# The solar radiation model for Open source GIS: implementation and applications

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

4 4 The solar radiation model for Open source GIS Beam radiation Outside the atmosphere, at the mean solar distance, the beam irradiance, also known as the solar constant (I 0 ), is 1367 W.m -2. The earth s orbit is lightly eccentric and the sunearth distance varies slightly across the year. Therefore a correction factor ε, to allow for the varying solar distance, is applied in calculation of the extraterrestrial irradiance G 0 normal to the solar beam [W.m -2 ]: G 0 = I 0 ε where: ε = cos (j ) (2) the day angle j is in radians: j = 2 π j/ (3) and j is the day number which varies from 1 on January 1 st to 365 (366) on December 31 st. The beam irradiance normal to the solar beam B 0c [W.m -2 ], attenuated by the cloudless atmosphere, is calculated as follows: B 0c = G 0 exp { T LK m δ R (m)} (4) The term T LK is the air mass 2 Linke atmospheric turbidity factor [dimensionless] corrected by Kasten [24]. The parameter m in equation (4) is the relative optical air mass [-] calculated using the formula [25]: m = (p/p 0 )/(sin h ref (h ref ) ) (5) where h ref 0 is the corrected solar altitude h 0 (an angle between the sun and horizon) in degrees by the atmospheric refraction component h ref 0 : h ref 0 = ( h h 2 0 )/( h h 2 0 ) h ref ref 0 = h 0 + h 0 (6) The p/p 0 component in (5) is correction for given elevation z [m]: p/p 0 = exp (-z/8434.5) (7) The parameter δ R (m) in (4) is the Rayleigh optical thickness at air mass m and is calculated according to the improved formula by Kasten [24] as follows: for m <= 20: δ R (m) = 1/( m m m m 4 ) (8) for m > 20 δ R (m) = 1/( m) (9) The beam irradiance on a horizontal surface B hc [W.m -2 ] is then calculated as: B hc = B 0c sin h 0 (10) where h 0 is the solar altitude angle given by equation (13). The beam irradiance on an inclined surface B ic [W.m -2 ] is calculated as: or B ic = B 0c sin δ exp (11) B ic = B hc sin δ exp /sin h 0 (12) where δ exp is the solar incidence angle measured between the sun and an inclined surface defined in equation (15). (1)

5 Jaroslav Hofierka, Marcel Šúri 5 The position of the sun in respect to a horizontal surface is given by the two coordinates solar altitude h 0 (an angle between the sun path and a horizontal surface), and solar azimuth A 0 (a horizontal angle between the sun and meridian - measured from East), and is calculated as follows [26, 27]: sin h 0 = C 31 cos T + C 33 (13) cos A 0 = (C 11 cos T + C 13 )/((C 22 sin T) 2 + (C 11 cos T + C 13 ) 2 ) 1/2 where: C 11 = sin ϕ cos δ (14) C 13 = -cos ϕ sin δ C 22 = cos δ C 31 = cos ϕ cos δ C 33 = sin ϕ sin δ In the r.sun model we have implemented the sun declination δ [rad] defined as [28]: δ = arcsin ( sin (j sin (j ))) (15) where the calculation of the day angle j [radians] is explained in equation (3). The hour angle T [rad] is calculated from the local solar time t expressed in decimal hours on the 24 hour clock as: T = (t - 12) The position of the sun in respect to an inclined surface is defined by the angle δ exp [26, 27]. If an inclined surface is defined by the inclination angle (slope) γ N and the azimuth (aspect) A N (an angle between the projection of the normal on the horizontal surface and East) then: sin δ exp = C 31 cos (T - λ ) + C 33 (16) where: C 31 = cos ϕ cos δ (17) C 33 = sin ϕ sin δ and: sin ϕ = - cos ϕ sin γ N cos A N + sin ϕ cos γ N (18) tg λ = - (sin γ N sin A N )/(sin ϕ sin γ N cos A N + cos ϕ cos γ N ). r,s The hour angle of the time of sunrise/sunset over a horizontal surface T h can be calculated then as: cos T r,s h = -C 33 /C 31 (19) r,s The hour angle of the time of sunrise/sunset over an inclined surface T i can be calculated by analogy: cos (T i r,s - λ ) = -C 33 /C 31. (20) 3.2 Diffuse radiation As the cloudless sky becomes more turbid, the diffuse irradiance increases, while the beam irradiance decreases. The estimate of the diffuse component on a horizontal surface D hc [W.m -2 ] is made as a product of the normal extraterrestrial irradiance G 0, a diffuse transmission function Tn dependent only on the Linke turbidity factor T LK, and a diffuse solar altitude function F d dependent only on the solar altitude h 0 [16]: D hc = G 0 Tn(T LK ) F d (h 0 ) (21)

