STOICHOMETRY UNIT Determine the mass of carbon present in a sample of glucose weighing 5.4 g.

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1 PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION STOICHOMETRY UNIT 3 1. A sample of magnesium weighing g burns in oxygen to form g of magnesium oxide. What are the percentages of magnesium and oxygen in magnesium oxide? 2. Give the mass percentages of the elements in glucose, C 6 H 12 O Determine the mass of carbon present in a sample of glucose weighing 5.4 g. 4. The mass percentages of aluminum and chlorine in aluminum chloride are: 20.24% aluminum and 79.76% chlorine. Determine the masses of the two elements in a sample weighing g.

2 5. When 6.20 g of nitrous oxide decomposes, 3.95 g of nitrogen is produced. What are the mass percentages of nitrogen and oxygen in the compound? DETERMINING FORMULAS 1. A certain compound contains 75.0 % carbon and 25.0 % hydrogen. What is its simplest (empirical) formula? 2. Analysis: I: 76.0 %, O: 24.0 %. Find the empirical formula.

3 3. Acetic acid contains the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. The mass percentages of these elements are 40.0%, 6.73%, and 53.3%, respectively. Determine the simplest formula of acetic acid. MOLECULAR FORMULAS Molecular C 6 H 12 O 6 Mass: Empirical Mass: 4. A certain hydrocarbon is found to have the empirical formula CH 3. Its molecular mass is 30. What is the molecular formula?

4 5. A compound is found by analysis to consist of 17.9% nitrogen and 82.1% sulfur. Its molecular mass is 156. What is its empirical formula? Molecular formula? 6. If the empirical formula of a compound is CH 2 and its molecular mass is 42, find its molecular formula. 7. Given: Carbon: 92.3% Hydrogen: 7.7% If the molecular mass of the compound is 78, find its molecular formula.

5 8. A compound containing nitrogen and oxygen is 30.4% nitrogen by mass. If the molar mass of the compound is 92.0 g/mole, find the compound s empirical and molecular formulas. CHEMICAL REACTIONS: CHEMICAL EQUATIONS 1. EQUATION HYDROGEN GAS AND OXYGEN GAS REACT EXPLOSIVELY TO PRODUCE WATER a. INFORMATION 2. EQUATION 2 H 2 (g) + O 2 (g) à 2 H 2 O(l) a. COEFFICIENTS: 1.

6 2. 2 Cu + O2 à 2 CuO b. SUBSCRIPT: c. STATES: (s) = (l) = (g) = (aq) = WRITING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS 1.Write correct and physical states of and. a. ELEMENTS: b. COMPOUNDS: 2. Balance the equation a. Law of Conservation of Mass b. Always adjust, never. c. Coefficients in balanced equations are in.

7 RULES FOR BALANCING: 1. a. b. PRACTICE WRITING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS 1. Carbon reacts with water to yield carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen. 2. When free bromine is added to dissolved sodium iodide (NaI), free iodine is produced, along with dissolved sodium bromide (NaBr). 3. Dissolved silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ) reacts with copper to produce dissolved copper(ii) nitrate (Cu(NO 3 ) 2 and silver. 4. Dissolved barium chloride (BaCl 2 ) reacts with sodium sulfate (Na 2 SO 4 ) to yield solid barium sulfate (BaSO 4 ) and dissolved sodium chloride (NaCl). Remember the states of elements: Gases: Liquids: Solids: All the rest!

8 PRACTICE BLANCING: 1. Al + O 2 à Al 2 O 3 2. Fe 2 O 3 + H 2 à Fe + H 2 O 3. NaClO 3 à NaCl + O 2 4. CO + O 2 à CO 2 5. C 2 H 2 + O 2 à CO 2 + H 2 O 6. Al(NO 3 ) 3 + Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 à Ca(NO 3 ) 2 + AlPO 4 7. Mg(OH) 2 + H 3 PO 4 à Mg 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + H 2 O 8. Ba(OH) 2 + HCl à BaCl 2 + H 2 O

9 BALANCING EQUATIONS Name 1. N 2 + O 2 à NO 2. Al + HCl à AlCl 3 + H 2 3. Ca(ClO 3 ) 2 à CaCl 2 + O 2 4. Fe + H 2 O à Fe 3 O 4 + H 2 5. KI + Cl 2 à KCl + I 2 6. NaCl + H 2 SO 4 à Na 2 SO 4 + HCl 7. Ni(ClO 3 ) 3 à NiCl 3 + O 2 8. C 2 H 6 + O 2 à CO 2 + H 2 O 9. Al 2 O 3 à Al + O Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + H 2 SO 4 à CaSO 4 + H 3 PO Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + Ca(OH) 2 à Al(OH) 3 + CaSO NaHCO 3 à Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O + CO H 2 S + PbCl 2 à PbS + HCl 14. Fe + O 2 à Fe 2 O PbO 2 à PbO + O MnO 2 + HCl à MnCl 2 + Cl 2 + H 2 O 17. Al(NO 3 ) 3 + H 2 SO 4 à Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + HNO What is the sum of the coefficients in #2?

10 MOLE RELATIONS IN CHEMICAL EQUATIONS Propane gas, C 3 H 8, burns in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. a) If we start with 1.65 moles propane, C 3 H 8, how many moles of oxygen are required to react with it? b) How many moles of carbon dioxide are formed when 1.65 moles of propane, C 3 H 8, are burned? MOLE MASS PROBLEMS If copper(iii) oxide (Cu 2 O 3 ) is decomposed into copper and oxygen by electrolysis, what mass of copper(iii) oxide is required to produce 7.20 mole of copper?

11 2. 65 grams of copper(iii) oxide form how many moles of oxygen? grams of solid iron(iii) oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) react with hydrogen gas to form water and iron. How many moles of water are produced in this reaction? 4. How many moles of hydrogen are required to form 3.67 moles of iron in the above reaction?

12 MASS MASS PROBLEMS Sodium chlorate (NaClO 3 ) is decomposed by heating to form oxygen and sodium chloride (NaCl). 1. If 50.0 g of NaClO 3 are decomposed, what mass of oxygen is formed? 2. Octane (C 8 H 18 ) burns in air to form carbon dioxide and water. What mass of oxygen is needed to form 150. g of carbon dioxide? 3. Iron reacts with chlorine gas to form solid iron(iii) chloride (FeCl 3 ). What mass of chlorine is needed to form 160. g of iron(iii) chloride?

13 THE LIMITING REAGENT An analogy: 1. Solid tetraphosphorus decoxide, P 4 O 10, reacts with water to produce dissolved phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ). How many grams of phosphoric acid can be produced by the reaction of mole of P 4 O 10 with 2.28 moles of water? Aluminum reacts with chlorine to form solid aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ). What mass of aluminum chloride is formed when 3.60 moles of aluminum reacts with 5.30 moles of chlorine?

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