Molecular Compounds. Molecular Formulas

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1 Molecular Compounds Molecular Compounds Do not contain C or (C and H). water H 2 O ammonia NH 3 carbon dioxide CO 2 Chapter 3: Chemical Compounds e.g. water H 2 O ammonia NH 3 benzene C 6 H 6 e.g. benzene C 6 H 6 ethanol C 2 H 6 O most (but not all) are molecular Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole 3 Molecular Formulas Ethanol has the formula C 2 H 6 O Molecular Formulas C, what s attached to it, C Molecular Formulas More elaborate models: C 2 H 6 O may not be ethanol. Two C 2 H 6 O structural formulas: CH 3 CH 2 OH ethanol CH 3 OCH 3 dimethyl ether H C C O H ethanol H C O C H dimethyl ether Ballandstick model Spacefilling model 2008 Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole 6 1

2 Naming Binary Inorganic Compounds Naming Binary Inorganic Compounds Naming Binary Inorganic Compounds Elements are named in the order they appear in a formula. Prefixes show the number of each type of atom present. 1 mono 6 hexa 2 di 7 hepta 3 tri 8 octa 4 tetra 9 nona 5 penta 10 deca CO NO 2 N 2 O P 2 O 5 PBr 3 PBr 5 SF 6 P 4 O 10 carbon monoxide nitrogen dioxide dinitrogen monoxide diphosphorus pentoxide phosphorus tribromide phosphorus pentabromide sulfur hexafluoride tetraphosphorus decoxide Not monooxide, the extra vowel is dropped to make it sound better Not pentaoxide Not decaoxide Common names : Species Systematic Name Common Name H 2 O dihydrogen monoxide water NH 3 nitrogen trihydride ammonia NO nitrogen monoxide nitric oxide PH 3 phosphorus trihydride phosphine N 2 O dinitrogen monoxide nitrous oxide ( laughing gas ) N 2 H 4 dinitrogen tetrahydride hydrazine 2008 Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole 9 Hydrocarbons Binary molecules (C and H). Hydrocarbons H H H C C C C C C C C C C H H H methane ethane propane butane Hydrocarbons # of C prefix meth eth prop but pent hex hept oct Similar to molecular compound prefixes Rings use a cyclo prefix: Have formula C n H 2n+2 (unless cyclic). Butane, C 4 H 10 Boiling points C 88.6 C 42.1 C 0.5 C 2008 Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole 12 2

3 Hydrocarbons Lines represent CC bonds. Each junction and end is a C Each C needs 4 bonds. C H bonds are omitted ethane propane H C C H H H C C C H H becomes becomes C with 3H (missing 3 bonds) C with 2 H (missing 2 bonds) Branched alkanes occur. H C C C C H isomers H H C C C H Ι Ι H C H H CH 3 methyl CH 2 CH 3 ethyl CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 propyl etc. a methyl group H H C C C H Ι Ι H C H H 2008 Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole 15 Find and name the longest continuous alkane. Name the alkyl branches. Add numbers to show the branch locations on the base chain. Use smallest possible numbers. Use prefixes of mono, di, tri, etc. as necessary. CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 C CH 2 CH CH 3 CH 3 Formula Isomers Formula Isomers CH 4 1 C 9 H C 2 H 6 1 C 10 H C 3 H 8 1 C 12 H C 4 H 10 2 C 15 H x 10 3 C 5 H 12 3 C 20 H x 10 5 C 6 H 14 5 C 30 H x 10 9 C 7 H 16 9 C 40 H x C 6 H 14 C 8 H Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole 18 3

4 Ions and Ionic Compounds Monatomic Ions Monatomic Ions Common monatomic ions 11 e 10 e Ne has 10 e 16 e 18 e Ar has 18 e Main group elements: Transfer e to achieve the nearest noble gas arrangement. Number of e transferred = group A# or (8 group A#). Ti Ti 2+ (grp 4B) Cr Cr 2+ or Cr 3+ (grp 6B) Fe Fe 2+ or Fe 3+ (grp 8B) Cu Cu + or Cu 2+ (grp 1B) Mn Mn 2+ Mn 5+ or Mn 7+ (grp 7B) 2008 Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole 21 Polyatomic Ions Multiple atom units with a net electrical charge. Ionic Compounds Ionic Compounds NH 4 + ammonium ion OH hydroxide ion HSO 4 hydrogen sulfate ion SO 2 4 sulfate ion CN cyanide ion NO 3 nitrate ion Memorize all the ions in table 3.7! Force between ions F = k Q 1Q 2 d 2 constant Distance between ions Q 1 = charge on ion 1, Q 2 = Ions Compound Charges Mg 2+ and F MgF 2 (2+) + 2(1) = 0 Mg 2+ and SO 2 4 MgSO 4 (2+) + (2) = 0 Mg 2+ and PO 3 4 Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 3(2+) + 2(3) = Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole 24 4

