Ch. 9 Chemical Reactions

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1 Ch. 9 Chemical Reactions I. Intro to Reactions (p ) I II III IV V

2 Chemical Reaction Chemical change Atoms of one or more substances (reactants) are rearranged into new substances (products) Signs of a chemical reaction Change of temperature or light Formation of a gas Formation of a precipitate Odor Color change

3 Law of Conservation of Mass mass is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction total mass stays the same atoms can only rearrange 4 H 2 O 36 g 4 H 2 O 4 g 32 g

4 Chemical Equations A+B C+D REACTANTS Starting substances PRODUCTS Substances formed

5 Chemical Equations p. 283

6 Writing Equations 2H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2H 2 O(g) Identify the substances involved. Use symbols to show: How many? - coefficient Of what? - chemical formula In what state? - physical state Remember the diatomic elements!

7 Writing Equations One unit of aqueous nickel (II) chloride reacts with two units of aqueous sodium hydroxide to produce one unit of solid nickel (II) hydroxide and two units of aqueous sodium chloride. NiCl 2 (aq) + 2NaOH(aq) How many? Of what? In what state? Ni(OH) 2 (s) + 2NaCl(aq)

8 Writing Equations Two atoms of aluminum react with three units of aqueous copper(ii) chloride to produce three atoms of solid copper and two units of aqueous aluminum chloride. How many? Of what? In what state? 2 Al (s) + 3 CuCl 2 (aq) 3 Cu (s) + 2 AlCl 3 (aq)

9 Describing Equations Describing Coefficients: individual atom = atom covalent substance = molecule ionic substance = unit 3CO 2 2Mg 4MgO 3 molecules of carbon dioxide 2 atoms of magnesium 4 units of magnesium oxide

10 Describing Equations Zn(s) + 2HCl(aq) ZnCl 2 (aq) + H 2 (g) How many? Of what? In what state? Two atoms of solid zinc react with two molecules of aqueous hydrochloric acid to produce one unit of aqueous zinc chloride and one molecule of hydrogen gas.

11 E. Describing Equations 2K(s) + Cl 2 (g) 2KCl(s) How many? Of what? In what state? Two atoms of solid potassium react with one molecule of chlorine gas to produce two units of solid potassium chloride.

12 Ch. 9 Chemical Reactions II. Balancing Equations I II III IV V

13 Balancing Steps 1. Write the unbalanced equation. 2. Count atoms on each side. 3. Add coefficients to make #s equal. Coefficient subscript = # of atoms 4. Reduce coefficients to lowest possible ratio, if necessary. 5. Double check atom balance!!!

14 Helpful Tips Balance one element at a time. Update ALL atom counts after adding a coefficient. If an element appears more than once per side, balance it last. Balance polyatomic ions as single units. 1 SO 4 instead of 1 S and 4 O

15 Why is there a 2 after the oxygen? Oxygen is diatomic What are all the diatomic elements? Br, I, N, Cl, H, O, F

16 Reactants Yields Products Subscript Coefficient

17 Counting Atoms 1) H 3 PO 4 2) 3NaOH 3) 2KC 2 H 3 O 2 4) Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 H 3 PO 4 1 Na 3 OH 3 K 2 C 2 H 3 O 2 2 Mg 3 PO 4 2

18 More Counting Atoms 1) 3Al(NO 3 ) 3 2) 3Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 3) 2Ca(OH) 2 4) 3NH 4 NO 3 Al 3 NO 3 9 Al 6 SO 4 9 Ca 2 OH 4 NH 4 3 NO 3 3

19 Balanced or not? H 2 + O 2 H 2 O CH 4 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O Mg + O 2 MgO

20 How to Balance All the atoms on the reactants side must equal all the atoms on the products side First, you need to count all the atoms H 2 + O 2 H 2 O 2 2 H O 2 1

21 How to Balance Are they equal? Add coefficients to change the number of atoms Balanced!! Good job 2 H 2 + O 2 2 H 2 O 4 2 H O 1 2

22 Balancing Example Aluminum and copper(ii) chloride react to form copper and aluminum chloride. 2 Al + 3 CuCl 2 3 Cu + 2 AlCl Al 1 1 Cu 1 2 Cl

23 Practice Great! Sn + 2 HF SnF 2 + H 2 1 Sn H 2 1 F 2 Cu + 2 AgNO 3 Cu(NO 3 ) 2 + 2Ag 1 Cu Ag NO Good Job!

24 Ch. 9 Chemical Reactions III. Types of Chemical Reactions I II III IV V

25 Combustion the burning of any substance in O 2 to produce heat, usually a hydrocarbon C X H Y + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O CH 4 (g) + 2O 2 (g) CO 2 (g) + 2H 2 O(g)

26 Synthesis (composition) the combination of 2 or more substances to form a compound only one product A + B AB

27 B. Synthesis H 2 (g) + Cl 2 (g) 2 HCl(g)

28 Decomposition a compound breaks down into 2 or more simpler substances only one reactant AB A + B

29 Decomposition 2 H 2 O(l) 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g)

30 Single Replacement a more active element takes the place of another element in a compound and sets the less active one A + BC B + AC

31 Single Replacement Cu(s) + 2AgNO 3 (aq) Cu(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + 2Ag(s)

32 Single Replacement NOTE: Refer to the activity series for metals and nonmetals to predict products of replacement reactions. If the free element is above the element to be replaced in the compound, then the reaction will occur. If it is below, then no reaction (NR) occurs.

33 Double Replacement (Ionic) ions in two compounds change partners cation of one compound combines with anion of the other AB + CD AD + CB

34 Double Replacement Pb(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) + K 2 CrO 4 (aq) PbCrO 4 (s) + 2KNO 3 (aq)

35 Double Replacement Occurs between ions in aqueous (water) solution. A reaction will occur when a pair of ions come together to produce at least one of the following: a precipitate (s) water (l) a gas (g)

36 Double Replacement NOTE: Use the solubility rules to decide whether a product of an ionic reaction is insoluble in water and will thus form a precipitate. If a compound is soluble in water then it should be shown as being in aqueous solution, or left as separate ions. If it products are both in solution then No Net Ionic Reaction occurs!

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