Fundamentals of Networking and Data Communications, Sixth Edition 4-1

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1 Fundamentals of Networking and Data Communications, Sixth Edition 4-1 Making Connections Chapter 4 Learning Objectives After reading this chapter, students should be able to: List the four components of all interface standards Discuss the basic operations of the USB interface standard Recognize the difference between half-duplex and full-duplex connections Cite the advantages of FireWire, SCSI, iscsi, InfiniBand, and Fibre Channel interface standards Outline the characteristics of asynchronous, synchronous, and isochronous Data Link interfaces Identify the operating characteristics of terminal-to-mainframe connections and why they are unique compared to other types of computer connections Chapter Outline 1. Introduction 2. Interfacing a Computer to Peripheral Devices a. Characteristics of interface standards b. An early interface standard c. Universal Serial Bus (USB) d. Other interface standards 3. Data Link Connections a. Asynchronous connections b. Synchronous connections c. Isochronous connections 4. Terminal-to-Mainframe Computer Connections 5. Making Computer Connections In Action 6. Summary

2 Fundamentals of Networking and Data Communications, Sixth Edition 4-2 Lecture Notes Introduction To better understand the interconnection between a computer and a device such as a modem requires you to understand the concept of interfacing. Interfacing a device to a computer is considered a physical layer activity since it deals directly with analog signals, digital signals, and hardware components. We will examine the four basic components of an interfaceelectrical, mechanical, functional and proceduraland then introduce several of the more common interface standards. Interfacing a Computer to Peripheral Devices Interfacing is a complex area of study. It is a relatively technical process and varies greatly depending upon the type of device, the computer, and the desired connection between the device and computer. Various organizations set about creating a standard interface between devices such as computers and modems.. An interface standard consists of four parts or components: the electrical component, the mechanical component, the functional component, and the procedural component. Interface standards such as EIA-232F, X.21, and Hayes have existed for many years and, by current standards, are relatively complex to create and difficult to support. They were designed primarily to support modems. Computer designers have been working for many years trying to create a new interface that is flexible and fast and supports not only modems but the growing array of peripheral devices such as document scanners and video cameras. Several new interface standards that have great potential are FireWire, Universal Serial Bus, SCSI, iscsi, InfiniBand, and Fibre Channel. Data Link Connections Assuming that the physical layer connections are already defined by some protocol such as EIA- 232F, what is the basic form of the data that is passed between sender and receiver? Is the data transmitted in single-byte blocks, or does the connection create a larger, multiple-byte block? The former connection is an example of an asynchronous connection, while the latter is a synchronous connection. Isochronous connections are connections that require a constant or typically real-time flow of data, such as between a video camera and a computer.

3 Fundamentals of Networking and Data Communications, Sixth Edition 4-3 Terminal-to-Mainframe Computer Connections One of the common connections introduced in the first chapter was the terminal to mainframe computer connection. Since terminals possess little processing power compared to a microcomputer workstation, the mainframe computer has to take control and perform all the data transfer operations. The operations performed by the mainframe computer depend upon the type of physical connection between a terminal and mainframe. Making Computer Connections In Action This In Action example examines the rear panel of a personal computer and discusses the definition and operation of each connector. Quick Quiz 1. Cite the advantages and disadvantages of EIA-232F and USB. There may not be any advantages of EIA-232F. As for USB, it is simpler for the user, faster, and provides its own source of power. 2. Why do we need interface standards? We need standards to allow multiple devices to interconnect; this avoids mayhem in the industry. 3. How do synchronous transmission and asynchronous transmission maintain synchronization? Async: small package and start bit; Sync: uses a separate clock signal or a self-clocking code Discussion Topics 1. Will something eventually displace USB? 2. Why is it so difficult to design a good interface standard? 3. Are there any advantages to using asynchronous transmission?

4 Fundamentals of Networking and Data Communications, Sixth Edition 4-4 Teaching Tips 1. Don t forget to emphasize that interface standards occur at the physical layer while asynchronous and synchronous transmission techniques occur at the data link layer. 2. Use some of the Internet services such as to see if you have access to some of the more advanced telecommunication services. Solutions to Review Questions 1. How does a mainframe computer ask a terminal to send it data? Poll 2. Are InfiniBand and Fibre Channel likely to be used on your home computer? No, these are high-speed interfaces for connecting multiple, large-volume disk drives to processors. 3. What is the difference between a point-to-point connection and a multipoint connection? Point-to-point: each terminal has its own connection to the mainframe; Multipoint: terminals share a connection 4. When might one use SCSI to interconnect a peripheral? High-speed applications, such as network servers 5. What is the difference between half duplex and full duplex communications? Half duplex: both sides can talk but only one at a time; Full duplex: both sides can talk and at the same time. 6. What is the difference between SCSI and iscsi? iscsi is when you perform SCSI operations over the Internet 7. What are the advantages and disadvantages of synchronous communication? Adv: fast, efficient, good error checking; Disadv: a little more complex

