# Finite State Machine Lab

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Finite State Machine Module: Lab Procedures Goal: The goal of this experiment is to reinforce state machine concepts by having students design and implement a state machine using simple chips and a protoboard. This experiment also introduces students to basic physical components. Contents: Background Page 1 Prelab Page 6 Experiment Page 8 Appendix Page 11 Background: The general steps to be followed for performing state machine design include: 1) Convert a description of the problem into a state transition diagram ) Transfer the information from the state transition diagram to a state transition logic table that has inputs consisting of system inputs and current values of the state, S i, and outputs consisting of system outputs and next state values, NS i. 3) Design a combination circuit to implement the logic in the table. 4) Select the chips to implement the combinational circuit and to implement the memory portion of the state machine, for example, D flip flops can be used to implement registers. 5) Draw a pin diagram to illustrate how to wire the chips together to implement the state machine logic. 6) Insert the chips into a protoboard and wire the ground, high voltage, enables, and clock pins. 7) Complete the circuit by making the connections indicated from Step 5). 8) Test the circuit. Notation and Definitions: States: A = 00, B = 01, C = 10, D =11 where the states are defined by the values stored in the registers; for example, State B corresponds to S 1 S 0 = 01 where S 1 is the value of Register 1 and S 0 is the value of Register 0. The next state for values of the registers is defined by NS i for Register i. For example, if the current state is B and the next state is C, then S 1 S 0 = 01 and NS 1 = 1 and NS 0 = 0. External input: The external input in this circuit is denoted as X. Debounce Circuit: A circuit to filter a chip input so that it smoothes unintended bounces in the signal. 3 to 8 Decoder: Signals A 0 A represent the inputs and Y 0 -Y 7 represent the outputs. The convention is that A represents the most significant bit of a binary number and A 0 represents the least significant bit; for example, and input of 011 is designated as A A 1 A 0 = 011. A 0 A 1 A 3 to 8 decoder Y 0 Y 1 Y Y 3 Y 4 Y 5 Y 6 Y 7 1

2 Protoboards: Protoboards (also known as breadboards) make many connections under the board in order to reduce the number of wires that you have to connect. Typically, groups of 5 holes are connected. There are also lines of groups of 5 that are all connected. See the example in Figure 1. Terminals Every hole in this vertical line is connected. This is true of every vertical line. Each horizontal group of 5 holes is connected. Figure 1: Protoboard. Integrated Chip: An integrated chip (IC) can have several gates (circuits) on it. For example, the 74HC3 IC has 4 -input OR gates. It has 14 wire pins coming out the sides with the connections from the pins to the logic gates shown in Figure. pin 1 near notch Figure a: Pin Diagram to the 74HC3 Quad -input OR gate. Figure b: Logic gates for the 74HC3 IC.

3 Pin Connection Diagram: A pin connection diagram shows the physical layout of the connections between components. Each component is shown along with the corresponding pin numbers for that component. The pin diagram for the logic expression F = (A OR B) OR (C OR D) is shown below. The pin numbers correspond to the pins as labeled above for the 74HC3 -input OR chip. A B C D OR Gate 74HC3 OR Gate 74HC OR Gate 74HC3 8 F Figure 3: Pin diagram for F=(A+B)+(C+D) To build this circuit, you would need to connect a wire from pin 3 of the IC to pin 9, another wire from pin 6 to pin 10. Pins 1,, 4, and 5 are inputs and connect to outputs from other components while pin 8 is connected to an LED or an input to another component. Example: Consider a state machine defined by the state transition diagram in Figure 4. A (00) C (10) B (01) Figure 4: State Transition Diagram. 3

4 This state machine has the following truth table: The corresponding circuit diagram is given as: State S 1 S 0 X New State NS 1 NS 0 A B 0 1 A A 0 0 B C 1 0 B A 0 0 C C 1 0 C A X NS 0 Decoder NS 1 S 1 S 0 CLOCK CLOCK Figure 5: State machine schematic. 4

5 Using the pin layouts defined in the Appendix, a pin diagram for the state machine with schematic shown in Figure 5 is To LED S1 To LED S0 Input from dip switch 1 3 A0 A1 A 74HC38 Decoder Y0 Y1 Y Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y B 1 OR Gate 74HC3 3 1 D Q 74HC74A D flip flop D Q 74HC74A 5 9 D flip flop Figure 6: Pin diagram for state machine in Figures 1 and. For simplicity, some of the connections, such as ground, V cc, clock and reset are not shown. 5