12 The solar radiation model for Open source GIS computed in the step 1 were added to this database and for each meteorological station the clear-sky index was computed: Kc = Ghs/Ghc (45) Figure 1: Annual mean of (a) daily sums of clear-sky global irradiation Ghc, (b) clear-sky index Kc and (c) daily sums of overcast irradiation Gh (colour tables for Ghc and Gh are different) The clear-sky index is correlated with elevation, mostly in summer and winter, therefore it was decided to use a multivariate spatial interpolation of the point values to account for changes in vertical dimension. For this purpose the method s.vol.rst, implemented in GRASS GIS, was used [41]. The position of input points is defined using x,y,z values, where the z value represents elevation derived from the digital terrain model. The interpolation results are very sensitive to the correct selection of parameters of tension, smoothing and conversion factor for z-values (see s.vol.rst manual page). To obtain the most accurate results the crossvalidation procedure was applied separately for each of the 12 monthly point data sets of Kc [41]. Based on this methodology, the resulting raster maps show better interpolation results than using 2D-interpolation [42]. Figure 2: Monthly means of daily sums of global irradiation input to solar panels at horizontal position in June, September and December

### Sunlight and its Properties. EE 495/695 Y. Baghzouz

Sunlight and its Properties EE 495/695 Y. Baghzouz The sun is a hot sphere of gas whose internal temperatures reach over 20 million deg. K. Nuclear fusion reaction at the sun's core converts hydrogen to

### SOLAR RADIATION AND YIELD. Alessandro Massi Pavan

SOLAR RADIATION AND YIELD Alessandro Massi Pavan Sesto Val Pusteria June 22 nd 26 th, 2015 DEFINITIONS Solar radiation: general meaning Irradiation [Wh/m 2 ]: energy received per unit area Irradiance [W/m

### Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston

Chapter 6: SOLAR GEOMETRY Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston SOLAR GEOMETRY AS A DETERMINING FACTOR OF HEAT GAIN, SHADING AND THE POTENTIAL OF DAYLIGHT PENETRATION...

APPENDIX D: SOLAR RADIATION The sun is the source of most energy on the earth and is a primary factor in determining the thermal environment of a locality. It is important for engineers to have a working

### P.M. Rich, W.A. Hetrick, S.C. Saving Biological Sciences University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045

USING VIEWSHED MODELS TO CALCULATE INTERCEPTED SOLAR RADIATION: APPLICATIONS IN ECOLOGY by P.M. Rich, W.A. Hetrick, S.C. Saving Biological Sciences University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66045 R.O. Dubayah

### Spatially distributed assessment of solar resources for energy applications in Slovakia

Hofierka, J., Cebecauer, T. (2008): Spatially distributed assessment of solar resources for energy applications in Slovakia. Acta Facultatis Studiorum Humanitatis et Naturae Universitatis Prešoviensis.

### 2 Absorbing Solar Energy

2 Absorbing Solar Energy 2.1 Air Mass and the Solar Spectrum Now that we have introduced the solar cell, it is time to introduce the source of the energy the sun. The sun has many properties that could

### Pinde Fu Department of Geography GEMLab/Kansas Applied Remote Sensing Program The University of Kansas

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SOLAR ANALYST: AN ARCVIEW EXTENSION FOR MODELING SOLAR RADIATION AT LANDSCAPE SCALES by Pinde Fu Department of Geography GEMLab/Kansas Applied Remote Sensing Program The

### Atmospheric radiative transfer parametrization for solar energy yield calculations on buildings

Atmospheric radiative transfer parametrization for solar energy yield calculations on buildings J.E. Wagner 1, M. Petitta 1 1 Institute for Applied Remote Sensing, EURAC, Viale Druso 1, Bolzano, Italy

