FORMULA WRITNG. 17. Sodium Phosphate 18. Iron (III) Chloride. 19. Potassium Carbonate 20. Copper (I) Hypochlorite

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1 FORMULA WRITNG Problem Set 8.1 Name: Hour: Date: Three basic rules in writing formulas: 1. Positive ion first, negative ion second. 2. Total positive charges much equal total negative charge. 3. The parentheses are used ONLY when a polyatomic ion is used more than once. Basic rules is naming ionic compounds. 1. Name the positive ion (usually a metal) first. (Use roman numerals to indicate charge only if there is more than one charge possible.) 2. Name the negative ion (anion) second (dropping the ending and adding ide for monatomic ions or simply naming the polyatomic ion.) Correct, if necessary, the following formulas, then name. 1. BaI 9. (NH 4 ) 2I 2. Zn(NO 2 ) 10. CaCl 3. Ba(ClO 4 ) 11. (NH 4 )(SO 3 ) 4. (CrO 4 )Li 12. AgS 5. Ca(PO 4 ) 13. OAl 6. SAl 14. CaCO 3 7. MgBr 15. K(Cr 2 O 7 ) 8. Al(CH 3 COO) 16. Li(SO 3 ) Write the correct formula for the following compounds. 17. Sodium Phosphate 18. Iron (III) Chloride 19. Potassium Carbonate 20. Copper (I) Hypochlorite 21. Lithium Permanganate 22. Mercuric Hydroxide 23. Zinc Bicarbonate 24. Ferrous Chloride 25. Galium (III)Hydrogen Carbonate 26. Manganese (IV) sulfide These use the old naming system for metal ions with more than one charge. Use the ion chart on your desks to answer these. Name the following compounds: 27. PbCl CaSO AgNO MnF Be(NO 2 ) ZnS 33. Li 2 S 34. Al 2 O FeCl K 3 N

2 Write the Lewis dot structure for the most stable ion for each of the following: 37. Potassium 38. Sulfur 39. Nitrogen 40. Beryllium 41. Oxygen 42. Galium (losing all valence e-) 43. Fluorine 44. Selenium 45. Barium Write the correct formula if Calcium were to combine with the following polyatomic ions: 46. Nitrate 47. Carbonate 48. Dichromate 49. Sulfate 50. Sulfite 51. Permanganate 52. Phosphate 53. Chlorate 54. What type of compounds are we naming on this worksheet? 55. How do we recognize that they are this type of compound by looking at the formula? Fill in the blanks on the table below: Number of protons Number of Electrons Net Charge

3 Problem Set 9.1 1) Name the following acids and identify them as either oxyacids or binary acids. a. HCl b. HBr c. HNO 3 d. H 2 SO 4 e. H 3 PO 4 2. Name the following compounds: 1) Li 2 O 6) Ca(NO 2 ) 2 2) Mg(OH) 2 7) SrSO 4 3) N 2 O 8) P 2 O 5 4) Be 3 N 2 9) SF 6 5) CO 2 10) SO 2 3. Write the formula for the following compounds: 1) Beryllium nitride 6) dibromine pentaiodide 2) diiodine tetraoxide 7) Lead (II) sulfate 3) Copper (I) chloride 8) Magnesium chromate 4) Nitrogen hexafluoride 9) Sodium sulfide 5) Manganese (III) phosphate 4. Draw Lewis dot structures for each of the following compounds. (Remember that the structures for ionic compounds must include charges for any ions and covalent compounds must have any shared electrons encircles or represented by a bond.) a. BeF 2 b. O 2 c. CO 2 d. Na 2 O e. KF f. PBr 3

