GIS Syllabus - Version 1.2 January 2007 Copyright AICA-CEPIS 2009 1 Version 1 January 2007 GIS Certification Programme 1. Target The GIS certification is aimed

### The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual

The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual The Map Grid of Australia 1994 A Simplified Computational Manual 'What's the good of Mercator's North Poles and Equators, Tropics, Zones

### GEOREFERENCE MAPS IN ARC GIS 10.1

UCLA DIGITAL HUMANITIES HOW TO GEOREFERENCE MAPS IN ARC GIS 10.1 Created by YOH KAWANO Updated 2013 E. SULLIVAN INTRODUCTION The following manual has been created to serve as a working guide for anybody

### Georeferencing of Scanned Maps & Spatial Adjustment of Vector Data

Georeferencing of Scanned Maps & Spatial Adjustment of Vector Data Georeferencing is the process of assigning spatial coordinates to data that is spatial in nature, but has no explicit geographic coordinate

### State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS

State Plane Coordinate Systems & GIS An overview of SPCS with emphasis on Grid vs. Ground coordinates. New Jersey Geospatial Forum Meeting Friday, March 18 th 2005 Jesse Kozlowski NJ PLS History of SPCS

### Georeferencing and Digitizing Image/Map

Georeferencing and Digitizing Image/Map Introduction There is a great deal of geographic data available in formats that can not be immediately integrated with other GIS data. In order to use these types

### Extracting Aerial Images From GIS Based Ortho Photos Using ArcMap 9

Extracting Aerial Images From GIS Based Ortho Photos Using ArcMap 9 Tutorial Updated August 2006 CP-208 Plan Preparation Studio - Prof. Elizabeth Macdonald 2 In this tutorial we will learn to extract aerial

### World Geography Unit 1 - Test Introduction to World of Geography

Name World Geography Unit 1 - Test Introduction to World of Geography Term Identification Directions: Pick a word from the box that best completes the sentences below. distortion longitude Equator geography

### Surveying & Positioning Guidance note 5

Surveying & Positioning Guidance note 5 Coordinate reference system definition recommended practice Revision history Version Date Amendments 2.1 January 2009 In example c corrected value for inverse flattening

### Introduction to GIS (Basics, Data, Analysis) & Case Studies. 13 th May 2004. Content. What is GIS?

Introduction to GIS (Basics, Data, Analysis) & Case Studies 13 th May 2004 Content Introduction to GIS Data concepts Data input Analysis Applications selected examples What is GIS? Geographic Information

### Introduction to CATIA V5

Introduction to CATIA V5 Release 16 (A Hands-On Tutorial Approach) Kirstie Plantenberg University of Detroit Mercy SDC PUBLICATIONS Schroff Development Corporation www.schroff.com www.schroff-europe.com

### Engineering Geometry

Engineering Geometry Objectives Describe the importance of engineering geometry in design process. Describe coordinate geometry and coordinate systems and apply them to CAD. Review the right-hand rule.

### MVLWB. Guideline for Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Submission Standard

MVLWB Guideline for Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Submission Standard DATE Mackenzie Valley Land and Water Board Gwich in Land and Water Board Sahtu Land and Water Board Wek èezhìi Land and Water

### METHODS OF GEOREFERENCING OLD MAPS ON THE EXAMPLE OF CZECH EARLY MAPS

CO-314 METHODS OF GEOREFERENCING OLD MAPS ON THE EXAMPLE OF CZECH EARLY MAPS CAJTHAML J. Czech Technical University in Prague, PRAGUE 6, CZECH REPUBLIC BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Old maps are unique source

### Mapping Locations Using XY Coordinates

Mapping Locations Using XY Coordinates ArcGIS Desktop 10 Instructional Guide Kim Ricker GIS/Data Center Head (713) 348-5691 Jean Niswonger GIS Support Specialist (713) 348-2595 1 This guide was created

### The Earth Really is Flat! The Globe and Coordinate Systems. Long History of Mapping. The Earth is Flat. Long History of Mapping

The Earth Really is Flat! The Globe and Coordinate Systems Intro to Mapping & GIS The Earth is Flat Day to day, we live life in a flat world sun rises in east, sets in west sky is above, ground is below