6 Prelab: Prior to class, do the following: View the Tutorial on Fundamental Concepts Read and thoroughly understand the Example on the previous pages. View the video introducing the experiment Complete the prelab procedure given below A (00) B (01) D (11) C (10) 1) For the state transition diagram shown, complete the truth table below. STATE S 1 S 0 X NEW STATE NS 1 NS 0 A A

7 ) Draw the circuit diagram for the state machine. Your circuit should include a decoder, two registers, and - or 3-input OR gates. 3) Draw the pin connection diagram for the state machine. Start with the basics of the pin diagram shown below, and complete it using Figure 6 as a guideline. Use the IC descriptions in the appendix to determine the proper pins to use. Note that a 3-input OR gate is wired internally differently from a -input OR gate, so you must check the pin diagram in the appendix. To LED S1 To LED S0 Input from dip switch 1 3 A0 A1 A 74HC38 Decoder Y0 Y1 Y Y3 Y4 Y5 Y6 Y D Q 74HC74A D flip flop D Q 74HC74A 5 9 D flip flop 7

8 Experiment: Part A: Build the Finite State Machine defined in the Example section of this lab with the pin connection diagram shown in Figure 6. Two registers, two pushbuttons (RESET and CLOCK), DIP Switches, a decoder, registers, and OR gates are already placed on the breadboard. The IC diagrams and pin layouts are given in the appendix. Figure 7: Layout of the protoboard. With this orientation, all ICs are inserted with the 1 pin to the right. The circuit is partially wired as shown in Figure 7: The battery pack supplies high voltage (Vcc) from the red lead and the ground (GND) from the black lead. The power routed through the rightmost dip switch, which must be turned on to power the circuits. Vcc and GND are connected to all of the ICs. The ICs are all oriented so that the upper right pin is PIN 1 (when the board is oriented as shown above). The resistors (small cylindrical components with stripes) are used to limit the current in some of the lines. Otherwise, the components many burn out too quickly. A debounce circuit, consisting of an additional IC and a capacitor, is connected to the clock button. A bounce is when a switch does not produce a clean signal. There may be some ripple in the signal (or perhaps a small spike) that might be interpreted by the digital logic as a second input signal, in this case, an extra clock pulse. The debounce circuit filters the signal to remove the ripple or spike. 8

9 The decoder has the enable pins already wired. To operate the state machine: The light emitting diodes (LEDs) are connected to S 0 and to S 1. The LEDs light when the signal is 1. The reset button resets the state to State A. It is already connected to the registers. The clock button advances the clock. The register stores the values of its input and passes the value to its output after each time that the clock button is pushed. The clock is already connected to the registers. Steps: 1) Make sure that the power is turned off of the board prior to constructing the circuit, that is, turn off the right-most dip switch. ) Complete the circuit according to the PIN Connection Diagram shown in Figure 6. Use the loose lead wires that are supplied with the kit. The color of wire is insignificant. Refer to the protoboard description to see which holes are connected within the protoboard, and refer to the appendix to see the pin numbers of the ICs. The input to the circuit is routed from the bottom terminal of the left-most dip switch. 3) Turn on the power to the circuit. 4) Now, test the State Machine to make sure it is working properly. First reset the state machine to put it in state A. Set the input dip switch to 0 and then press the clock button. Determine the state from the LEDs and mark it in the table below. Change the input to 1 and press the clock button to see the next state value. Move the DIP switch to either the on or off position according to the table, and then press the clock button to change the state. Complete the table below to show the states corresponding to the given input sequence. Verify that this sequence follows the transitions as dictated by the state transition table in Figure 4. State Input State Input State Input State Input State Input State Input State Input State A Instructor or TA Initials: Doesn t Work? Here are the top reasons: The input is not connected to the dip switch terminal. The different chips have different numbers of pins, so pin 14 from one chip may be at a different spot than for another chip. Count the pins starting in the upper right spot (as the board is oriented in the figure). The wires are not aligned properly. Carefully check that they are in the correct spots, it is easy to misalign them. 9

10 Part B: Build the Finite State Machine designed for the Prelab. 1) Turn off the power to the circuit before making any changes. ) Remove only the wires that you added to the protoboard for Part A (do not remove the wires that were already there). 3) Build the circuit using the pin connection diagram that was completed for the Prelab. 4) When the state machine is complete, turn on the power. Reset the state machine to put it in state A, and input the following sequence into the circuit. Write down the state after each step: State Input State Input State Input State Input State Input State Input State Input State A Instructor or TA Initials: When finished, pull out only the wires that you added to the circuit, and turn off the power switch. Doesn t Work? Here is the top reason: The internal connections for a 3-input OR chip are different from that of a -input OR chip. Refer to the pin diagram in the Appendix to see what pins are connected to the inputs and output of an OR gate. 10

