2 Digital Transmission Digital data needs to be carried on an analog signal. A carrier signal (frequency f c ) performs the function of transporting the digital data in an analog waveform. The analog carrier signal is manipulated to uniquely identify the digital data being carried.
10 Communication using controlled ISI or Nyquist second criterion pulses.
11 Duobinary Signaling
12 Differential encoded duobinary signaling
13 Pulse Generation by Transversal Filter
14 Scrambler and Descrambler
15 Regenerative Repeater
16 Eye Diagram Eye diagram is a means of evaluating the quality of a received digital waveform By quality is meant the ability to correctly recover symbols and timing The received signal could be examined at the input to a digital receiver or at some stage within the receiver before the decision stage Eye diagrams reveal the impact of ISI and noise Two major issues are 1) sample value variation, and 2) jitter and sensitivity of sampling instant Eye diagram reveals issues of both Eye diagram can also give an estimate of achievable BER Check eye diagrams at the end of class for participation
17 Interpretation of Eye Diagram
18 Eye Diagram Set up Eye diagram is a retrace display of data waveform Data waveform is applied to input channel Scope is triggered by data clock Horizontal span is set to cover 2-3 symbol intervals Measurement of eye opening is performed to estimate BER BER is reduced because of additive interference and noise Sampling also impacted by jitter
19 Digital to Analog Conversion
20 Aspects to Digital to Analog Conversion Bit Rate / Baud Rate Bit rate is the number of bits per second. Baud rate is the number of signal units per second. Baud rate is less than or equal to the bit rate. Bit rate is important in computer efficiency Baud rate is important in data transmission. Baud rate determines the bandwidth required to send signal Baud rate = bit rate / # bits per signal unit An analog signal carries 4 bits in each signal unit. If 1000 signal units are sent per second, find the baud rate and the bit rate Baud rate = 1000 bauds per second (baud/s) Bit rate = 1000 x 4 = 4000 bps The bit rate of a signal is If each signal unit carries 6 bits, what is the baud rate? Baud rate = 3000/6 =500 bauds/sec
21 Amplitude Shift Keying
22 Amplitude Shift Keying ASK is implemented by changing the amplitude of a carrier signal to reflect amplitude levels in the digital signal. For example: a digital 1 could not affect the signal, whereas a digital 0 would, by making it zero. The line encoding will determine the values of the analog waveform to reflect the digital data being carried.
23 Implementation of ASK
24 Relationship between baud rate and Bandwidth in ASK BW = (1 + d) * N d Find the minimum bandwidth for an ASK signal transmitting at 2000 bps. The transmission mode is half-duplex. In ASK the baud rate and bit rate are the same. The baud rate is therefore An ASK signal requires a minimum bandwidth equal to its baud rate. Therefore, the minimum bandwidth is 2000 Hz.
25 Frequency Shift Keying The digital data stream changes the frequency of the carrier signal, f c. For example, a 1 could be represented by f 1 =f c + f, and a 0 could be represented by f 2 =f c - f. Frequency of the carrier is varied to represent digital data (binary 0/1) Peak amplitude and phase remain constant. Avoid noise interference by looking at frequencies (change of a signal) and ignoring amplitudes. Limitations of FSK is the physical capabilities of the carrier. f1 and f2 equally offset by equal opposite amounts to the carrier freq. In MFSK more than 2 freq are used, each signal element represents more than one bit
26 Binary Frequency Shift Keying
27 Relationship between Baud rate and Bandwidth in FSK FSK shifts between two carrier frequencies FSK spectrum = combination of two ASK spectra centered on f c1 and f c0. BW = f c1 -f c0 + N baud
28 FSK Examples What is the Find the minimum bandwidth for an FSK signal transmitting at 2000 bps. Transmission is in half-duplex mode, and the carriers are separated by 3000 Hz. Because For FSK BW = baud rate + f c1 f c0 BW = bit rate + fc1 fc0 = = 5000 Hz What is the maximum bit rates for an FSK signal if the bandwidth of the medium is 12,000 Hz and the difference between the two carriers is 2000 Hz. Transmission is in full-duplex mode. Because the transmission is full duplex, only 6000 Hz is allocated for each direction. BW = baud rate + fc 1 fc 0 Baud rate = BW (fc 1 fc 0 ) = = 4000 But because the baud rate is the same as the bit rate, the bit rate is 4000 bps.