### Solarstromprognosen für Übertragungsnetzbetreiber

Solarstromprognosen für Übertragungsnetzbetreiber Elke Lorenz, Jan Kühnert, Annette Hammer, Detlev Heienmann Universität Oldenburg 1 Outline grid integration of photovoltaic power (PV) in Germany overview

### ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation

ESCI 107/109 The Atmosphere Lesson 2 Solar and Terrestrial Radiation Reading: Meteorology Today, Chapters 2 and 3 EARTH-SUN GEOMETRY The Earth has an elliptical orbit around the sun The average Earth-Sun

Solar Radiation Calculation Dr. Mohamad Kharseh E-mail: kharseh@qu.edu.qa mohkh3@hotmail.com 1 Solar Constant Solar Constant is the intensity of the solar radiation hitting one square meter of the Earth

### SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION AND PHOTOENERGY SYSTEMS Vol. I - Solar Radiation Energy (Fundamentals) - L. Wald SOLAR RADIATION ENERGY (FUNDAMENTALS)

SOLAR RADIATION ENERGY (FUNDAMENTALS) L. Centre for Energy and Processes, Ecole des Mines de Paris, France Keywords: Sun, earth, astronomy, radiation, solar constant, energy, irradiance, irradiation, extraterrestrial

### We know the shape of the solar spectrum. Let s consider that the earth atmosphere is 8000 km thick.

We know the shape of the solar spectrum. How is this spectral shape and irradiance of the solar light affected by the earth s atmosphere? Let s consider that the earth atmosphere is 8000 km thick. The

### EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS

EARTH S ATMOSPHERE AND ITS SEASONS Provided by Tasa Graphic Arts, Inc. for Earthʼs Atmosphere and Its Seasons CD-ROM http://www.tasagraphicarts.com/progeas.html 1.The Importance of Weather (wx) The U.S.

### Sun Earth Relationships

1 ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology Sun Earth Relationships Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. Spring (sun aims directly at equator) Winter (northern hemisphere tilts away from sun) 23.5 2 Solar radiation

### The Next Generation Flux Analysis: Adding Clear-Sky LW and LW Cloud Effects, Cloud Optical Depths, and Improved Sky Cover Estimates

The Next Generation Flux Analysis: Adding Clear-Sky LW and LW Cloud Effects, Cloud Optical Depths, and Improved Sky Cover Estimates C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington

### Improvement in the Assessment of SIRS Broadband Longwave Radiation Data Quality

Improvement in the Assessment of SIRS Broadband Longwave Radiation Data Quality M. E. Splitt University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah C. P. Bahrmann Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies

### Seasonal & Daily Temperatures. Seasons & Sun's Distance. Solstice & Equinox. Seasons & Solar Intensity

Seasonal & Daily Temperatures Seasons & Sun's Distance The role of Earth's tilt, revolution, & rotation in causing spatial, seasonal, & daily temperature variations Please read Chapter 3 in Ahrens Figure

### User Perspectives on Project Feasibility Data

User Perspectives on Project Feasibility Data Marcel Šúri Tomáš Cebecauer GeoModel Solar s.r.o., Bratislava, Slovakia marcel.suri@geomodel.eu http://geomodelsolar.eu http://solargis.info Solar Resources

### The Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research. A partnership between CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology

The Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research A partnership between CSIRO and the Bureau of Meteorology Testing and diagnosing the ability of the Bureau of Meteorology s Numerical Weather Prediction

### Solar Flux and Flux Density. Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle. Solar Energy Incident On the Earth. Solar Flux Density Reaching Earth

Lecture 3: Global Energy Cycle Solar Flux and Flux Density Planetary energy balance Greenhouse Effect Vertical energy balance Latitudinal energy balance Seasonal and diurnal cycles Solar Luminosity (L)

### Renewable Energy. Solar Power. Courseware Sample 86352-F0

Renewable Energy Solar Power Courseware Sample 86352-F0 A RENEWABLE ENERGY SOLAR POWER Courseware Sample by the staff of Lab-Volt Ltd. Copyright 2009 Lab-Volt Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this