4 5. a. Name 7 properties of metals. b. The properties listed in (a) are due to metallic bonding. Describe the electron-sea model of metallic bonding. c. What is an alloy? d. Give two examples of alloys. 8. a. Describe the difference between ionic and covalent bonding. b. How does the difference between ionic and covalent bonding account for the difference in their properties? 9. Classify each of the following compounds as ionic, polar covalent, or nonpolar covalent. a. CO 2 b. Na 2 O c. N 2 d. PCl 5 e. CsCl f. CF Draw the lewis dot structure for the following compounds: a. C 3 H 8 b. C 2 H 6 c. C 2 H 5 OH d. N 2 H 4 e. C 2 H 4 e. CH 3 OCH 3

5 Supplement ) Balance the following equations: a. C 3 H 8 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O b. C 4 H 10 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O c. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 PbO + NO 2 + O 2 d. (NH 4 ) 2 S + Ba(NO 3 ) 2 BaS + NH 4 NO 3 e. NH 4 Cl + AgNO 3 AgCl + NH 4 NO 3 f. (NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 Cr 2 O 3 + N 2 + H 2 O 2) Write the dissolving equation for each of the following compounds: (include subnotations- s, l, g, aq) a. sodium bromide b. iron (III) chloride c. manganese (II) nitrate d. silver sulfate 3) Indicate if each of the following compounds is soluble (S) or insoluble (I) a. barium chloride e. sodium sulfide b. silver chloride f. calcium phosphate c. barium sulfate g. ammonium carbonate d. copper (II) bromide h. magnesium hydroxide 4) Write balanced equations for the following double-replacement reactions. Include subnotations (s, l, aq, g). a. Solutions of magnesium nitrate and sodium hydroxide are mixed. b. Solutions of barium chloride and silver nitrate are mixed. c. Solutions of barium hydroxide and copper (II) sulfate. d. Solutions of ammonium sulfide and iron (III) chloride.

6 5) Write balanced equations for the following single-replacement reactions. If no reaction occurs, write NR. a. Magnesium ribbon is placed into a solution of copper (II) chloride. b. Calcium shavings are placed into a solution of magnesium nitrate. c. Silver strips are placed into a solution of aluminum chloride. d. Aluminum metal is placed into a solution of hydrochloric acid. e. Lithium chunks are placed into a beaker of water. 6) (a) When sodium metal is dropped into water, a vigorous reaction occurs. Write the balanced equation for this reaction. (Hint: Think of H 2 O as HOH). (b) What type of reaction is this? (c) Write the equation representing the reaction of Cs with H 2 O. (d) The reactions in (a) and (b) can be dangerous. Looking at your balanced equations, why do you think this is so? (e) Why does knowing the equation for the reaction between sodium and water allow you to write equations for the reactions between potassium and water, rubidium and water, and cesium and water? 7) Write the electron dot structures (Lewis dot structures) for the compounds made from the following elements: (Be sure to write the structures for compounds according to whether they are ionic or covalent.) a. Rb and O b. Mg and S c. C and F d. Se and F 8) Hydrogen is considered in a family of its own. It is sometimes placed above the alkali metals and sometimes above the halogens on the periodic table. a) Explain how the following reaction shows how hydrogen can act like an alkali metal. H 2 (g) + Cl 2 (g) 2 HCl (g) b) Explain how the following reaction shows how hydrogen can act like a halogen. H 2 (g) + 2 Li (s) 2 LiH (s)

7 Supplement ) Write balanced equations (molecular, total ionic, and net ionic) for the reaction between each of the following solutions. If no reaction occurs, write NR for No Reaction. a. barium nitrate and sodium phosphate b. silver nitrate and sodium sulfide c. Solutions of barium hydroxide and copper (II) sulfate are mixed. d. cesium sulfide and aluminum hydroxide e. Solutions of calcium chloride and copper (II) nitrate are mixed. Continued Back Side

8 2) Write balanced equations (molecular, total ionic, and net ionic) for the following single replacement reactions. Remember to use the activity series and include subnotations (s), (l), (aq), or (g). If there is no reaction write NR for no reaction. a. Potassium metal is placed into a beaker of water. b. Calcium shavings are placed into a solution of copper (II) nitrate. c. Balls of aluminum foil are placed into a solution of lithium chloride. d. Aluminum metal is placed into a solution of hydrochloric acid. e. Zinc shot is placed into a solution of gold (III) nitrate. f. Aluminum metal is placed into a solution of zinc nitrate. Continued next page

