Monday January 23rd CHAPTER 10


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1 Monday January 23rd BELL WORK: In what quantity do eggs usually come in at the store? How many gloves do you usually buy at one time? What is a group of pencils that you might buy at the store called? CHAPTER 10 Chemists wanted a method for accurately counting atoms, molecules, or formula units..the problem was that they are so small that they can not be directly counted. (Can you imagine sitting at a desk counting the number of atoms in a penny?) Chemists created a counting unit called the mole (mol) Mole (mol) SI base unit to measure the amount of a substance defined as the number of carbon atoms in a 12g of pure carbon12 a mole of anything is 6.02x10 23 moles, referred to as Avogadro's number 1
2 Let's say I bought 3.5 dozen flowers for valentines day and I wanted to know exactly how many flowers I had. How would I do it? How many particles of sucrose are in 3.5 moles of sucrose? Conversion factor: 1 mol of particles = 6.02x10 23 particles 2
3 The mass of 1 dozen eggs is NOT the same as the mass of 1 dozen lemons. Regardless of the fact that I have the same amount of them. This is the same thing for different elements. REMEMBER the mole is defined as the number of carbon12 atoms in exactly 12 grams of pure carbon 12. Therefore the mass of 1 mole of it is 12g. The masses of all other elements are based around carbon. The mass in grams of one mole of any pure substance is called molar mass. The mass in grams of one mole of any pure substance is called molar mass. **The molar mass of any element is numerically equivalent to its atomic mass and has the units g/mol. Example: 1 mol or 6.02x10 23 atoms of iron has the mass of g. Its molar mass is g/mol Example Problem: I know that 1 dozen jellybeans = 35g jelly beans. What mass of jellybeans should you measure if a customer wants 5 dozen jelly beans? 3
4 Example Problem: Suppose that while working in a chemistry lab, you need 3.00mol of copper for a chemical reaction. How would you measure that amount? number of moles x mass in grams = mass 1 mole Example Problem: How many moles of calcium are in 525g Calcium? molar mass = 40.08g/mol of calcium 4
5 Example problem: Gold is one of a group of metals called the coinage metals. How many atoms of gold are in a U.S. Eagle, a gold alloy bullion coin with a mass of 31.1g Au? NOTE: If your asked for atoms, particles, molecules you will use Avogadro's number for all of them. Homework Practice problems: #12 page 323 #5 page 324 #1516a page 328 #1718a page 329 #1920c page 331 5
6 Tuesday January 24th Check your homework with the board. We can make similar conversions for compounds and ions but you need to know the molar mass of the compound and the ions involved first. A chemical formula indicates the number(s) and types of atoms contained in one unit of the compound. Example: CCl 4 There is 1 carbon molecule and 4 chlorine molecules making up the compound carbon tetrachloride. If I had 1 mole of it I would have the same ratio of elements involved AND 1 mole would still be equivalent to Avogadro's number. If I had a dozen CCl 4 molecules or 12CCl 4 I would have 12 carbon and 48 chlorine. I would have 12 moles of carbon to 48 moles of chlorine. 6
7 Some chemical calculations require you to convert between moles of a compound and moles of individual atoms in the compound. To do this you must create ratios that work as conversion factors. Example: CCl 2 F 2 1 mole C atoms 2 moles Cl atoms 2 mole F atoms 1 mole CCl 2 F 2 1 mole CCl 2 F 2 1 mole CCl 2 F 2 Example Problem: How many moles of fluorine atoms are in 5.50 moles of Freon (CCl 2 F 2 )? 5.50 moles CCl 2 F 2 2 moles F 11 moles of F 1 mole CCl 2 F atoms 2 We treat ions the same way. Example: Aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) is the principal raw material for the production of aluminum. Determine the moles of aluminum ions (Al 3+ ) in 1.25 mol of Al 2 O 3. Conversion Factor: 2 moles Al 3+ ions 1 mol Al 2 O mol Al 2 O 3 2 mole Al 3+ ions 1 mol Al 2 O mol Al 3+ ions NOTE: conversion factors are not used when considering sigfigs! 7