### LECTURE N 3. - Solar Energy and Solar Radiation- IDES-EDU

LECTURE N 3 - Solar Energy and Solar Radiation- Lecture contributions Coordinator & contributor of the lecture: Prof. Marco Perino, DENERG Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino,

### SOLAR CALCULATIONS (2)

OLAR CALCULATON The orbit of the Earth is an ellise not a circle, hence the distance between the Earth and un varies over the year, leading to aarent solar irradiation values throughout the year aroximated

### T.A. Tarasova, and C.A.Nobre

SEASONAL VARIATIONS OF SURFACE SOLAR IRRADIANCES UNDER CLEAR-SKIES AND CLOUD COVER OBTAINED FROM LONG-TERM SOLAR RADIATION MEASUREMENTS IN THE RONDONIA REGION OF BRAZIL T.A. Tarasova, and C.A.Nobre Centro

Project ATMOSPHERE This guide is one of a series produced by Project ATMOSPHERE, an initiative of the American Meteorological Society. Project ATMOSPHERE has created and trained a network of resource agents

### CLOUD COVER IMPACT ON PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PRODUCTION IN SOUTH AFRICA

CLOUD COVER IMPACT ON PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PRODUCTION IN SOUTH AFRICA Marcel Suri 1, Tomas Cebecauer 1, Artur Skoczek 1, Ronald Marais 2, Crescent Mushwana 2, Josh Reinecke 3 and Riaan Meyer 4 1 GeoModel

### Solar Tracking Application

Solar Tracking Application A Rockwell Automation White Paper Solar trackers are devices used to orient photovoltaic panels, reflectors, lenses or other optical devices toward the sun. Since the sun s position

### A comparison of some kriging interpolation methods for the production of solar radiation maps

A comparison of some kriging interpolation methods for the production of solar radiation maps Marco Bezzi, Alfonso Vitti Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Trento, via Mesiano

### Radiation models for the evaluation of the UV radiation at the ground

Radiation models for the evaluation of the UV radiation at the ground Peter Koepke UV-Group Meteorological Institute Munich Ludwig-Maximilians-University Peter.Koepke@lmu.de www. jostjahn. de Natural UV

### Chapter 2. Mission Analysis. 2.1 Mission Geometry

Chapter 2 Mission Analysis As noted in Chapter 1, orbital and attitude dynamics must be considered as coupled. That is to say, the orbital motion of a spacecraft affects the attitude motion, and the attitude

### SOLAR RADIATION PREDICTION. the need and effectiveness of a delicate issue

SOLAR RADIATION PREDICTION the need and effectiveness of a delicate issue ABOUT THE SPEAKER Fatih SERTTAŞ (Electrical and Electronics Engineer) is a research assistant in Afyon Kocatepe University, TURKEY.

### The Surface Energy Budget

The Surface Energy Budget The radiation (R) budget Shortwave (solar) Radiation Longwave Radiation R SW R SW α α = surface albedo R LW εσt 4 ε = emissivity σ = Stefan-Boltzman constant T = temperature Subsurface

### Emission Temperature of Planets

Emission Temperature of Planets The emission temperature of a planet, T e, is the temperature with which it needs to emit in order to achieve energy balance (assuming the average temperature is not decreasing

### not to be republished NCERT Do you feel air around you? Do you SOLAR RADIATION, HEAT BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE SOLAR RADIATION

SOLAR RADIATION, HEAT BALANCE AND TEMPERATURE Do you feel air around you? Do you know that we live at the bottom of a huge pile of air? We inhale and exhale but we feel the air when it is in motion. It

### PHSC 3033: Meteorology Seasons

PHSC 3033: Meteorology Seasons Changing Aspect Angle Direct Sunlight is more intense and concentrated. Solar Incidence Angle is Latitude and Time/Date Dependent Daily and Seasonal Variation Zenith There

### Exploring Solar Energy Variations on Earth: Changes in the Length of Day and Solar Insolation Through the Year

Exploring Solar Energy Variations on Earth: Changes in the Length of Day and Solar Insolation Through the Year Purpose To help students understand how solar radiation varies (duration and intensity) during