9 3) Several elements are described as follows: Answer a-d given clues 1-5 below. (Hint: Determine to what group each element 1-5 belongs. By knowing the group you can determine in what ratio it will react with other elements, if at all. (a) Write the formula for the most ionic substance that can be formed from the elements shown. (b) Write the formula for a covalent compound that can be formed from any two of the above five elements. (c) Would you expect compound LZ to be a solid, liquid, or gas? An ionic or covalent substance?, (d) Write a formula for a compound formed between elements M and X; elements L and P; elements Z and X. (1) Element M: Silvery gray in color; can be drawn into wires and rolled into sheets; first ionization energy = 175 kcal/mole; second ionization energy = 345 kcal/mole; third ionization energy = 1,840 kcal/mole; does not react with cold water. (2) Element P: Red solid; exist as powder; first ionization energy 252 kcal/mole; second ionization energy = 454 kcal/mole; third ionization energy = 690 kcal/mole; fourth ionization energy 1,175 kcal/mole. (3) Element X: Yellowish gas; very irritating when inhaled; first ionization energy 400 kcal/mole; one mole of X gas will react with one mole of H 2 to give two moles HX. Following data available: X(g) e- X- + energy. (4) Element Z: Colorless, flammable gas; very light; a balloon filled with molecules of the element Z will rise rapidly; first ionization potential = 313 kcal/mole; no second ionization potential yet reported. (5) Element L: A very light, silvery substance that floats on water and reacts violently with water; tarnishes quite rapidly in air; first ionization energy = 99 kcal/mole; second ionization energy = 732 kcal/mole.

10 Supplement 10.3 (Homework Option: Short 1-6; Long 1-7) 1) (a) Write the formulas for the fluorides formed by Li, C, Na Cs, Be, K. (b)write the formulas for the compounds when hydrogen combines with O, N, and F. 2) Write the synthesis of each of the following compounds from their elements. a. sodium bromide b. potassium nitride c. sodium carbonate 3) Write the decomposition of each of the following compounds into their elements. a. barium iodide b. copper (II) oxide c. magnesium nitrate 4) Write balanced equations for each of the following: a. synthesis of calcium phosphate from its elements b. decomposition of iron (III) oxide into its elements c. synthesis of ammonia (NH 3 ) from its elements 5) Write the balanced equation for the complete combustion of each of the following: a. ethene, C 2 H 4 b. hexane, C 6 H 14 c. sodium d. aluminum

11 6) Write balanced equations for each of the following: a. synthesis of lithium sulfate from its elements b. decomposition of nickel (II) sulfide into its elements c. solutions of potassium iodide and lead (II) nitrate are mixed d. complete combustion of butane, C 4 H 10 e. synthesis of diphosphorus pentoxide from its elements f. solutions of silver nitrate and calcium bromide are mixed 7) Write balanced equations for the following: (Review of Reactions) (a) propane gas (C 3 H 8 ), which is used for heating, is burned with insufficient oxygen, the flame is yellow and smoky because the products are elemental carbon and water vapor. (b) Potassium chloride is synthesized from its elements (c) Nitrogen monoxide plus oxygen gas gives nitrogen dioxide gas (d) Copper metal is placed in a solution of magnesium fluoride. (e) Ammonia gas burns in air to give nitrogen and water vapor (ammonia is NH 3 ) (f) Magnesium ribbon is placed in a solution of copper (II) chloride. (g) Hydrogen gas and fluorine gas are allowed to mix. (h) Hydrogen gas and chlorine gas are illuminated with ultraviolet light. (i) Rubidium is mixed with chlorine (j) Barium metal reacts with hydrogen gas (k) Solutions of calcium hydroxide and copper (II) nitrate are mixed. (l) Solutions of sodium chloride and lead (II) nitrate are mixed.