11 Appendix Decoder IC (74HC38): Register (D-FlipFlop) IC (74HC74): 11

12 Input OR Gate IC (74HC3): 3 Input OR Gate IC (74HC4075B1R) 1

### CHAPTER 11: Flip Flops

CHAPTER 11: Flip Flops In this chapter, you will be building the part of the circuit that controls the command sequencing. The required circuit must operate the counter and the memory chip. When the teach

### Objectives: Part 1: Build a simple power supply. CS99S Laboratory 1

CS99S Laboratory 1 Objectives: 1. Become familiar with the breadboard 2. Build a logic power supply 3. Use switches to make 1s and 0s 4. Use LEDs to observe 1s and 0s 5. Make a simple oscillator 6. Use

### Laboratory 4 Logic, Latching and Switch Debounce

Laboratory 4 Logic, Latching and Switch Debounce = Required to submit your Multisim circuit files before you start the lab. Pre-lab Questions 1. Attach the detailed wiring diagram you used to construct

### The components. E3: Digital electronics. Goals:

E3: Digital electronics Goals: Basic understanding of logic circuits. Become familiar with the most common digital components and their use. Equipment: 1 st. LED bridge 1 st. 7-segment display. 2 st. IC

### Flip Flop BCD Counter

Flip Flop BCD Counter S k i l l L e v e l : B e g i n n e r OVERVIEW The Flip Flop Counter discussed in this article is a Asynchronous counter and will give an output in BCD (Binary Coded Decimal). The

### DIGITAL SYSTEM DESIGN LAB

EXPERIMENT NO: 7 STUDY OF FLIP FLOPS USING GATES AND IC S AIM: To verify various flip-flops like D, T, and JK. APPARATUS REQUIRED: Power supply, Digital Trainer kit, Connecting wires, Patch Chords, IC

### Having read this workbook you should be able to: recognise the arrangement of NAND gates used to form an S-R flip-flop.

Objectives Having read this workbook you should be able to: recognise the arrangement of NAND gates used to form an S-R flip-flop. describe how such a flip-flop can be SET and RESET. describe the disadvantage

### Latches and Flip-Flops characterestics & Clock generator circuits

Experiment # 7 Latches and Flip-Flops characterestics & Clock generator circuits OBJECTIVES 1. To be familiarized with D and JK flip-flop ICs and their characteristic tables. 2. Understanding the principles

### 3-Digit Counter and Display

ECE 2B Winter 2007 Lab #7 7 3-Digit Counter and Display This final lab brings together much of what we have done in our lab experiments this quarter to construct a simple tachometer circuit for measuring

### Quiz Buzzer. Build Instructions. Issue 1.2

Build Instructions Issue 1.2 Build Instructions Before you put any components in the board or pick up the soldering iron, just take a look at the Printed Circuit Board (PCB). The components go in the side

### 1. Learn about the 555 timer integrated circuit and applications 2. Apply the 555 timer to build an infrared (IR) transmitter and receiver

Electronics Exercise 2: The 555 Timer and its Applications Mechatronics Instructional Laboratory Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Lab Director: I. Charles Ume,

### ELEC 2210 - EXPERIMENT 1 Basic Digital Logic Circuits

Objectives ELEC - EXPERIMENT Basic Digital Logic Circuits The experiments in this laboratory exercise will provide an introduction to digital electronic circuits. You will learn how to use the IDL-00 Bit

### Robot Board Sub-System Testing. Abstract. Introduction and Theory. Equipment. Procedures. EE 101 Spring 2006 Date: Lab Section # Lab #6

EE 101 Spring 2006 Date: Lab Section # Lab #6 Name: Robot Board Sub-System Testing Partner: No Lab partners this time! Abstract The ECEbot robots have a printed circuit board (PCB) containing most of the

### Figure 8-1 Four Possible Results of Adding Two Bits

CHPTER EIGHT Combinational Logic pplications Thus far, our discussion has focused on the theoretical design issues of computer systems. We have not yet addressed any of the actual hardware you might find

### Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 6.002 Electronic Circuits Spring 2007

Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science 6.002 Electronic Circuits Spring 2007 Lab 4: Audio Playback System Introduction In this lab, you will construct,