### Solar Energy Systems. Matt Aldeman Senior Energy Analyst Center for Renewable Energy Illinois State University

Solar Energy Solar Energy Systems Matt Aldeman Senior Energy Analyst Center for Renewable Energy Illinois State University 1 SOLAR ENERGY OVERVIEW 1) Types of Solar Power Plants 2) Describing the Solar

### EVALUATING SOLAR ENERGY PLANTS TO SUPPORT INVESTMENT DECISIONS

EVALUATING SOLAR ENERGY PLANTS TO SUPPORT INVESTMENT DECISIONS Author Marie Schnitzer Director of Solar Services Published for AWS Truewind October 2009 Republished for AWS Truepower: AWS Truepower, LLC

### Lectures Remote Sensing

Lectures Remote Sensing ATMOSPHERIC CORRECTION dr.ir. Jan Clevers Centre of Geo-Information Environmental Sciences Wageningen UR Atmospheric Correction of Optical RS Data Background When needed? Model

### Solar Energy Resource. Samuel Luna de Abreu Fernando Ramos Martins

Solar Energy Resource Assessment in Brazil Samuel Luna de Abreu Fernando Ramos Martins Summary Solar Radiation Mapping of Brazil brief review measurements - available and future ground data first mapping

### Overview. What is EMR? Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing

LA502 Special Studies Remote Sensing Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) Dr. Ragab Khalil Department of Landscape Architecture Faculty of Environmental Design King AbdulAziz University Room 103 Overview What

### Solar Resource Assessment

Introduction to Resource Assessments Carsten Hoyer-Klick Folie 1 Solar Resource Assessment Folie 2 1 Global Horizontal Irradiation (GHI) Direct Horizontal Irradiation (DHI) Diffuse Irradiation (DIF) GHI

### POLISH ASSOCIATION FOR SPATIAL INFORMATION

POLISH ASSOCIATION FOR SPATIAL INFORMATION MODELLING AND VALIDATION OF THE POTENTIAL SOLAR RADIATION FOR THE HORNSUND REGION... ANNALS OF GEOMATICS 2008 m VOLUME VI m NUMBER 2 107 MODELLING AND VALIDATION

### Solar Radiation Measurement. Bruce W Forgan, WMO RAV Metrology Workshop, Melbourne, Novemberr 2011

Solar Radiation Measurement Bruce W Forgan, WMO RAV Metrology Workshop, Melbourne, Novemberr 2011 Why Do We Need Data on Solar Energy? Global Climate System Climate Energy Balance Solar Exposure and Irradiance

### REDUCING UNCERTAINTY IN SOLAR ENERGY ESTIMATES

REDUCING UNCERTAINTY IN SOLAR ENERGY ESTIMATES Mitigating Energy Risk through On-Site Monitoring Marie Schnitzer, Vice President of Consulting Services Christopher Thuman, Senior Meteorologist Peter Johnson,

### Chapter 04: Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balance. Energy Essentials Energy Balance in the Troposphere Energy Balance at Earth s Surface

Chapter 04: Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balance Energy Essentials Energy Balance in the Troposphere Energy Balance at Earth s Surface Energy Essentials Energy Pathways and Principles Energy Pathways

### Solar Radiation Hand Book (2008)

Typical Climatic Data for Selected Radiation Stations (The Data Period Covered : 1986-2000) Solar Radiation Hand Book (2008) A joint Project of Solar Energy Centre, MNRE Indian Metrological Department

### Solar Heating Basics. 2007 Page 1. a lot on the shape, colour, and texture of the surrounding

2007 Page 1 Solar Heating Basics Reflected radiation is solar energy received by collectorsfrom adjacent surfaces of the building or ground. It depends a lot on the shape, colour, and texture of the surrounding

### The Moon as a Common Reference for Sensor Cross-Comparison

The Moon as a Common Reference for Sensor Cross-Comparison Thomas C. Stone U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff AZ, USA CEOS IVOS Workshop JRC Ispra, Italy 18 20 October 2010 The Moon as a source lunar calibration

### Corso di Fisica Te T cnica Ambientale Solar Radiation

Solar Radiation Solar radiation i The Sun The Sun is the primary natural energy source for our planet. It has a diameter D = 1.39x10 6 km and a mass M = 1.989x10 30 kg and it is constituted by 1/3 of He