12 Problem Set 20.1 (Options 1-7 or 1-11) 1) What is the main characteristic of oxidation-reduction reactions? 2) a. In terms of electrons, what happens when an atom is oxidized? b. In terms of electrons, what happens when an atom is reduced? 3) Identify the oxidation numbers for each ATOM in the following: a. KBr b. Na 3 PO 4 c. PBr 3 d. N 2 O 4 e. NH 3 4) Complete the following table: Reaction What is oxidized? What is reduced? What is the oxidizing agent? What is the reducing agent? H 2 S + Cl 2 2 HCl + S Cu + 2 AgNO 3 2 Ag + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 N H 2 2 NH 3 2 K + Cl 2 2 KCl 5) Identify the half reaction as either oxidation or reduction. a) Al Al e- b) Cu e- Cu c) Cl e- 2 Cl - d) Zn Zn e- 6) Which of the following reaction is NOT a redox reaction? i) CO + I 2 O 5 I 2 + CO 2 ii) Ca + ZnCl 2 Zn + CaCl 2 iii) CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 iv) Mg + O 2 MgO 7) Identify the oxidation number of nitrogen in each of the following compounds or ions. a) NH 3 b) N 2 H 4 c) N 2 O d) KCN e) NO 3 - f) NF 3

13 8) Identify the oxidation number of sulfur in each of the following compounds or ions a) SF 6 b) SO 4 c) SO 3 d) Na 2 SO 4 e) SO 2 f) SF 2 9) Identify the oxidation numbers for each ATOM in the following: a) K 2 CrO 4 b) Na 2 Cr 2 O 7 c) SF 6 d) PbO 2 e) NaNO 3 10) Complete the following table: Reaction What is oxidized? What is reduced? What is the oxidizing agent? What is the reducing agent? 3 Br Ga 2 GaBr 3 Mg + 2 HCl H 2 + MgCl 2 CH O 2 CO H 2 O PbS + O 2 PbO + SO 2 11) Identify the reducing agent in each of the following: a) 4 NH O 2 4 NO + 6 H 2 O b) Na + H 2 O NaOH + ½ H 2 c) 2 Ag + S Ag 2 S 12) Complete the following concept map using the following terms: decreases, half-reactions, gain electrons, reduction, lose electrons, redox reaction, oxidation, increases. 1. consists of two 2. called in which atoms and the oxidation number 7. 8.

14 Extra Practice Equations Write the balanced chemical equation for the following: 1) Ca(OH) 2 + H 3 PO > Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + H 2 O 2) C 3 H 7 OH + O > CO 2 + H 2 O 3) Synthesize aluminum chloride from its elements. 4) Decompose Iron (III) sulfide into its elements 5) Toluene C 7 H 8, is burned completely in air. 6) Aqueous sodium phosphate reacts with aqueous silver nitrate Write a balance equation (reactants and products) for each of the following: 7. Synthesis of Lithium chloride from its elements 8. Decomposition of sodium nitride into its elements 9. Synthesis of iron (III) sulfide from its elements 10. Complete combustion of methane, CH Incomplete combustion of propane, C 3 H 8, yielding carbon monoxide and water 12. Ba (s) + LiNO 3(aq) 13. Au (s) + CuO (aq) 14. KI (aq) + Pb(NO 3 ) 3 (aq) 15. A solution of silver nitrate reacts with aqueous strontium chloride 16. A solution of calcium hydroxide is mixed with a solution of iron (III) sulfide 17. A piece of magnesium ribbon is placed in hydrochloric acid. 18. Solid gold is placed in a solution of copper (II) chloride. 19. Magnesium carbonate is placed in hydrofluoric acid. Write the correct dissolving equations for each of the following solid ionic compounds: 20. KCl 21. K 2 SO BaCl Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3

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