### QUIZ BUZZER KIT ESSENTIAL INFORMATION. Version 2.0 WHO ANSWERED FIRST? FIND OUT WITH THIS

ESSENTIAL INFORMATION BUILD INSTRUCTIONS CHECKING YOUR PCB & FAULT-FINDING MECHANICAL DETAILS HOW THE KIT WORKS WHO ANSWERED FIRST? FIND OUT WITH THIS QUIZ BUZZER KIT Version 2.0 Build Instructions Before

### Lab 11 Digital Dice. Figure 11.0. Digital Dice Circuit on NI ELVIS II Workstation

Lab 11 Digital Dice Figure 11.0. Digital Dice Circuit on NI ELVIS II Workstation From the beginning of time, dice have been used for games of chance. Cubic dice similar to modern dice date back to before

### ECEN 1400, Introduction to Analog and Digital Electronics

ECEN 1400, Introduction to Analog and Digital Electronics Lab 4: Power supply 1 INTRODUCTION This lab will span two lab periods. In this lab, you will create the power supply that transforms the AC wall

### Digital Logic Design Laboratory

Digital Logic Design Laboratory EE2731 Gabriel Augusto Marques Tarquinio de Souza Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College Baton

### GLOLAB Universal Telephone Hold

GLOLAB Universal Telephone Hold 1 UNIVERSAL HOLD CIRCUIT If you have touch tone telephone service, you can now put a call on hold from any phone in the house, even from cordless phones and phones without

### ETEC 2301 Programmable Logic Devices. Chapter 10 Counters. Shawnee State University Department of Industrial and Engineering Technologies

ETEC 2301 Programmable Logic Devices Chapter 10 Counters Shawnee State University Department of Industrial and Engineering Technologies Copyright 2007 by Janna B. Gallaher Asynchronous Counter Operation

### A Digital Timer Implementation using 7 Segment Displays

A Digital Timer Implementation using 7 Segment Displays Group Members: Tiffany Sham u2548168 Michael Couchman u4111670 Simon Oseineks u2566139 Caitlyn Young u4233209 Subject: ENGN3227 - Analogue Electronics

### Electronics I - Laboratory 1 Diode I/V Characteristics

Electronics I - Laboratory 1 Diode I/V Characteristics I. Objectives 1. Develop I/V characteristics of a silicon diode. 2. Develop I/V characteristics of a germanium diode. 3. Develop I/V characteristics

### Digital Systems Laboratory

Digital Systems Laboratory Rev 1.2 Agust 2014 LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. INTRODUCTION TO LAB, USING MATERIALS 2. DIGITAL LOGIC GATES 3. INTRODUCTION TO PROTEUS 4. BINARY AND DECIMAL NUMBERS 5. CODE CONVERSION

### EXPERIMENT 8. Flip-Flops and Sequential Circuits

EXPERIMENT 8. Flip-Flops and Sequential Circuits I. Introduction I.a. Objectives The objective of this experiment is to become familiar with the basic operational principles of flip-flops and counters.

### WHO ANSWERED FIRST? FIND OUT WITH THIS QUIZ BUZZER KIT

WHO ANSWERED FIRST? FIND OUT WITH THIS QUIZ BUZZER KIT BUILD INSTRUCTIONS Before you put any components in the board or pick up the soldering iron, just take a look at the Printed Circuit Board (PCB).

### ELET 3132L - Experiment #5 Bistable Latches and Flip-Flops Revised: October 2011

ELET 3132L - Experiment #5 Bistable Latches and Flip-Flops Revised: October 2011 This exercise has two parts. The first part will be done in the MOSAIC computer lab. Students will perform simulations using

### Martin County Amateur Radio Association. Nightfire Kits 1 LED Torch Kit 270016. Contents. Description

Nightfire Kits 1 LED Torch Kit 270016 1 Contents Nightfire Kits LED Torch Kit 270016... 1 Description... 1 Safety and Assembly of the kit... 6 Required and Useful Tools... 7 Assembly... 8 Checkout and

### Introduction to Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC's)

NDSU Intro to PLC's 1 Introduction to Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC's) Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC's) are microprocessor devices much like the PIC microcontroller. Their function is to control

### 1.1 The 7493 consists of 4 flip-flops with J-K inputs unconnected. In a TTL chip, unconnected inputs

CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY LOS ANGELES Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering EE-246 Digital Logic Lab EXPERIMENT 1 COUNTERS AND WAVEFORMS Text: Mano, Digital Design, 3rd & 4th Editions, Sec.

### 2 : BISTABLES. In this Chapter, you will find out about bistables which are the fundamental building blocks of electronic counting circuits.