8 MOLAR MASS OF COMPOUNDS If I wanted to know what my back pack weighs BUT it is too heavy to stick the entire thing on a scale at once...how could I do it? Stick everything that is in the backpack on the scale and add it all up Similarly the mass of a mole of a compound = the sum of the masses of all the particles that make up the compound. Example: Find the molar mass of potassium chromate (K 2 CrO 4 ) 2 mol K g K 1 mol K 1 mol Cr 52.00g Cr 1 mol Cr 78.20g 52.00g g 4 mol O g O 1 mol O 64.00g Homework: Practice Problems & 34a b, 35a b, all of 36 on page 335 8
9 CONVERTING MOLES OF A COMPOUND TO MASS This process is the SAME as it was for elements BUT you need the molar mass of a compound first. Example Problem: What is the mass of 2.50 mol of (C 3 H 5 ) 2 S? **Must convert the moles to mass using the molar mass as a conversion factor** 1 mol S g S 1 mol S 32.07g S 6 mol C g C 1 mol C g C g/mol of (C 3 H 5 ) 2 S 10mol H 1.008g H 1 mol H 10.08g H 2.50 mol (C3H5)2S g (C 3 H 5 ) 2 S 1 mol (C 3 H 5 ) 2 S 286 g (C 3 H 5 ) 2 S CONVERTING THE MASS OF A COMPOUND TO MOLES Backwards of the example I just showed. CONVERTING THE MASS OF A COMPOUND TO THE NUMBER OF PARTICLES 2 STEP PROCESS 1. convert mass to moles 2. convert moles to particles/atoms/molecules etc. by using Avogadro's number Example: Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) is used in refining petroleum, etc. A sample has a mass of 35.6g. a. How many aluminum ions are present? b. How many chloride ions are present? c. What is the mass, in grams, of one formula unit of aluminum chloride? 1 mol Al 26.98g Al 1 mol Al 3 mol Cl 35.45g Cl 1 mol Cl 26.98g Al g Cl g/mol AlCl 3 9
10 133.33g/mol AlCl g AlCl 3 1 mol AlCl g AlCl mol of AlCl mol AlCl x10 23 formula units 1 mol 1.61 x10 23 formula units of AlCl 3 Part A: 1.61 x 1023 formula units AlCl 3 1Al 3+ ion 1 formula unit 1.61 x Al 3+ ions Part B: Same idea as Part A. conversion factor will be 3 to 1. Answer: 4.83 x10 23 Cl ions Part C: g AlCl 3 1 mol AlCl 3 1 mol 6.02 x formula units = 2.21 x 1022g AlCl3/formula unit Percent Composition The percent by mass of any element in a compound can be found by dividing the mass of the element by the mass of the compound and multiplying by 100. Percent by mass (element) = mass of element mass of compound 100 **Mass Percents of a compound must always add up to 100. Percent composition the percent by mass of each element in a compound 10
11 You can also determine the percent composition from the chemical formula. Assume you have exactly 1 mol of the compound and use the chemical formula to calculate the compound's molar mass. Percent by Mass from the chemical formula percent by mass = mass of element in 1 mol of compound molar mass of compound 100 Example Problem: Determine the percent composition of NaHCO 3 First: Assume you have 1 mol of NaHCO 3 Second: Determine the molar mass of NaHCO 3 1 mol Na 22.99g Na 1 mol Na 22.99g Na 1 mol H 1.008g H 1 mol H 1 mol C 12.01g C 1 mol C 1.008g H 12.01g C 84.01g/mol NaHCO 3 3 mol O 16.00g O 1 mol O 48.00g O 11
12 Third: Use the percent by mass equation. % mass of element = mass of element in 1 mol of compound molar mass of the compound x 100 percent Na = 22.99g/mol Na X 100 = 27.37% Na 84.01g/mol NaHCO g 1 mol 1 mol 84.01g **Continue to do the same process with each element in the compound to find the mass % of each element.** Try One! 1. Find the % composition of CU 2 S 2. Find the % composition of Ba(NO 3 ) 2 12
13 Homework: page page page page
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