Unit 1 Digital Data transmission

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1 Unit 1 Digital Data transmission

2 Digital Transmission Digital data needs to be carried on an analog signal. A carrier signal (frequency f c ) performs the function of transporting the digital data in an analog waveform. The analog carrier signal is manipulated to uniquely identify the digital data being carried.

3

4 Digital Communication System

5 Line Coding Line code examples: (a) on-off (RZ); (b) polar (RZ); (c) bipolar (RZ); (d) on-off (NRZ); (e) polar (NRZ

6 Power Spectral Density of Polar Signal

7 PSD of bipolar, polar, and split-phase signals

8 Nyquist's first criterion and its spectrum

9 Zero ISI Nyquist criterion pulse

10 Communication using controlled ISI or Nyquist second criterion pulses.

11 Duobinary Signaling

12 Differential encoded duobinary signaling

13 Pulse Generation by Transversal Filter

14 Scrambler and Descrambler

15 Regenerative Repeater

16 Eye Diagram Eye diagram is a means of evaluating the quality of a received digital waveform By quality is meant the ability to correctly recover symbols and timing The received signal could be examined at the input to a digital receiver or at some stage within the receiver before the decision stage Eye diagrams reveal the impact of ISI and noise Two major issues are 1) sample value variation, and 2) jitter and sensitivity of sampling instant Eye diagram reveals issues of both Eye diagram can also give an estimate of achievable BER Check eye diagrams at the end of class for participation

17 Interpretation of Eye Diagram

18 Eye Diagram Set up Eye diagram is a retrace display of data waveform Data waveform is applied to input channel Scope is triggered by data clock Horizontal span is set to cover 2-3 symbol intervals Measurement of eye opening is performed to estimate BER BER is reduced because of additive interference and noise Sampling also impacted by jitter

19 Digital to Analog Conversion

20 Aspects to Digital to Analog Conversion Bit Rate / Baud Rate Bit rate is the number of bits per second. Baud rate is the number of signal units per second. Baud rate is less than or equal to the bit rate. Bit rate is important in computer efficiency Baud rate is important in data transmission. Baud rate determines the bandwidth required to send signal Baud rate = bit rate / # bits per signal unit An analog signal carries 4 bits in each signal unit. If 1000 signal units are sent per second, find the baud rate and the bit rate Baud rate = 1000 bauds per second (baud/s) Bit rate = 1000 x 4 = 4000 bps The bit rate of a signal is If each signal unit carries 6 bits, what is the baud rate? Baud rate = 3000/6 =500 bauds/sec

21 Amplitude Shift Keying

22 Amplitude Shift Keying ASK is implemented by changing the amplitude of a carrier signal to reflect amplitude levels in the digital signal. For example: a digital 1 could not affect the signal, whereas a digital 0 would, by making it zero. The line encoding will determine the values of the analog waveform to reflect the digital data being carried.

23 Implementation of ASK

24 Relationship between baud rate and Bandwidth in ASK BW = (1 + d) * N d Find the minimum bandwidth for an ASK signal transmitting at 2000 bps. The transmission mode is half-duplex. In ASK the baud rate and bit rate are the same. The baud rate is therefore An ASK signal requires a minimum bandwidth equal to its baud rate. Therefore, the minimum bandwidth is 2000 Hz.

25 Frequency Shift Keying The digital data stream changes the frequency of the carrier signal, f c. For example, a 1 could be represented by f 1 =f c + f, and a 0 could be represented by f 2 =f c - f. Frequency of the carrier is varied to represent digital data (binary 0/1) Peak amplitude and phase remain constant. Avoid noise interference by looking at frequencies (change of a signal) and ignoring amplitudes. Limitations of FSK is the physical capabilities of the carrier. f1 and f2 equally offset by equal opposite amounts to the carrier freq. In MFSK more than 2 freq are used, each signal element represents more than one bit

26 Binary Frequency Shift Keying

27 Relationship between Baud rate and Bandwidth in FSK FSK shifts between two carrier frequencies FSK spectrum = combination of two ASK spectra centered on f c1 and f c0. BW = f c1 -f c0 + N baud

28 FSK Examples What is the Find the minimum bandwidth for an FSK signal transmitting at 2000 bps. Transmission is in half-duplex mode, and the carriers are separated by 3000 Hz. Because For FSK BW = baud rate + f c1 f c0 BW = bit rate + fc1 fc0 = = 5000 Hz What is the maximum bit rates for an FSK signal if the bandwidth of the medium is 12,000 Hz and the difference between the two carriers is 2000 Hz. Transmission is in full-duplex mode. Because the transmission is full duplex, only 6000 Hz is allocated for each direction. BW = baud rate + fc 1 fc 0 Baud rate = BW (fc 1 fc 0 ) = = 4000 But because the baud rate is the same as the bit rate, the bit rate is 4000 bps.