29 Coherent and Non Coherent FSK In a non-coherent FSK scheme, when we change from one frequency to the other, we do not adhere to the current phase of the signal. In coherent FSK, the switch from one frequency signal to the other only occurs at the same phase in the signal.
30 Phase Shift Keying We vary the phase shift of the carrier signal to represent digital data. The bandwidth requirement, B is: B = (1+d)xS PSK is much more robust than ASK as it is not that vulnerable to noise, which changes amplitude of the signal.
31 Binary Phase Shift Keying
32 Binary Phase Shift Keying Phase of the carrier is varied to represent digital data (binary 0 or 1) Amplitude and frequency remains constant. If phase 0 deg to represent 0, 180 deg to represent 1. (2-PSK) PSK is not susceptible to noise degradation that affects ASK or bandwidth limitations of FSK
33 Implementation of BPSK
34 Quadrature PSK To increase the bit rate, we can code 2 or more bits onto one signal element. In QPSK, we parallelize the bit stream so that every two incoming bits are split up and PSK a carrier frequency. One carrier frequency is phase shifted 90 o from the other - in quadrature. The two PSK signals are then added to produce one of 4 signal elements. L = 4 here.
35 Implementation of QPSK
37 Constellation Diagram A constellation diagram helps us to define the amplitude and phase of a signal when we are using two carriers, one in quadrature of the other. The X-axis represents the in-phase carrier and the Y-axis represents quadrature carrier.
38 8-PSK We can extend, by varying the the signal by shifts of 45 deg (instead of 90 deg in 4-PSK) With 8 = 2 3 different phases, each phase can represents 3 bits (tribit).
39 Relationship between bit rate and baud rate for PSK
40 Bandwidth similar to ASK, but data rate can 2 or more times greater. What is the bandwidth for a 4-PSK signal transmitting at 2000 bps. Transmission is in half-duplex mode. For PSK the baud rate is the same as the bandwidth, which means the baud rate is But in 8-PSK the bit rate is 3 times the baud rate, so the bit rate is 15,000 bps. Given a bandwidth of 5000 Hz for an 8-PSK signal, what are the baud rate and bit rate? For PSK the baud rate is the same as the bandwidth, which means the baud rate is But in 8-PSK the bit rate is 3 times the baud rate, so the bit rate is 15,000bps.
41 8-QAM & 16-QAM
42 Bit and Baud Comparison Assuming a FSK signal over voice-grade phone line can send 1200 bps, it requires 1200 signal units to send 1200 bits (each frequency shift represents one bit, baud rate 1200) Assuming 8-QAM, baud rate is only 400 to achieve same data rate. Modulation Units Bits/Baud Baud rate ASK, FSK, 2-PSK Bit 1 N N Bit Rate 4-PSK, 4-QAM Dibit 2 N 2N 8-PSK, 8-QAM Tribit 3 N 3N 16-QAM Quadbit 4 N 4N 32-QAM Pentabit 5 N 5N 64-QAM Hexabit 6 N 6N 128-QAM Septabit 7 N 7N 256-QAM Octabit 8 N 8N
43 Bit and Baud Rate examples A constellation diagram consists of eight equally spaced points on a circle. If the bit rate is 4800 bps, what is the baud rate? The constellation indicates 8-PSK with the points 45 degrees apart. Since 2 3 = 8, 3 bits are transmitted with each signal unit. Therefore, the baud rate is 4800 / 3 = 1600 baud What is the bit rate for a 1000-baud 16-QAM signal. A 16-QAM signal has 4 bits per signal unit since log 2 16 = 4. Thus, (1000)(4) = 4000 bps Compute the baud rate for a 72,000-bps 64-QAM signal. A 64-QAM signal has 6 bits per signal unit since log 2 64 = 6. Therefore, / 6 = 12,000 baud
44 DPSK DPSK Differential Phase Shift Keying Non-coherent Rx can be used easy & cheap to build no need for coherent reference signal from Tx Bit information determined by transition between two phase states incoming bit = 1 signal phase stays the same as previous bit incoming bit = 0 phase switches state
45 DPSK Non-coherent detection all that is needed is to compare phases between successive bits, not in reference to a Tx phase. power efficiency is 3 db worse than coherent BPSK (higher power in E b / N o is required for the same BER)
47 Minimum Shift Keying MSK Minimum Shift Keying Specific type of continuous phase (CP) FSK Special condition: Peak frequency deviation is ¼ of the bit rate, so f = 0.25 R b This is a smaller frequency separation (half that of conventional FSK) and has easier detection. It possesses properties such as: constant envelope spectral efficiency good BER performance self-synchronizing capability.