2 : BITABLE In this Chapter, you will find out about bistables which are the fundamental building blos of electronic counting circuits. et-reset bistable A bistable circuit, also called a latch, or flip-flop,

### Operating Manual Ver.1.1

4 Bit Binary Ripple Counter (Up-Down Counter) Operating Manual Ver.1.1 An ISO 9001 : 2000 company 94-101, Electronic Complex Pardesipura, Indore- 452010, India Tel : 91-731- 2570301/02, 4211100 Fax: 91-731-

### Practical Workbook Digital Logic Design / Logic Design & Switching Theory

Practical Workbook Digital Logic Design / Logic Design & Switching Theory Name : Year : Batch : Roll No : Department: Second edition - 2015 Dept. of Computer & Information Systems Engineering NED University

### FORDHAM UNIVERSITY CISC 3593. Dept. of Computer and Info. Science Spring, 2011. Lab 2. The Full-Adder

FORDHAM UNIVERSITY CISC 3593 Fordham College Lincoln Center Computer Organization Dept. of Computer and Info. Science Spring, 2011 Lab 2 The Full-Adder 1 Introduction In this lab, the student will construct

### 1. Realization of gates using Universal gates

1. Realization of gates using Universal gates Aim: To realize all logic gates using NAND and NOR gates. Apparatus: S. No Description of Item Quantity 1. IC 7400 01 2. IC 7402 01 3. Digital Trainer Kit

### To design digital counter circuits using JK-Flip-Flop. To implement counter using 74LS193 IC.

8.1 Objectives To design digital counter circuits using JK-Flip-Flop. To implement counter using 74LS193 IC. 8.2 Introduction Circuits for counting events are frequently used in computers and other digital

### Altoids Tin Headphone Amplifier Lab

Altoids Tin Headphone Amplifier Lab Michigan State University AEE/IEEE Step 1: Required Parts Table 1 shows a complete listing of the parts required to complete this project. Figure 1 shows a picture of

### Decimal Number (base 10) Binary Number (base 2)

LECTURE 5. BINARY COUNTER Before starting with counters there is some vital information that needs to be understood. The most important is the fact that since the outputs of a digital chip can only be

### CHAPTER TEN. 10.1 New Truth Table Symbols. 10.1.1 Edges/Transitions. Memory Cells

CHAPTER TEN Memory Cells The previous chapters presented the concepts and tools behind processing binary data. This is only half of the battle though. For example, a logic circuit uses inputs to calculate

### Karnaugh Maps. Example A B C X 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1. each 1 here gives a minterm e.g.

Karnaugh Maps Yet another way of deriving the simplest Boolean expressions from behaviour. Easier than using algebra (which can be hard if you don't know where you're going). Example A B C X 0 0 0 0 0

### Project 1: Introduction to Arduino and LED Blink (Sketch Version) Description:

Project 1: Introduction to Arduino and LED Blink (Sketch Version) Description: The Arduino is a microprocessor. A Microprocessor is a compact programmable computing device with memory, processing, input,

### Experiment # 9. Clock generator circuits & Counters. Eng. Waleed Y. Mousa

Experiment # 9 Clock generator circuits & Counters Eng. Waleed Y. Mousa 1. Objectives: 1. Understanding the principles and construction of Clock generator. 2. To be familiar with clock pulse generation

### Glolab Talking Phone Dial Monitor

Introduction The detects the tones generated when numbers are dialed on your touch tone telephone and speaks the numbers that were dialed. This verifies that you dialed the correct number and is especially

### Digital circuits make up all computers and computer systems. The operation of digital circuits is based on

Digital Logic Circuits Digital circuits make up all computers and computer systems. The operation of digital circuits is based on Boolean algebra, the mathematics of binary numbers. Boolean algebra is

### Counters and Decoders

Physics 3330 Experiment #10 Fall 1999 Purpose Counters and Decoders In this experiment, you will design and construct a 4-bit ripple-through decade counter with a decimal read-out display. Such a counter

### Technical Aspects of Creating and Assessing a Learning Environment in Digital Electronics for High School Students

Session: 2220 Technical Aspects of Creating and Assessing a Learning Environment in Digital Electronics for High School Students Adam S. El-Mansouri, Herbert L. Hess, Kevin M. Buck, Timothy Ewers Microelectronics

### NTE2053 Integrated Circuit 8 Bit MPU Compatible A/D Converter

NTE2053 Integrated Circuit 8 Bit MPU Compatible A/D Converter Description: The NTE2053 is a CMOS 8 bit successive approximation Analog to Digital converter in a 20 Lead DIP type package which uses a differential