5 Fundamentals of Networking and Data Communications, Sixth Edition What are the advantages of FireWire? Advanced, fast, modern, can daisy-chain, can auto-configure (with aid from OS) 9. What is the basic block diagram of a synchronous frame? Answer should look like Figure 4-4 on page FireWire and USB are standards to interconnect what to what? To connect computers to different peripheral devices. 11. What are the advantages and disadvantages of asynchronous communication? Adv: simple; Disadv: slow, inefficient, poor error checking 12. What are the advantages of USB over EIA-232F and the other types of interface standards? USB is fast, easy to use, provides its own power source, robust 13. In asynchronous connections, how many characters are placed into one frame? One 14. What are the four components of an interface? Mechanical, electrical, functional, procedural 15. In asynchronous connections, what additional bits are added to a character to prepare it for transfer? Start, stop, parity (optional) 16. What is a DTE, and what is a DCE? Data terminal equipment and data circuit-terminating equipment 17. What are the primary differences between asynchronous connections, synchronous, and isochronous connections? Async sends one character at a time with stop, start and optional parity bit. Sync sends multiple characters at one time with beginning and ending flags, control, address info, and cyclic checksum. Isochronous sends a steady-rate stream, often in real-time.

6 Fundamentals of Networking and Data Communications, Sixth Edition 4-6 Suggested Solutions to Exercises 1. Terminals A, B, and C are connected to a mainframe computer. Only terminal C has data to transmit. Show the sequence of messages sent between the mainframe and the three terminals using roll call polling. Mainframe polls A. A responds NO. Mainframe polls B. B responds NO. Mainframe polls C. C responds with data. Mainframe acknowledges data. 2. A company has a very powerful computer and it wants to connect the computer to a large number of high-speed disk storage devices. Which protocol(s) introduced in this chapter would provide a good interface for this scenario? Fibre channel or InfiniBand 3. Show the sequence of start, data, and stop bits that are generated during asynchronous transmission of the character string LUNCH. Start, L, stop, start, U, stop, start, N, stop, start, C, stop, start, H, stop 4. In what type of situation might hub polling be preferable to roll-call polling? Hub polling may be preferable if there is a long distance between mainframe and terminals. 5. List two examples each of simplex, half duplex, and full duplex connections not mentioned in the book. Simplex: Broadcast TV, cable TV, radio, most pagers, telegraph. Half duplex: Walkie talkies, CB radio, ham radio, local area networks Full duplex: Telephone system, cable modems 6. What types of devices are best served with an isochronous connection? Real-time devices such as video cameras 7. Create a table that compares the advantages and disadvantages of the Universal Serial Bus to those of the RS-232/EIA-232F interface. USB is faster, simpler, and easier to install.

7 Fundamentals of Networking and Data Communications, Sixth Edition How does the receiver in a synchronous connection stay in sync with the incoming data stream? A separate clock signal, use of a Manchester type code, or some form of internal analog signaling with a built-in sync pattern 9. If I have a device that has a Universal Serial Bus 2.0 interface, but my computer only has a Universal Serial Bus 1.1 connector, is my device going to work? Explain. Yes, but the 2.0 interface will drop back to the slower 1.1 interface speed. 10. List two features of the asynchronous connection that allow the receiver to stay in sync with the incoming data stream. The two features are the start bit and a short frame. 11. What is the major advantage of the FireWire interface over the Universal Serial Bus 1.1 interface? FireWire is faster. 12. Suppose you want to send 1000 characters of data. How many check bits will you need using asynchronous transmission? How many check bits will you need using synchronous transmission? Assume that all 1000 characters will fit within one synchronous transmission frame. Async: 1000 characters * 3 check bits per character (start, stop, parity) = 3000 check bits Sync: Start flag (8 bits) + Address (8 bits) + Control (8 bits) + CRC (16 bits) + End flag (8 bits) = 48 check bits 13. What are the advantages, if any, of the older EIA 232F interface over the newer USB interface? The advantages aren t immediately obvious. EIA 232F may be simpler. 14. Using the same scenario as the previous problem, show the sequence of messages exchanged using hub polling. Mainframe polls A. A passes poll onto B. B passes poll onto C. C responds with data Mainframe acknowledges data.

8 Fundamentals of Networking and Data Communications, Sixth Edition 4-8 Thinking Outside the Box bytes every 0.5 seconds = 1000 bytes / second (or 8000 bps). With async, you would add 3 bits (start, stop and parity) to each byte, giving you 11,000 bps. With a sync connection, you would simply add 6 bytes (flag, address, control, FCS, and flag) to the 1000 bytes. Thus, you would have 1006 bytes, or 8048 bps. The sync line would be much more efficient. 2. You are probably comparing apples and oranges here. If you replace polling with async connections, how does the mainframe get the data from the terminals? You will still need some form of dialog between the mainframe and terminals. Chances are it may still take the form of an async connection. Unless you want to make it appear as a sync connection. As we saw from the previous problem, there is a big difference there. 3. Isochronous connections are considered steady stream connections, whereas synchronous and asynchronous connections are generally considered bursty. Thus, applications like video or voice which are generally considered steady stream would work better with an isochronous connection. 4. It is possible to create a workstation with only USB connectors, but that might limit your choice of printer, modem, and other peripherals. For the time, you probably should still include the other types of connectors. 5. If you install unshielded twisted pair, you will probably be using RJ-45 connectors into a LAN connection. If you use wireless, once again you will be installing wireless devices which will connect to the RJ-45 LAN ports. If you use the house wiring as the medium, you may install the signal converter device into a USB port or a serial port at your laptop and then plug the other end into the electrical outlet on the wall.

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