49 Unit 4 Spread Spectrum Communication
50 What is spread spectrum? Methods by which energy generated in a particular bandwidth is deliberately spread in the frequency domain, resulting in a signal with a wider bandwidth. used for a variety of reasons, including the establishment of secure communications, increasing resistance to natural interference and jamming, and to prevent detection.
51 Why we need this? In some situations it is required that a communication signal be difficult to detect, and difficult to demodulate even when detected. Here the word detect is used in the sense of to discover the presence of. In other situations a signal is required that is difficult to interfere with, or jam.
52 General Model of Spread Spectrum
53 Description of Block Diagram Input fed into channel encoder Produces narrow bandwidth analog signal around central frequency Signal modulated using sequence of digits Spreading code/sequence Typically generated by pseudonoise/pseudorandom number generator Increases bandwidth significantly Spreads spectrum Receiver uses same sequence to demodulate signal Demodulated signal fed into channel decoder
54 Advantages Immunity from various noise and multipath distortion Including jamming Can hide/encrypt signals Only receiver who knows spreading code can retrieve signal Several users can share same higher bandwidth with little interference Cellular telephone. Code division multiple access (CDMA)
55 Commercial use Initial commercial use of spread spectrum began in the 1980s in the US with three systems: Equatorial Communications System's very small aperture (VSAT) satellite terminal system for newspaper newswire services. Del Norte Technology's radio navigation system for navigation of aircraft for crop dusting and similar applications. Qualcomm's OmniTRACS system for communications to trucks.
56 Spread Spectrum Telecommunication a technique in which a (telecommunication) signal is transmitted on a bandwidth considerably larger than the frequency content of the original information. a signal structuring technique that employs direct sequence, frequency hopping or a hybrid of these, which can be used for multiple access and/or multiple functions. This technique decreases the potential interference to other receivers while achieving privacy.
57 Forms of spread spectrum Frequency-hopping spread spectrum(fhss) direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) time-hopping spread spectrum (THSS) chirp spread spectrum (CSS) and combinations of these techniques
58 Pseudorandom Number Pseudorandom - is defined as having the appearance of randomness, but nevertheless exhibiting a specific, repeatable pattern. generated by a deterministic algorithm not actually random but if algorithm good, results pass reasonable tests of randomness starting from an initial seed need to know algorithm and seed to predict sequence hence only receiver can decode signal
59 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) signal is broadcast over seemingly random series of frequencies receiver hops between frequencies in sync with transmitter eavesdroppers hear unintelligible blips jamming on one frequency affects only a few bits
60 Frequency Hopping Example
61 FHSS Transmitter
62 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Receiver
63 Slow and Fast FHSS commonly use multiple FSK (MFSK) have frequency shifted every T c seconds duration of signal element is T s seconds Slow FHSS has T c T s Fast FHSS has T c < T s FHSS quite resistant to noise or jamming with fast FHSS giving better performance
64 Slow FHSS
65 Fast FHSS
66 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) each bit is represented by multiple bits using a spreading code this spreads signal across a wider frequency band has performance similar to FHSS
67 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Example
68 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum system
69 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum System
70 DSSS Example using BPSK
71 Approximate Spectrum of DSSS Signal
72 Code Division Multiple Access a multiplexing technique used with spread spectrum. given a data signal rate D. break each bit into k chips according to a fixed chipping code specific to each user. resulting new channel has chip data rate kd chips per second. can have multiple channels superimposed.
73 CDMA example
74 CDMA for DSSS
75 Multiuser Detection Multiuser detection considers all users as signals for each other -> joint detection Reduced interference leads to capacity increase Alleviates the near/far problem MUD can be implemented in the BS or mobile, or both In a cellular system, base station (BS) has knowledge of all the chip sequences Size and weight requirement for BS is not stringent Therefore MUD is currently being envisioned for the uplink (mobile to BS)
76 OFDM Method of Digital Communication that breaks a large bandwidth into small subcarriers using the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT). Removes Intersymbol Interference (ISI) by having subcarrier frequency be integer multiples of the symbol rate. By dividing total bandwidth into independent subchannels, multiple access is achieved by distributing subchannels between users. Allows for higher data rates by allocating power and subchannels to users through Adaptive Modulation.