### DVD-8C Print Reading For Electronics Assembly

DVD-8C Print Reading For Electronics Assembly Below is a copy of the narration for DVD-8C. The contents for this script were developed by a review group of industry experts and were based on the best available

### Lab 5 Digital I/O. Figure 5.0. Four bit Digital Counter Circuit on NI ELVIS II Protoboard

Lab 5 Digital I/O Digital electronics is the heart and soul of modern computers. The ability to set and read digital lines is essential to digital circuit diagnostics. Figure 5.0. Four bit Digital Counter

### Digital Logic Elements, Clock, and Memory Elements

Physics 333 Experiment #9 Fall 999 Digital Logic Elements, Clock, and Memory Elements Purpose This experiment introduces the fundamental circuit elements of digital electronics. These include a basic set

### LAB4: Audio Synthesizer

UC Berkeley, EECS 100 Lab LAB4: Audio Synthesizer B. Boser NAME 1: NAME 2: The 555 Timer IC SID: SID: Inductors and capacitors add a host of new circuit possibilities that exploit the memory realized by

### Chapter - 5 FLIP-FLOPS AND SIMPLE FLIP-FLOP APPLICATIONS

Chapter - 5 FLIP-FLOPS AND SIMPLE FLIP-FLOP APPLICATIONS Introduction : Logic circuit is divided into two types. 1. Combinational Logic Circuit 2. Sequential Logic Circuit Definition : 1. Combinational

### Lecture 8: Synchronous Digital Systems

Lecture 8: Synchronous Digital Systems The distinguishing feature of a synchronous digital system is that the circuit only changes in response to a system clock. For example, consider the edge triggered

### PURDUE UNIVERSITY NORTH CENTRAL

ECET 109/159 PURDUE UNIVERSITY NORTH CENTRAL Electrical and Computer Engineering Technology Department All Semesters ECET Lab Report Format and Guidelines I. Introduction. Part of being technically educated

### LAB 11 LADDER LOGIC PROGRAMMING WITH FINISH FLAGS

LAB 11 LADDER LOGIC PROGRAMMING WITH FINISH FLAGS 1 Lab Objective In this lab you will continue working with programmable logic controllers and the use of relay ladder logic. 2 Ladder Logic Elements 2.1.

### TEECES DOME LIGHTING SYSTEMS

This lighting system was designed by John V (Teeces) to be a simple, customizable, expandable and affordable solution for dome lighting. An Arduino micro-controller is used to tell LED driver chips which

### The 555 timer: Waveform shaping

The 555 timer: Waveform shaping Introduction: Oscillators are ubiquitous not only in research environments but also in our modern, technology-oriented society. Oscillators are used for communication, timing

### Electronic Circuit Construction:

Electronic Circuit Construction: Various methods are used for building electronic circuits. The method that you choose depends on a number of factors, including the resources available to you and whether

### Activity 1: Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs)

Activity 1: Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) Time Required: 45 minutes Materials List Group Size: 2 Each pair needs: One each of the following: One Activity 1 bag containing: o Red LED o Yellow LED o Green

### Chapter 4. Gates and Circuits. Chapter Goals. Chapter Goals. Computers and Electricity. Computers and Electricity. Gates

Chapter Goals Chapter 4 Gates and Circuits Identify the basic gates and describe the behavior of each Describe how gates are implemented using transistors Combine basic gates into circuits Describe the

### A Lesson on Digital Clocks, One Shots and Counters

A Lesson on Digital Clocks, One Shots and Counters Topics Clocks & Oscillators LM 555 Timer IC Crystal Oscillators Selection of Variable Resistors Schmitt Gates Power-On Reset Circuits One Shots Counters

### Sequential Logic Design

Lab #4 Sequential Logic Design Objective: To study the behavior and applications of flip flops and basic sequential circuits including shift registers and counters. Preparation: Read the following experiment.

### ETEC 421 - Digital Controls PIC Lab 10 Pulse Width Modulation

ETEC 421 - Digital Controls PIC Lab 10 Pulse Width Modulation Program Definition: Write a program to control the speed of a dc motor using pulse width modulation. Discussion: The speed of a dc motor is

### EE 320L Electronics I Laboratory. Laboratory Exercise #4 Diode and Power Supply Circuit

EE 320L Electronics I Laboratory Laboratory Exercise #4 Diode and Power Supply Circuit Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Nevada, at Las Vegas Objective: The purpose of this

### Unit 4 Session - 15 Flip-Flops

Objectives Unit 4 Session - 15 Flip-Flops Usage of D flip-flop IC Show the truth table for the edge-triggered D flip-flop and edge-triggered JK flip-flop Discuss some of the timing problems related to

### DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNLOGY

DRONACHARYA GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS, GREATER NOIDA Affiliated to Mahamaya Technical University, Noida Approved by AICTE DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNLOGY Lab Manual for Computer Organization Lab ECS-453

### Introduction to Logic Design Lab: AND, OR, NOT NAND and NOR GATES

Experiment 1 Introduction to Logic Design Lab: AND, OR, NOT NAND and NOR GATES Objective References The purpose of this laboratory is to introduce the use and features of the logic lab unit (ETS-7000 DIGITAL

### Operating Manual Ver.1.1

Flip-Flops Operating Manual Ver.1.1 An ISO 9001 : 2000 company 94-101, Electronic Complex Pardesipura, Indore- 452010, India Tel : 91-731- 2570301/02, 4211100 Fax: 91-731- 2555643 e mail : info@scientech.bz

### Capacitive Touch Sensor Project:

NOTE: This project does not include a complete parts list. In particular, the IC described here does not come in a dual-inline-package (DIP), and so a gull-wing package has to be soldered to an adaptor

### UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. EEC180A DIGITAL SYSTEMS I Winter 2015

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering EEC180A DIGITAL SYSTEMS I Winter 2015 LAB 7. Finite State Machine Design LED Bouncing Ball Hardware Required 2 or 3 74LS74

### GLOLAB Two Wire Stepper Motor Positioner

Introduction A simple and inexpensive way to remotely rotate a display or object is with a positioner that uses a stepper motor to rotate it. The motor is driven by a circuit mounted near the motor and

### Experiment 5. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

Experiment 5 Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Objectives: To implement and test the circuits which constitute the arithmetic logic circuit (ALU). Background Information: The basic blocks of a computer are central

### Digital Systems Based on Principles and Applications of Electrical Engineering/Rizzoni (McGraw Hill

Digital Systems Based on Principles and Applications of Electrical Engineering/Rizzoni (McGraw Hill Objectives: Analyze the operation of sequential logic circuits. Understand the operation of digital counters.

### ARRL Morse Code Oscillator, How It Works By: Mark Spencer, WA8SME

The national association for AMATEUR RADIO ARRL Morse Code Oscillator, How It Works By: Mark Spencer, WA8SME This supplement is intended for use with the ARRL Morse Code Oscillator kit, sold separately.

### COMBINATIONAL and SEQUENTIAL LOGIC CIRCUITS Hardware implementation and software design

PH-315 COMINATIONAL and SEUENTIAL LOGIC CIRCUITS Hardware implementation and software design A La Rosa I PURPOSE: To familiarize with combinational and sequential logic circuits Combinational circuits

### The counterpart to a DAC is the ADC, which is generally a more complicated circuit. One of the most popular ADC circuit is the successive

The counterpart to a DAC is the ADC, which is generally a more complicated circuit. One of the most popular ADC circuit is the successive approximation converter. 1 2 The idea of sampling is fully covered

### A Lesson on Digital Clocks, One Shots and Counters

A Lesson on Digital Clocks, One Shots and Counters Topics Clocks & Oscillators LM 555 Timer IC Crystal Oscillators Selection of Variable Resistors Schmitt Gates Power-On Reset Circuits One Shots Counters

### Your Multimeter. The Arduino Uno 10/1/2012. Using Your Arduino, Breadboard and Multimeter. EAS 199A Fall 2012. Work in teams of two!

Using Your Arduino, Breadboard and Multimeter Work in teams of two! EAS 199A Fall 2012 pincer clips good for working with breadboard wiring (push these onto probes) Your Multimeter probes leads Turn knob

### Build A Video Switcher. Reprinted with permission from Electronics Now Magazine September 1997 issue

Build A Video Switcher Reprinted with permission from Electronics Now Magazine September 1997 issue Copyright Gernsback Publications, Inc.,1997 BUILD A VIDEO SWITCHER FRANK MONTEGARI Watch several cameras

### PLL frequency synthesizer

ANALOG & TELECOMMUNICATION ELECTRONICS LABORATORY EXERCISE 4 Lab 4: PLL frequency synthesizer 1.1 Goal The goals of this lab exercise are: - Verify the behavior of a and of a complete PLL - Find capture

### Conversion Between Analog and Digital Signals

ELET 3156 DL - Laboratory #6 Conversion Between Analog and Digital Signals There is no pre-lab work required for this experiment. However, be sure to read through the assignment completely prior to starting