29 Coherent and Non Coherent FSK In a non-coherent FSK scheme, when we change from one frequency to the other, we do not adhere to the current phase of the signal. In coherent FSK, the switch from one frequency signal to the other only occurs at the same phase in the signal.

30 Phase Shift Keying We vary the phase shift of the carrier signal to represent digital data. The bandwidth requirement, B is: B = (1+d)xS PSK is much more robust than ASK as it is not that vulnerable to noise, which changes amplitude of the signal.

31 Binary Phase Shift Keying

32 Binary Phase Shift Keying Phase of the carrier is varied to represent digital data (binary 0 or 1) Amplitude and frequency remains constant. If phase 0 deg to represent 0, 180 deg to represent 1. (2-PSK) PSK is not susceptible to noise degradation that affects ASK or bandwidth limitations of FSK

33 Implementation of BPSK

34 Quadrature PSK To increase the bit rate, we can code 2 or more bits onto one signal element. In QPSK, we parallelize the bit stream so that every two incoming bits are split up and PSK a carrier frequency. One carrier frequency is phase shifted 90 o from the other - in quadrature. The two PSK signals are then added to produce one of 4 signal elements. L = 4 here.

35 Implementation of QPSK

36 QPSK

37 Constellation Diagram A constellation diagram helps us to define the amplitude and phase of a signal when we are using two carriers, one in quadrature of the other. The X-axis represents the in-phase carrier and the Y-axis represents quadrature carrier.

38 8-PSK We can extend, by varying the the signal by shifts of 45 deg (instead of 90 deg in 4-PSK) With 8 = 2 3 different phases, each phase can represents 3 bits (tribit).

39 Relationship between bit rate and baud rate for PSK

40 Bandwidth similar to ASK, but data rate can 2 or more times greater. What is the bandwidth for a 4-PSK signal transmitting at 2000 bps. Transmission is in half-duplex mode. For PSK the baud rate is the same as the bandwidth, which means the baud rate is But in 8-PSK the bit rate is 3 times the baud rate, so the bit rate is 15,000 bps. Given a bandwidth of 5000 Hz for an 8-PSK signal, what are the baud rate and bit rate? For PSK the baud rate is the same as the bandwidth, which means the baud rate is But in 8-PSK the bit rate is 3 times the baud rate, so the bit rate is 15,000bps.

41 8-QAM & 16-QAM

42 Bit and Baud Comparison Assuming a FSK signal over voice-grade phone line can send 1200 bps, it requires 1200 signal units to send 1200 bits (each frequency shift represents one bit, baud rate 1200) Assuming 8-QAM, baud rate is only 400 to achieve same data rate. Modulation Units Bits/Baud Baud rate ASK, FSK, 2-PSK Bit 1 N N Bit Rate 4-PSK, 4-QAM Dibit 2 N 2N 8-PSK, 8-QAM Tribit 3 N 3N 16-QAM Quadbit 4 N 4N 32-QAM Pentabit 5 N 5N 64-QAM Hexabit 6 N 6N 128-QAM Septabit 7 N 7N 256-QAM Octabit 8 N 8N

43 Bit and Baud Rate examples A constellation diagram consists of eight equally spaced points on a circle. If the bit rate is 4800 bps, what is the baud rate? The constellation indicates 8-PSK with the points 45 degrees apart. Since 2 3 = 8, 3 bits are transmitted with each signal unit. Therefore, the baud rate is 4800 / 3 = 1600 baud What is the bit rate for a 1000-baud 16-QAM signal. A 16-QAM signal has 4 bits per signal unit since log 2 16 = 4. Thus, (1000)(4) = 4000 bps Compute the baud rate for a 72,000-bps 64-QAM signal. A 64-QAM signal has 6 bits per signal unit since log 2 64 = 6. Therefore, / 6 = 12,000 baud

44 DPSK DPSK Differential Phase Shift Keying Non-coherent Rx can be used easy & cheap to build no need for coherent reference signal from Tx Bit information determined by transition between two phase states incoming bit = 1 signal phase stays the same as previous bit incoming bit = 0 phase switches state

45 DPSK Non-coherent detection all that is needed is to compare phases between successive bits, not in reference to a Tx phase. power efficiency is 3 db worse than coherent BPSK (higher power in E b / N o is required for the same BER)

46

47 Minimum Shift Keying MSK Minimum Shift Keying Specific type of continuous phase (CP) FSK Special condition: Peak frequency deviation is ¼ of the bit rate, so f = 0.25 R b This is a smaller frequency separation (half that of conventional FSK) and has easier detection. It possesses properties such as: constant envelope spectral efficiency good BER performance self-synchronizing capability.

48 Waveforms

49 Unit 4 Spread Spectrum Communication

50 What is spread spectrum? Methods by which energy generated in a particular bandwidth is deliberately spread in the frequency domain, resulting in a signal with a wider bandwidth. used for a variety of reasons, including the establishment of secure communications, increasing resistance to natural interference and jamming, and to prevent detection.