### Observed Cloud Cover Trends and Global Climate Change. Joel Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography

Observed Cloud Cover Trends and Global Climate Change Joel Norris Scripps Institution of Oceanography Increasing Global Temperature from www.giss.nasa.gov Increasing Greenhouse Gases from ess.geology.ufl.edu

### The Four Seasons. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. The Moon s Phases

The Four Seasons A Warm Up Exercise What fraction of the Moon s surface is illuminated by the Sun (except during a lunar eclipse)? a) Between zero and one-half b) The whole surface c) Always half d) Depends

### Blackbody radiation. Main Laws. Brightness temperature. 1. Concepts of a blackbody and thermodynamical equilibrium.

Lecture 4 lackbody radiation. Main Laws. rightness temperature. Objectives: 1. Concepts of a blackbody, thermodynamical equilibrium, and local thermodynamical equilibrium.. Main laws: lackbody emission:

### Solar Atlas for the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean

Solar Atlas for the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean Carsten Hoyer-Klick 1, Lucien Wald 2, Lionel Menard 2, Philippe Blanc 2, Etienne Wey 3, Marcel Suri 4, Tomas Cebecauer 4, Thomas Huld 5, Houda Allal

### SATELLITE USES FOR PURPOSE OF NOWCASTING. Introduction

SATELLITE USES FOR PURPOSE OF NOWCASTING Kedir, Mohammed National Meteorological Agency of Ethiopia Introduction The application(uses) of satellite sensing data deals to obtain information about the basic

### Sunset Observation Project

Sunset Observation Project Eric Withrow PHYS 2021-A November 20, 2006 Professor J.R. Sowell Withrow 2 Purpose: The objective of this experiment was to observe the motions and position of the Sun throughout

### An Automated Solar Shading Calculator

An Automated Solar Shading Calculator M.K.Dennis Centre for Sustainable Energy Systems Australian National University Canberra ACT 0200 AUSTRALIA Telephone: +61 02 6125 3976 Facsimile: +61 02 6125 0506

### WEATHER AND CLIMATE, MICRO-CLIMATE. i) A state or condition of the atmosphere at a given place and at a given instant of time.

WEATHER AND CLIMATE, MICRO-CLIMATE Weather i) A state or condition of the atmosphere at a given place and at a given instant of time. ii) The daily or short term variations of different conditions of lower

### The Sun. Solar radiation (Sun Earth-Relationships) The Sun. The Sun. Our Sun

The Sun Solar Factoids (I) The sun, a medium-size star in the milky way galaxy, consisting of about 300 billion stars. (Sun Earth-Relationships) A gaseous sphere of radius about 695 500 km (about 109 times

### RESULTS FROM A SIMPLE INFRARED CLOUD DETECTOR

RESULTS FROM A SIMPLE INFRARED CLOUD DETECTOR A. Maghrabi 1 and R. Clay 2 1 Institute of Astronomical and Geophysical Research, King Abdulaziz City For Science and Technology, P.O. Box 6086 Riyadh 11442,

### RADIATION (SOLAR) Introduction. Solar Spectrum and Solar Constant. Distribution of Solar Insolation at the Top of the Atmosphere

RADIATION (SOLAR) 1859 Workshop Proceedings, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy, pp. 45 53. Ulaby FT (1981)Microwave response of vegetation. In Kahle AB, Weill G, Carter WD (eds) Advances in Space Research,

### Overview of the IR channels and their applications

Ján Kaňák Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute Jan.kanak@shmu.sk Overview of the IR channels and their applications EUMeTrain, 14 June 2011 Ján Kaňák, SHMÚ 1 Basics in satellite Infrared image interpretation

### ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology. Solar Radiation. Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D.