77 OFDM Mechanism
78 OFDM Mechanism The available frequency spectrum is divided into several sub-channels low-rate bit stream is transmitted over one sub-channel by modulating a subcarrier using a standard modelation scheme, for example 4-QAM Multiple Carriers are combined through the Fourier Series Computed by Inverse Fast Fourier transform
79 OFDM Transmitter An OFDM carrier signal is the sum of a number of orthogonal sub-carriers, with base band data on each sub-carrier being independently modulated commonly using some type of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) or phase-shift keying (PSK).
80 OFDM Receiver The receiver picks up the signal r(t), which is then quadrature-mixed down to baseband using cosine and sine waves at the carrier frequency. This returns N parallel streams, each of which is converted to a binary stream using an appropriate symbol detector. These streams are then re-combined into a serial stream,, which is an estimate of the original binary stream at the transmitter
Signal Encoding Techniques Guevara Noubir email@example.com 1 Reasons for Choosing Encoding Techniques Digital data, digital signal Equipment less complex and expensive than digital-to-analog modulation
Digital Modulation David Tipper Associate Professor Department of Information Science and Telecommunications University of Pittsburgh http://www.tele.pitt.edu/tipper.html Typical Communication System Source
Technologies and Services on Digital Broadcasting (8) MODULATION Systems (part ) "Technologies and Services of Digital Broadcasting" (in Japanese, ISBN4-339-62-2) is published by CORONA publishing co.,
Principles of Digital Modulation Dr Mike Fitton, firstname.lastname@example.org Telecommunications Research Lab Toshiba Research Europe Limited 1 Principles of Digital Modulation: Outline of Lectures Introduction
CDMA TECHNOLOGY History of CDMA The Cellular Challenge The world's first cellular networks were introduced in the early 1980s, using analog radio transmission technologies such as AMPS (Advanced Mobile
Modulation methods S-72. 333 Physical layer methods in wireless communication systems Sylvain Ranvier / Radio Laboratory / TKK 16 November 2004 email@example.com SMARAD / Radio Laboratory 1 Line out
Corso di Tecniche CAD per le Telecomunicazioni A.A. 2007-2008 Lezione 6 Communications Blockset Ing. Marco GALEAZZI 1 What Is Communications Blockset? Communications Blockset extends Simulink with a comprehensive
D1 Appendix D Digital Modulation and GMSK A brief introduction to digital modulation schemes is given, showing the logical development of GMSK from simpler schemes. GMSK is of interest since it is used
Chap#5 (Data communication) Q#1: Define analog transmission. Normally, analog transmission refers to the transmission of analog signals using a band-pass channel. Baseband digital or analog signals are
Lecture 3: Signaling and Clock Recovery CSE 123: Computer Networks Stefan Savage Last time Protocols and layering Application Presentation Session Transport Network Datalink Physical Application Transport
Implementation of Digital Signal Processing: Some Background on GFSK Modulation Sabih H. Gerez University of Twente, Department of Electrical Engineering firstname.lastname@example.org Version 4 (February 7, 2013)
What s The Difference Between Bit Rate And Baud Rate? Apr. 27, 2012 Lou Frenzel Electronic Design Serial-data speed is usually stated in terms of bit rate. However, another oftquoted measure of speed is
Mobile Data Networks Lecturer: Victor O.K. Li EEE Department Room: CYC601D Tel.: 857 845 Email: email@example.com Course home page: http://www.eee.hku.hk/courses.msc/ 1 Lecture 1: Introduction Mobile data
. mplitude-shift Keying (SK) Modulation Introduction he transmission of digital signals is increasing at a rapid rate. Low-frequency analogue signals are often converted to digital format (PM) before transmission.
HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications Rev. E January 30, 2008 Doc. No. SY_SSS_1026s TRADEMARKS The ibiquity Digital logo and ibiquity Digital are registered trademarks of ibiquity Digital Corporation.