5 Naming Ions and Ionic Compounds Naming Ions and Ionic Compounds Oxoanions metal ion with only one charge state? metal ion with multiple charge states? Polyatomic ion? Memorize these. Increase O SO 4 2 sulfate ion SO 3 2 sulfite ion NO 3 nitrate ion NO 2 nitrite ion Na + sodium ion Fe 2+ iron(ii) ion Ca 2+ calcium ion Fe 3+ iron(iii) ion P phosphorus P 3 phosphide ion S sulfur S 2 sulfide ion SO 2 3 sulfite ion If they contain H, add a prefix hydrogen HSO 4 hydrogen sulfate ion (common name=bisulfate ion) HCO 3 hydrogen carbonate ion (common name=bicarbonate ion) 2008 Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole 27 Oxoanions Naming Ionic Compounds Naming Ionic Compounds Name the ions and add together cation then anion (drop ion from both) FeCl 2 iron(ii) chloride Increase O FO 4 perfluorate FO 3 fluorate FO 2 fluorite FO hypofluorite ClO 4 perchlorate ClO 3 chlorate ClO 2 chlorite ClO hypochlorite NaCl MgCO 3 KHSO 4 sodium chloride magnesium carbonate potassium hydrogen sulfate FeCl 3 Cu 2 O CuO iron(iii) chloride copper(i) oxide copper(ii) oxide SrO strontium oxide Mg(OH) 2 magnesium hydroxide Cu 2 O CuO KMnO 4 potassium permanganate 2008 Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole 30 5

6 Naming Ionic Compounds Naming Compounds Naming Compounds When are Roman numerals used? SO 3 sulfur trioxide the compound is usually ionic. All nonmetal formula? the compound is usually molecular. Metalloid in a formula? no easy way to tell if ionic or molecular. CuSO 4 AlCl 3 AgF SF 6 PbO 2 copper(ii) sulfate aluminum chloride silver fluoride sulfur hexafluoride lead(iv) oxide 2008 Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole 33 Naming Compounds Properties of Ionic Compounds Properties of Ionic Compounds sodium hypochlorite NaClO Electrostatic forces hold ionic compounds together: dinitrogen pentoxide N 2 O 5 Each ion is surrounded by many others F = k Q 1Q 2 d 2 potassium dichromate ammonium perchlorate K 2 Cr 2 O 7 NH 4 ClO 4 NaCl sodium chloride High melting points strong forces. high charge = high m.p. hydrogen chloride HCl Similar sized ions: ions m. p. ( C) NaF CaO Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole 36 6

7 Properties of Ionic Compounds Ionic crystals can be cleaved: External force displaces layers Properties of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds are electrical insulators when SOLID will conduct if molten Ionic Compounds: Electrolytes Repulsion occurs Na + Cl Many are soluble in water 2008 Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole 39 Molecular & Ionic Compounds Property Formation Physical state mp & bp Conductivity Solubility Molecular Most are nonmetal combinations Gases, liquids & solids. Brittle & weak or soft & waxy Low Poor heat & electrical conductors Few soluble in water Ionic Metal/nonmetal combinations Crystalline solids Hard & brittle High In solution Remain molecular Dissociate Many soluble in water Moles of Compounds 1 mol of H 2 O contains: 2 mol of H atoms and 1 mol of O atoms Mass of 1 water molecule: = 2(1.008 amu) + 1( amu) = amu Molar mass of water: = 2(1.008 g/mol) + 1( g/mol) = g/mol Molar Mass of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds do not contain molecules. Don t use molecular weight to describe mass. atomic wts Formula wt. Molar mass Compound amu amu g/mol NaCl Ca(NO 3 ) (14.01)+6(16.00) Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole 42 7

8 GramMole Conversions Formula mass g g g g = 3(40.08 ) + 2(30.97 ) + 8(16.00 ) = mol mol mol mol Ionic Hydrates Ionic hydrate: ionic compound with water trapped in the crystal the water of hydration use hydrate with a Greek prefix for the number heat can remove some, or all, of this water Percent Composition Two names used: Moles of Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 = 10.0 g x 1 mol g = mol CuSO 4 5H 2 O copper(ii) sulfate pentahydrate: molar mass = ( g) + ( g) + 2( g) = g mass of Na in 1 mol NaClO %Na = 2 x 100 % mass of NaClO 2 in 1 mol NaClO Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole 45 Percent Composition mass of Na mass of NaClO 2 = g g = 2( g) g x 100 % mass of O mass of NaClO 2 x 100 % = 25.42% x 100 % x 100 % = 35.38% Last example: molecular formula percent composition The process can be reversed: percent composition empirical formula Not molecular formula hydrogen peroxide H 2 O 2 HO borane (boron trihydride) BH 3 BH 3 diborane (diboron hexahydride) B 2 H 6 BH 3 octene C 8 H 16 CH 2 butene C 4 H 8 CH Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole 48 8

9 Unknown: 26.6% K 35.4% Cr 38.0% O Empirical formula = smallest integer ratio. Assume a g sample. % becomes mass in grams Divide each mass by its atomic mass. Gives the number of moles of each (in 100 g). Divide each by the smallest answer found. The smallest whole number ratio is the empirical formula. In g 26.6 g K 1 mol K g K = mol K 35.4 g Cr 1 mol Cr = mol Cr g Cr 38.0 g O 1 mol O = mol O g O K Cr O mol = mol = mol Divide every number by the smallest value (ratios stay the same!) = x2 2 x2 2 x2 7 Choose a multiplier to make integer 2008 Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole 51 The Biological Periodic Table The Biological Periodic Table Empirical mass: 3(12.01) + 4(1.008) + 3(15.99) = g/mol Element in the body Symbol Abundance atoms/10 6 atoms Hydrogen H 630,000 Oxygen O 255,000 Carbon C 94,500 Nitrogen N 13,500 Calcium Ca 3,100 Phosphorus P 2,200 Chlorine Cl 570 Sulfur S 490 Sodium Na 410 Potassium K 260 Magnesium Mg % 99.3% 0.7% 2008 Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole Brooks/Cole 54 9

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