1 ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology Solar Radiation Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. 2 The Sun The Sun is a perpetual source of energy It has produced energy for about 4.6 billions of years, and it is

### BOLOGNA SOLAR CITY, A WEB APPLICATION FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL ENERGY: FROM ESTIMATING SOLAR RADIATION TO THE REALIZATION OF THE APPLICATION

17 th Building Services, Mechanical and Building Industry Days Urban Energy Conference, 13-14 October 2011, Debrecen, Hungary BOLOGNA SOLAR CITY, A WEB APPLICATION FOR THE ANALYSIS OF POTENTIAL ENERGY:

### Notable near-global DEMs include

Visualisation Developing a very high resolution DEM of South Africa by Adriaan van Niekerk, Stellenbosch University DEMs are used in many applications, including hydrology [1, 2], terrain analysis [3],

### FRESCO. Product Specification Document FRESCO. Authors : P. Wang, R.J. van der A (KNMI) REF : TEM/PSD2/003 ISSUE : 3.0 DATE : 30.05.

PAGE : 1/11 TITLE: Product Specification Authors : P. Wang, R.J. van der A (KNMI) PAGE : 2/11 DOCUMENT STATUS SHEET Issue Date Modified Items / Reason for Change 0.9 19.01.06 First Version 1.0 22.01.06

### PREDICTION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS PRODUCTION USING WEATHER FORECASTS

PREDICTION OF PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS PRODUCTION USING WEATHER FORECASTS Jure Vetršek* 1 and prof. Sašo Medved 1 1University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory for Sustainable Technologies

### Simulation of global solar radiation based on cloud observations

Solar Energy 78 (25) 157 162 www.elsevier.com/locate/solener Simulation of global solar radiation based on cloud observations Jimmy S.G. Ehnberg *, Math H.J. Bollen Department of Electric Power Engineering,

### 3.3 Glare Evaluation: 3D Geometric Analysis

Solar Sun System: The sun changes its east-west orientation throughout the day. It also changes its north-south position throughout the year. The sun reaches its highest position in the sky at noon during

### Vaisala 3TIER Services Global Solar Dataset / Methodology and Validation

ENERGY Vaisala 3TIER Services Global Solar Dataset / Methodology and Validation Global Horizontal Irradiance 70 Introduction Solar energy production is directly correlated to the amount of radiation received

### Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 3 (p ) CD: tutorial: energy balance concepts interact. ex.: shortwave & longwave rad. LM: Lab.

Radiation Balance 1 Radiation Balance Reading Assignment: A&B: Ch. 3 (p. 60-73) CD: tutorial: energy balance concepts interact. ex.: shortwave & longwave rad. LM: Lab. 5 Radiation = Mode of Energy transfer

### Global Seasonal Phase Lag between Solar Heating and Surface Temperature

Global Seasonal Phase Lag between Solar Heating and Surface Temperature Summer REU Program Professor Tom Witten By Abstract There is a seasonal phase lag between solar heating from the sun and the surface

### a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes.

J.D. McAlpine ATMS 611 HMWK #8 a) species of plants that require a relatively cool, moist environment tend to grow on poleward-facing slopes. These sides of the slopes will tend to have less average solar

### The APOLLO cloud product statistics Web service The APOLLO cloud product statistics Web service

The APOLLO cloud product statistics Web service Introduction DLR and Transvalor are preparing a new Web service to disseminate the statistics of the APOLLO cloud physical parameters as a further help in

### SATELLITE IMAGES IN ENVIRONMENTAL DATA PROCESSING

SATELLITE IMAGES IN ENVIRONMENTAL DATA PROCESSING Magdaléna Kolínová Aleš Procházka Martin Slavík Prague Institute of Chemical Technology Department of Computing and Control Engineering Technická 95, 66

### Solar Irradiance Forecasting Using Multi-layer Cloud Tracking and Numerical Weather Prediction

Solar Irradiance Forecasting Using Multi-layer Cloud Tracking and Numerical Weather Prediction Jin Xu, Shinjae Yoo, Dantong Yu, Dong Huang, John Heiser, Paul Kalb Solar Energy Abundant, clean, and secure

### Siting of Active Solar Collectors and Photovoltaic Modules

SOLAR CENTER INFORMATION NCSU Box 7401 Raleigh, NC 27695 (919) 515-3480 Toll Free 1-800-33-NC SUN Siting of Active Solar Collectors and Photovoltaic Modules To install a solar energy system properly, it

Properties of Radiation Lecture outline Flux and intensity Solid angle and the steradian Inverse square law Global insolation Interaction of radiation with matter Flux or Flux density Flux (or flux density),