AN1200.04 Application Note: FCC Regulations for ISM Band Devices: Copyright Semtech 2006 1 of 15 www.semtech.com 1 Table of Contents 1 Table of Contents...2 1.1 Index of Figures...2 1.2 Index of Tables...2
Physical Layer Part 2 Data Encoding Techniques Networks: Data Encoding 1 Analog and Digital Transmissions Figure 2-23.The use of both analog and digital transmissions for a computer to computer call. Conversion
Time and Frequency Domain Equalization Presented By: Khaled Shawky Hassan Under Supervision of: Prof. Werner Henkel Introduction to Equalization Non-ideal analog-media such as telephone cables and radio
Errata Introduction to Wireless Systems P. Mohana Shankar Page numbers are shown in blue Corrections are shown in red February 25 Page 11 below Figure 2.4 The power detected by a typical receiver is shown
Chapter 3: Spread Spectrum Technologies Overview Comprehend the differences between, and explain the different types of spread spectrum technologies and how they relate to the IEEE 802.11 standard's PHY
AN INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL MODULATION This article provides readers a simple overview of the various popular methods used in modulating a digital signal. The relative merits of each of these modulation
Non-Data Aided Carrier Offset Compensation for SDR Implementation Anders Riis Jensen 1, Niels Terp Kjeldgaard Jørgensen 1 Kim Laugesen 1, Yannick Le Moullec 1,2 1 Department of Electronic Systems, 2 Center
RF Measurements Using a Modular Digitizer Modern modular digitizers, like the Spectrum M4i series PCIe digitizers, offer greater bandwidth and higher resolution at any given bandwidth than ever before.
Agilent Digital Modulation in Communications Systems An Introduction Application Note 1298 Introduction This application note introduces the concepts of digital modulation used in many communications systems
0 QAM Demodulation o o o o o Application area What is QAM? What are QAM Demodulation Functions? General block diagram of QAM demodulator Explanation of the main function (Nyquist shaping, Clock & Carrier
Revision of Lecture Eighteen Previous lecture has discussed equalisation using Viterbi algorithm: Note similarity with channel decoding using maximum likelihood sequence estimation principle It also discusses
Digital Baseband Modulation Later Outline Baseband & Bandpass Waveforms Baseband & Bandpass Waveforms, Modulation A Communication System Dig. Baseband Modulators (Line Coders) Sequence of bits are modulated
ISM Band Device Test Agenda ISM Band Background Modulation and Parametric Testing of ISM Band ISM Device Test Demonstration ZigBee ZigBee Demonstration Industrial, Scientific and Medical Radio Band Originally
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Ben-Gurion University of the Negev LAB 1 - Introduction to USRP - 1-1 Introduction In this lab you will use software reconfigurable RF hardware from National
CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Matt Welsh Lecture 2: RF Basics and Signal Encoding September 22, 2005 2005 Matt Welsh Harvard University 1 Today's Lecture Basics of wireless communications
COMM.ENG INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSMISSION MEDIA 9/6/2014 LECTURES 1 Objectives To give a background on Communication system components and channels (media) A distinction between analogue
Implementing Digital Wireless Systems And an FCC update Spectrum Repacking Here We Go Again: The FCC is reallocating 600 MHz Frequencies for Wireless Mics 30-45 MHz (8-m HF) 174-250 MHz (VHF) 450-960 MHz
HD Radio FM Transmission System Specifications Rev. F August 24, 2011 SY_SSS_1026s TRADEMARKS HD Radio and the HD, HD Radio, and Arc logos are proprietary trademarks of ibiquity Digital Corporation. ibiquity,
Multiple Access Techniques Dr. Francis LAU Dr. Francis CM Lau, Associate Professor, EIE, PolyU Content Introduction Frequency Division Multiple Access Time Division Multiple Access Code Division Multiple
Rec. ITU-R SM.853-1 1 RECOMMENDATION ITU-R SM.853-1 NECESSARY BANDWIDTH (Question ITU-R 77/1) Rec. ITU-R SM.853-1 (1992-1997) The ITU Radiocommunication Assembly, considering a) that the concept of necessary
Product brochure Version 02.00 Vector Signal Analyzer FSQ-K70 July 2004 Universal demodulation, analysis and documentation of digital radio signals For all major mobile radio communication standards: GSM
Rec. ITU-R RA.1237 1 RECOMMENDATION ITU-R RA.1237 PROTECTION OF THE RADIO ASTRONOMY SERVICE FROM UNWANTED EMISSIONS RESULTING FROM APPLICATIONS OF WIDEBAND DIGITAL MODULATION (Question ITU-R 145/7) Rec.