### !Operation:!1. Connect an external power source to J1 (+ and - IN terminals). The

The CB500 Electronic Circuit Breaker is an resettable circuit breaker (fuse) that disconnects power when the trip setting is exceeded. There are 4 trip settings that can easily be changed and set during

### Table 1 Comparison of DC, Uni-Polar and Bi-polar Stepper Motors

Electronics Exercise 3: Uni-Polar Stepper Motor Controller / Driver Mechatronics Instructional Laboratory Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology Lab Director: I. Charles

### Assembly and User Guide

1 Amp Adjustable Electronic Load 30V Max, 1 Amp, 20 Watts Powered by: 9V Battery Assembly and User Guide Pico Load is a convenient constant current load for testing batteries and power supplies. The digital

### Design Project: Power inverter

Design Project: Power inverter This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/,

### Digital Fundamentals

Digital Fundamentals Tenth Edition Floyd Chapter 1 2009 Pearson Education, Upper 2008 Pearson Saddle River, Education NJ 07458. All Rights Reserved Analog Quantities Most natural quantities that we see

### So far we have investigated combinational logic for which the output of the logic devices/circuits depends only on the present state of the inputs.

equential Logic o far we have investigated combinational logic for which the output of the logic devices/circuits depends only on the present state of the inputs. In sequential logic the output of the

### CHAPTER 3 Boolean Algebra and Digital Logic

CHAPTER 3 Boolean Algebra and Digital Logic 3.1 Introduction 121 3.2 Boolean Algebra 122 3.2.1 Boolean Expressions 123 3.2.2 Boolean Identities 124 3.2.3 Simplification of Boolean Expressions 126 3.2.4

### Experiment #3 Programming the PLC Via Ladder logic. OBJECTIVES After successfully completing this laboratory, you should be able to:

Experiment #3 Programming the PLC Via Ladder logic OBJECTIVES After successfully completing this laboratory, you should be able to: to convert a simple electrical ladder diagram to a PLC program. Know

### Asynchronous Counters. Asynchronous Counters

Counters and State Machine Design November 25 Asynchronous Counters ENGI 25 ELEC 24 Asynchronous Counters The term Asynchronous refers to events that do not occur at the same time With respect to counter

### BISTABLE LATCHES AND FLIP-FLOPS

ELET 3156 DL - Laboratory #3 BISTABLE LATCHES AND FLIP-FLOPS No preliminary lab design work is required for this experiment. Introduction: This experiment will demonstrate the properties and illustrate

### Tutorial. replace them with cell-phone operated module. The advantages of a cell-phone operated bot are:-

Tutorial Overview: The basic aim of the project is to find an alternative to the usual RF circuits that are seen so frequently and replace them with cell-phone operated module. The advantages of a cell-phone

### ASYNCHRONOUS COUNTERS

LB no.. SYNCHONOUS COUNTES. Introduction Counters are sequential logic circuits that counts the pulses applied at their clock input. They usually have 4 bits, delivering at the outputs the corresponding

### Module 3: Floyd, Digital Fundamental

Module 3: Lecturer : Yongsheng Gao Room : Tech - 3.25 Email : yongsheng.gao@griffith.edu.au Structure : 6 lectures 1 Tutorial Assessment: 1 Laboratory (5%) 1 Test (20%) Textbook : Floyd, Digital Fundamental

### MOSFETs: Discharging Filter Capacitors. 2008 Oregon State University ECE 322 Manual Page 51

SECTION FIVE MOSFETs: Discharging Filter Capacitors 2008 Oregon State University ECE 322 Manual Page 51 SECTION OVERVIEW You may have noticed that the power LED on your power supply stays on for a long

### Shift registers. 1.0 Introduction

Shift registers 1.0 Introduction Shift registers are a type of sequential logic circuit, mainly for storage of digital data. They are a group of flip-flops connected in a chain so that the output from

### Joule Thief 3.0 Kit. June 2012, Rev 1 1 http://www.easternvoltageresearch.com Joule Thief 3.0

Kit Instruction Manual Eastern Voltage Research, LLC June 2012, Rev 1 1 http://www.easternvoltageresearch.com HIGH BRIGHTNESS LED THIS KIT USES A 1W CREE, HIGH BRIGHTNESS LED. DO NOT STARE AT THIS (OR

### Page 2 CK K. Figure 3: JK Flip-flops with asynchronous PRESET and CLEAR inpu CK K. Figure 2: JK Flip-flops with different types of triggering

EGR 78 Digital Logic Lab File: N78L9A Lab # 9 Multivibrators A. Objective The objective of this laboratory is to introduce the student to the use of bistable multivibrators (flip-flops), monostable multivibrators