### What is a map? A Map is a two or three-dimensional model or representation of the Earth s surface. 2-Dimensional map

What is a map? A Map is a two or three-dimensional model or representation of the Earth s surface. 2-Dimensional map Types of Maps: (just a few that we may be using) Political Maps Shows borders of states,

### Clouds and the Energy Cycle

August 1999 NF-207 The Earth Science Enterprise Series These articles discuss Earth's many dynamic processes and their interactions Clouds and the Energy Cycle he study of clouds, where they occur, and

### CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth

CHAPTER 2 Energy and Earth This chapter is concerned with the nature of energy and how it interacts with Earth. At this stage we are looking at energy in an abstract form though relate it to how it affect

### Predicting daily incoming solar energy from weather data

Predicting daily incoming solar energy from weather data ROMAIN JUBAN, PATRICK QUACH Stanford University - CS229 Machine Learning December 12, 2013 Being able to accurately predict the solar power hitting

### Optimum Solar Orientation: Miami, Florida

Optimum Solar Orientation: Miami, Florida The orientation of architecture in relation to the sun is likely the most significant connection that we can make to place in regards to energy efficiency. In

### California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping

California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,

### Open Source Map Based Software for Photovoltaic System Layout Design

International Environmental Modelling and Software Society (iemss) 7th Intl. Congress on Env. Modelling and Software, San Diego, CA, USA, Daniel P. Ames, Nigel W.T. Quinn and Andrea E. Rizzoli (Eds.) http://www.iemss.org/society/index.php/iemss-2014-proceedings

### CALCULATING SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC POTENTIAL ON RESIDENTIAL ROOFTOPS IN KAILUA KONA, HAWAII. Caroline Carl

CALCULATING SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC POTENTIAL ON RESIDENTIAL ROOFTOPS IN KAILUA KONA, HAWAII By Caroline Carl A Thesis Presented to the FACULTY OF THE USC GRADUATE SCHOOL UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA In

### FORENSIC GEOLOGY TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS AND PROFILES

NAME 89.215 - FORENSIC GEOLOGY TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS AND PROFILES I. Introduction A map is a miniature representation of a portion of the earth s surface as it appears from above. A forensic scientist uses

### Passive Remote Sensing of Clouds from Airborne Platforms

Passive Remote Sensing of Clouds from Airborne Platforms Why airborne measurements? My instrument: the Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer (SSFR) Some spectrometry/radiometry basics How can we infer cloud properties

### ORANGE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OFFICE OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION OFFICE OF SCIENCE. GRADE 6 SCIENCE Post - Assessment

ORANGE PUBLIC SCHOOLS OFFICE OF CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION OFFICE OF SCIENCE GRADE 6 SCIENCE Post - Assessment School Year 2013-2014 Directions for Grade 6 Post-Assessment The Grade 6 Post-Assessment is

### The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading:

Seasons Vocabulary: The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading: sphere any round object that has a surface that is the same distance from its center

### Propagation Effects & their Impact

Propagation Effects & their Impact Many phenomena causes lead signal loss on through the earths atmosphere: Atmospheric Absorption (gaseous effects) Cloud Attenuation (aerosolic and ice particles Tropospheric

### CORRELATIONS FOR A MEDITERRANEAN CLOUD COVER MODEL

CORRELATIONS FOR A MEDITERRANEAN CLOUD COVER MODEL Angelo Spena* (a), Giulia D Angiolini (a), Cecilia Strati (a) (a) Tor Vergata University, Via del Politecnico 1, 00133, Rome, Italy ABSTRACT Relationship

### Cloud/Radiation parameterization issues in high resolution NWP

Cloud/Radiation parameterization issues in high resolution NWP Bent H Sass Danish Meteorological Institute 10 June 2009 As the horizontal grid size in atmospheric models is reduced the assumptions made

### 8. Mercury, the planet nearest to the Sun, has extreme surface temperatures, ranging from 465 C in sunlight to 180 C in darkness.

6.E.1 Unit Test DO NOT WRITE ON THIS QUIZ!!! 1. The largest body in our solar system is Earth. the Sun. Jupiter. the Moon. 4. What do the four planets closest to the Sun have in common? Their solid, rocky