### CHAPTER 9 SURVEYING TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

CHAPTER 9 SURVEYING TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS Surveying Terms 9-2 Standard Abbreviations 9-6 9-1 A) SURVEYING TERMS Accuracy - The degree of conformity with a standard, or the degree of perfection attained

### Chapter 11. Assembly Modeling. Evaluation chapter. Logon to for more details. Learning Objectives

Chapter 11 Assembly Modeling Learning Objectives After completing this chapter you will be able to: Insert components into an assembly file. Create bottom-up assemblies. Insert components into a product

### Lab 4: Image Georeferencing

Lab 4: Image Georeferencing What You ll Learn: This Lab introduces image georeferencing, also known as image registration or image transformation. We ll then update a data layers through vector digitizing.

### Create a folder on your network drive called DEM. This is where data for the first part of this lesson will be stored.

In this lesson you will create a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). A DEM is a gridded array of elevations. In its raw form it is an ASCII, or text, file. First, you will interpolate elevations on a topographic

### GEOGRAPHIC INFORMNATION SYSTEMS Lecture 10: State Plane Coordinate System

State Plane Coordinate System GEOGRAPHIC INFORMNATION SYSTEMS Lecture 10: State Plane Coordinate System Why do we need the State Plane Coordinate System? - the SPCS was designed as a state by state rectangular

### Working with Wireframe and Surface Design

Chapter 9 Working with Wireframe and Surface Design Learning Objectives After completing this chapter you will be able to: Create wireframe geometry. Create extruded surfaces. Create revolved surfaces.

### Section 3 Mapping Earth s Surface

Section 3 Mapping Earth s Surface Key Concept Maps are tools that are used to display data about a given area of a physical body. What You Will Learn Maps can be used to find locations on Earth and to

### National Register of Historic Places: GIS Webinar Cultural Resource GIS Facility National Park Service June 2012

National Register of Historic Places: GIS Webinar Cultural Resource GIS Facility National Park Service June 2012 In February and March 2012 the National Register of Historic Places held webinars in conjunction

### Using 3 D SketchUp Design Software. Building Blocks Tools

Using 3 D SketchUp Design Software Building Blocks Tools Introduction Google s SketchUp is an easy to use drawing program capable of building 3 dimensional (or 3 D) objects (SketchUp also does 2 D easily).

### Online Digitizing and Editing of GIS Layers (On-Screen or Head s Up Digitizing)

Online Digitizing and Editing of GIS Layers (On-Screen or Head s Up Digitizing) 2011 Charlie Schweik, Alexander Stepanov, Maria Fernandez, Lara Aniskoff Note: This work is licensed under the Creative Commons

### WILD 3710 Lab 3: GIS Data Exploration Camp W.G. Williams

WILD 3710 Lab 3: GIS Data Exploration Camp W.G. Williams -Laboratory- TAs and Lab Instructors: Chris McGinty chris@gis.usu.edu Office: JQL 146 Office Hours: W 2:30 3:30 or by appt. Alex Hernandez alex@gis.usu.edu

### 4 The Rhumb Line and the Great Circle in Navigation

4 The Rhumb Line and the Great Circle in Navigation 4.1 Details on Great Circles In fig. GN 4.1 two Great Circle/Rhumb Line cases are shown, one in each hemisphere. In each case the shorter distance between

### Finding GIS Data and Preparing it for Use

Finding_Data_Tutorial.Doc Page 1 of 19 Getting Ready for the Tutorial Sign Up for the GIS-L Listserv Finding GIS Data and Preparing it for Use The Yale University GIS-L Listserv is an internal University

### Guide to Viewing Maps in Google Earth

Guide to Viewing Maps in Google Earth The BCT made the decision to provide the GIS (Geographic Information System) resources for Bat Groups in the form of Google Earth maps because they do not require

### A crash course to Coordinate Systems, Map Projections and Data Formats

A crash course to Coordinate Systems, Map Projections and Data Formats Ilkka Rinne Founder & CTO, Spatineo Oy GeoMashup CodeCamp 2011 University of Helsinki Department of Computer Science About Us Startup

### 1.7 Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates

56 CHAPTER 1. VECTORS AND THE GEOMETRY OF SPACE 1.7 Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates 1.7.1 Review: Polar Coordinates The polar coordinate system is a two-dimensional coordinate system in which the

TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction...1 Functional Tolerancing and Annotation...2 Pull-down Menus...3 Insert...3 Functional Tolerancing and Annotation Workbench...4 Bottom Toolbar Changes...5 3D Grid Toolbar...5

### ArcView How to do it Manual No. 2: Georeferencing CAD Files

ArcView How to do it Manual No. 2: Georeferencing CAD Files Jeremy Green Report Department of Maritime Archaeology Western Australian Museum, No. 227 2008 What is georeferencing? A Geographical Information

### Sketcher. Preface What's New? Getting Started Basic Tasks Customizing Workbench Description Glossary Index

Sketcher Preface What's New? Getting Started Basic Tasks Customizing Workbench Description Glossary Index Dassault Systèmes 1994-99. All rights reserved. Preface CATIA Version 5 Sketcher application makes

### Tutorial 8 Raster Data Analysis

Objectives Tutorial 8 Raster Data Analysis This tutorial is designed to introduce you to a basic set of raster-based analyses including: 1. Displaying Digital Elevation Model (DEM) 2. Slope calculations

### Scientific Graphing in Excel 2010

Scientific Graphing in Excel 2010 When you start Excel, you will see the screen below. Various parts of the display are labelled in red, with arrows, to define the terms used in the remainder of this overview.

### Google Earth SWAC Module 7: GeoViewers

Google Earth SWAC Module 7: GeoViewers 1. Introduction: Google Earth is a free web-based geospatial data viewer maintained by Google in Mountainview, California. The program was developed under a different

### Exer. 1 Using Handheld GPS for location & recording points

Exer. 1 Using Handheld GPS for location & recording points Field Objectives: 1. Familiarity with handheld receivers (Trimble Juno) 2. Basic positioning in Lat/Long and UTM 3. Familiarity with changing

### Making a Geologic Map with ArcGIS

Making a Geologic Map with ArcGIS PART 1. Setup of ArcGIS project By Mike Oskin November 23, 2009 Important! Many functions in ArcGIS are based on antiquated unix-style subprograms. These subprograms fail

### The World Geographic Reference System is used for aircraft navigation. GEOREF is based on latitude and longitude. The globe is divided into twelve

The World Geographic Reference System is used for aircraft navigation. GEOREF is based on latitude and longitude. The globe is divided into twelve bands of latitude and twenty-four zones of longitude,

### Data Visualization. Prepared by Francisco Olivera, Ph.D., Srikanth Koka Department of Civil Engineering Texas A&M University February 2004

Data Visualization Prepared by Francisco Olivera, Ph.D., Srikanth Koka Department of Civil Engineering Texas A&M University February 2004 Contents Brief Overview of ArcMap Goals of the Exercise Computer

### THE UNIVERSAL GRID SYSTEM

NGA Office of GEOINT Sciences Coordinate Systems Analysis (CSAT) Phone: 314-676-9124 Unclassified Email: coordsys@nga.mil March 2007 THE UNIVERSAL GRID SYSTEM Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Military

### GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS

GIS GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR CADASTRAL MAPPING Chapter 7 2015 Cadastral Mapping Manual 7-0 GIS - GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS What is GIS For a long time people have sketched, drawn and studied

### Digitizing GIS Feature Information

Digitizing GIS Feature Information Digitizing The process of tracing an analog or digital image to create features (points, lines, or polygons) in a GIS data base Analog images are hard copy images such

### Summary of important mathematical operations and formulas (from first tutorial):

EXCEL Intermediate Tutorial Summary of important mathematical operations and formulas (from first tutorial): Operation Key Addition + Subtraction - Multiplication * Division / Exponential ^ To enter a

### Lab 2: Projecting Geographic Data

Lab 2: Projecting Geographic Data What you ll Learn: In this Lab we will describe the basic methods for using map projections and datum transformations in ArcMap. The readings in Chapter 3, Map Projections

### Step-by-Step guide for IMAGINE UAV workflow

Step-by-Step guide for IMAGINE UAV workflow Overview This short guide will go through all steps of the UAV workflow that are needed to produce the final results. Those consist out of two raster datasets,

### Pro/ENGINEER Wildfire 4.0 Basic Design

Introduction Datum features are non-solid features used during the construction of other features. The most common datum features include planes, axes, coordinate systems, and curves. Datum features do