51 Why we need this? In some situations it is required that a communication signal be difficult to detect, and difficult to demodulate even when detected. Here the word detect is used in the sense of to discover the presence of. In other situations a signal is required that is difficult to interfere with, or jam.

52 General Model of Spread Spectrum

53 Description of Block Diagram Input fed into channel encoder Produces narrow bandwidth analog signal around central frequency Signal modulated using sequence of digits Spreading code/sequence Typically generated by pseudonoise/pseudorandom number generator Increases bandwidth significantly Spreads spectrum Receiver uses same sequence to demodulate signal Demodulated signal fed into channel decoder

54 Advantages Immunity from various noise and multipath distortion Including jamming Can hide/encrypt signals Only receiver who knows spreading code can retrieve signal Several users can share same higher bandwidth with little interference Cellular telephone. Code division multiple access (CDMA)

55 Commercial use Initial commercial use of spread spectrum began in the 1980s in the US with three systems: Equatorial Communications System's very small aperture (VSAT) satellite terminal system for newspaper newswire services. Del Norte Technology's radio navigation system for navigation of aircraft for crop dusting and similar applications. Qualcomm's OmniTRACS system for communications to trucks.

56 Spread Spectrum Telecommunication a technique in which a (telecommunication) signal is transmitted on a bandwidth considerably larger than the frequency content of the original information. a signal structuring technique that employs direct sequence, frequency hopping or a hybrid of these, which can be used for multiple access and/or multiple functions. This technique decreases the potential interference to other receivers while achieving privacy.

57 Forms of spread spectrum Frequency-hopping spread spectrum(fhss) direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) time-hopping spread spectrum (THSS) chirp spread spectrum (CSS) and combinations of these techniques

58 Pseudorandom Number Pseudorandom - is defined as having the appearance of randomness, but nevertheless exhibiting a specific, repeatable pattern. generated by a deterministic algorithm not actually random but if algorithm good, results pass reasonable tests of randomness starting from an initial seed need to know algorithm and seed to predict sequence hence only receiver can decode signal

59 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) signal is broadcast over seemingly random series of frequencies receiver hops between frequencies in sync with transmitter eavesdroppers hear unintelligible blips jamming on one frequency affects only a few bits

60 Frequency Hopping Example

61 FHSS Transmitter

62 Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum Receiver

63 Slow and Fast FHSS commonly use multiple FSK (MFSK) have frequency shifted every T c seconds duration of signal element is T s seconds Slow FHSS has T c T s Fast FHSS has T c < T s FHSS quite resistant to noise or jamming with fast FHSS giving better performance

64 Slow FHSS

65 Fast FHSS

66 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) each bit is represented by multiple bits using a spreading code this spreads signal across a wider frequency band has performance similar to FHSS

67 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Example

68 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum system

69 Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum System

70 DSSS Example using BPSK

71 Approximate Spectrum of DSSS Signal

72 Code Division Multiple Access a multiplexing technique used with spread spectrum. given a data signal rate D. break each bit into k chips according to a fixed chipping code specific to each user. resulting new channel has chip data rate kd chips per second. can have multiple channels superimposed.

73 CDMA example

74 CDMA for DSSS

75 Multiuser Detection Multiuser detection considers all users as signals for each other -> joint detection Reduced interference leads to capacity increase Alleviates the near/far problem MUD can be implemented in the BS or mobile, or both In a cellular system, base station (BS) has knowledge of all the chip sequences Size and weight requirement for BS is not stringent Therefore MUD is currently being envisioned for the uplink (mobile to BS)

76 OFDM Method of Digital Communication that breaks a large bandwidth into small subcarriers using the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT). Removes Intersymbol Interference (ISI) by having subcarrier frequency be integer multiples of the symbol rate. By dividing total bandwidth into independent subchannels, multiple access is achieved by distributing subchannels between users. Allows for higher data rates by allocating power and subchannels to users through Adaptive Modulation.

77 OFDM Mechanism

78 OFDM Mechanism The available frequency spectrum is divided into several sub-channels low-rate bit stream is transmitted over one sub-channel by modulating a subcarrier using a standard modelation scheme, for example 4-QAM Multiple Carriers are combined through the Fourier Series Computed by Inverse Fast Fourier transform

79 OFDM Transmitter An OFDM carrier signal is the sum of a number of orthogonal sub-carriers, with base band data on each sub-carrier being independently modulated commonly using some type of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) or phase-shift keying (PSK).

80 OFDM Receiver The receiver picks up the signal r(t), which is then quadrature-mixed down to baseband using cosine and sine waves at the carrier frequency. This returns N parallel streams, each of which is converted to a binary stream using an appropriate symbol detector. These streams are then re-combined into a serial stream,, which is an estimate of the original binary stream at the transmitter

81 Thanks

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