Application Note LTE enodeb Installation and Maintenance Tests Introduction The Long-Term Evolution (LTE) specifications are defined by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), which is part of
2. Line Coding Introduction Line coding involves converting a sequence of 1s and s to a time-domain signal (a sequence of pulses) suitable for transmission over a channel. The following primary factors
Introduction to FM-Stereo-RDS Modulation Ge, Liang Tan, EK Kelly, Joe Verigy, China Verigy, Singapore Verigy US 1. Introduction Frequency modulation (FM) has a long history of its application and is widely
CS263: Wireless Communications and Sensor Networks Matt Welsh Lecture 4: Medium Access Control October 5, 2004 2004 Matt Welsh Harvard University 1 Today's Lecture Medium Access Control Schemes: FDMA TDMA
DT3: RF On/Off Remote Control Technology Rodney Singleton Joe Larsen Luis Garcia Rafael Ocampo Mike Moulton Eric Hatch Agenda Radio Frequency Overview Frequency Selection Signals Methods Modulation Methods
Making 802.11G Transmitter Measurements Application Note 1380-4 802.11g is the latest standard in wireless computer networking. It follows on the developments of 802.11a and 802.11b, combining the speed
MSB MODULATION DOUBLES CABLE TV CAPACITY Harold R. Walker and Bohdan Stryzak Pegasus Data Systems ( 5/12/06) firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract: Ultra Narrow Band Modulation ( Minimum Sideband Modulation ) makes
Digital Transmission (Line Coding) Pulse Transmission Source Multiplexer Line Coder Line Coding: Output of the multiplexer (TDM) is coded into electrical pulses or waveforms for the purpose of transmission
Page 77 Chapter 2 Mobile Communication 2.1 Characteristics of Mobile Computing 2.2 Wireless Communication Basics 2.3 Wireless Communication Technologies PANs (Bluetooth, ZigBee) Wireless LAN (IEEE 802.11)
A Project Report on Synchronization Techniques for OFDM In partial fulfillment of the requirements of Bachelor of Technology (Electronics and Communication Engineering) Submitted By Govind Singh Parihar
Lecture 4 Continuation of transmission basics Chapter 3, pages 75-96 Dave Novak School of Business University of Vermont Objectives Line coding Modulation AM, FM, Phase Shift Multiplexing FDM, TDM, WDM
Analog vs. Digital Transmission Compare at two levels: 1. Data continuous (audio) vs. discrete (text) 2. Signaling continuously varying electromagnetic wave vs. sequence of voltage pulses. Also Transmission
FHSS vs. DSSS page 1 of 16 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) vs. Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) in Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) and Wireless LAN (WLAN) by Sorin M. SCHWARTZ Scope In 1997
Public Switched Telephone System Structure of the Telephone System The Local Loop: Modems, ADSL Structure of the Telephone System (a) Fully-interconnected network. (b) Centralized switch. (c) Two-level
International Journal of Signal Processing Systems Vol. 4, No. 2, April 2016 Design and Implementation of FHSS and DSSS for Secure Data Transmission M. Hasan, J. M. Thakur, and P. Podder Khulna University
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF MC-CDMA OVER DIFFERENT FADING CHANNELS Vinita 1, Amita Soni 2 1M.Tech. Student, Electronics & Communication, PEC University of Technology, Chandigarh, India 2Assistant Professor,
INTERNATIONAL TELEOMMUNIATION UNION ITT V.7 THE INTERNATIONAL TELEGRAPH AN TELEPHONE ONSULTATIVE OMMITTEE ATA OMMUNIATION OVER THE TELEPHONE NETWORK A 2-WIRE MOEM FOR FASIMILE APPLIATIONS WITH RATES UP
Data Signal Analysis Prof. Alan Kaminsky Department of Computer Science Rochester Institute of Technology Rochester, NY, USA email@example.com March 2, 214 1 Signals Signal: A function of time, h(t) Digital
PCM Encoding and Decoding: Aim: Introduction to PCM encoding and decoding. Introduction: PCM Encoding: The input to the PCM ENCODER module is an analog message. This must be constrained to a defined bandwidth
Signal-to-Noise, Carrier-to-Noise, EbNo on Signal Quality Ratios by Wolfgang Damm, WTG Agenda Signal Measurement Environment Ratios: S/N, C/N, C/No, C/I, EbNo Shannon Limit Error Correction BER & Coding
Radio Transmission Performance of EPCglobal Gen-2 RFID System Manar Mohaisen, HeeSeok Yoon, and KyungHi Chang The Graduate School of Information Technology & Telecommunications INHA University Incheon,
CDMA Technology : Principles of CDMA/DS Decoding Pr. Dr. W.Skupin www.htwg-konstanz.de Pr. S.Flament www.greyc.fr/user/99 On line Course on CDMA Technology CDMA Technology : Introduction to Spread Spectrum
Improved user experiences are possible with enhanced FM radio data system (RDS) reception Aravind Ganesan, Senior Systems Engineer, and Jaiganesh Balakrishnan, Senior Member of Technical Staff, Wireless
Team 8 Michael Price Brandon Briegel Jerrod Kempf Matt Henry Arber Nicaj RF Communication Discussion Topics Electromagnetic Spectrum Hardware Modulation/Demodulation Noise Bluetooth Introduction What is
Page 1 Electronic Communications Committee (ECC) within the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations (CEPT) ECC RECOMMENDATION (06)01 Bandwidth measurements using FFT techniques
Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Bluetooth, ZigBee Contents Introduction to the IEEE 802 specification family Concept of ISM frequency band Comparison between different wireless technologies ( and
A Performance Study of Wireless Broadband Access (WiMAX) Maan A. S. Al-Adwany Department of Computer & Information Engineering, College of Electronics Engineering University of Mosul Mosul, Iraq firstname.lastname@example.org
The Physical Layer: Data Transmission Basics Encode data as energy at the data (information) source and transmit the encoded energy using transmitter hardware: Possible Energy Forms: Electrical, light,
International Journal of Engineering and Management Research, Volume-3, Issue-3, June 2013 ISSN No.: 2250-0758 Pages: 24-29 www.ijemr.net ISI Mitigation in Image Data for Wireless Wideband Communications
OFDM, Mobile Software Development Framework 9/27/2012 Y. Richard Yang 1 Admin. Homework 2 to be posted by Friday Start to think about project 2 Recap Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI) Handle band limit ISI
International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 4, April-2013 262 DSP based implementation of a Configurable Composite Digital Transmitter Soumik Kundu, Amiya Karmakar Abstract
Large-Capacity Optical Transmission Technologies Supporting the Optical Submarine Cable System INOUE Takanori Abstract As one of the foundations of the global network, the submarine cable system is required
Voice Transmission --Basic Concepts-- Voice---is analog in character and moves in the form of waves. 3-important wave-characteristics: Amplitude Frequency Phase Voice Digitization in the POTS Traditional
1 Wireless Communication Technologies Lin DAI Requirement 2 Prerequisite: Principles of Communications A certain math background Probability, Linear Algebra, Matrix Be interactive in class! Think independently!
18-759: Wireless Networks Lecture 18: Cellular Peter Steenkiste Departments of Computer Science and Electrical and Computer Engineering Spring Semester 2010 http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~prs/wirelesss10/ Peter
Performance of Quasi-Constant Envelope Phase Modulation through Nonlinear Radio Channels Qi Lu, Qingchong Liu Electrical and Systems Engineering Department Oakland University Rochester, MI 48309 USA E-mail:
VSG25A User Manual Signal Hound VSG25A User Manual 2015, Signal Hound, Inc. 35707 NE 86th Ave La Center, WA 98629 USA Phone 360.263.5006 Fax 360.263.5007 This information is being released into the public
The Effect of Network Cabling on Bit Error Rate Performance By Paul Kish NORDX/CDT Table of Contents Introduction... 2 Probability of Causing Errors... 3 Noise Sources Contributing to Errors... 4 Bit Error
CS3282 Digital Comms 9.1 2 May 06 / BMGC University of Manchester School of Computer Science CS3282: Digital Communications '06 Section 9: Multi-level digital modulation & demodulation. 9.1. ntroduction: