# Topic: Solving Linear Equations

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1 Unit 1 Topic: Solving Linear Equations N-Q.1. Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems. Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. N-Q.2. Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems. Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. A-CED.1. Create equations that describe numbers or relationships. Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions. A-CED.4. Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. A-REI.1. Explain each step in solving a simple equation as following from the equality of numbers asserted at the previous step, starting from the assumption that the original equation has a solution. Construct a viable argument to justify a solution method. A-REI.3. Solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters. How can you solve a multi-step equation? How can you check the reasonableness of your solution? Write, solve, and graph one-step linear equations. Solve problems using a formula. Find the absolute value of a number. Formulate and use different strategies to solve one-step and multi-step linear equations. Use properties of equality to rewrite an equation and to show two equations are equivalent. Use absolute value to add and subtract rational numbers. Create models to represent, analyze, and solve problems related to linear equations. Solve absolute value equations. Solve literal equations for a variable. 1.1 Solving Simple Equations 1.2 Solving Multi-Step Equations 1.3 Solving Equations with Variables on Both Sides 1.4 Rewriting Equations and Formulas Teacher observation Student sheets Quizzes Tests

2 Unit 2 A-CED.2. Create equations that describe numbers or relationships. Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. A-CED.3. Create equations that describe numbers or relationships. Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or nonviable options in a modeling context. A-REI.10. Represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically. Understand that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of all its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve (which could be a line). 8.F.3. Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. 8.F.4. Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values. Topic: Graphing and Writing Linear Equations /Enduring How can you recognize a linear equation? How can you draw its graph? Write, solve, and graph one-step linear equations. Construct and analyze tables, graphs, and equations to describe linear relationships and other simple relations. Write, solve, and graph multi-step equations. Graph proportional relationships and identify the unit rate as slope of linear functions. Use properties of equality to rewrite an equation and to show two equations are equivalent. Construct and analyze tables, graphs, and models to describe linear equations. Interpret slope and x- and y-intercepts when graphing a linear equation for a real world problem. Use tables, graphs, and models to represent, analyze, and solve real-life problems related to linear equations. 2.1 Graphing Linear Equations 2.2 Slope of a Line 2.3 Graphing Linear Equations in Slope- Intercept Form 2.4 Graphing Linear Equations in Standard Form 2.5 Writing Equations in Slope- Intercept Form 2.6 Writing Equations in Point-Slope Form 2.7 Solving Real-Life Problems Teacher observation Student sheets Quizzes Tests F-IF.4. For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and

3 sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity. F-IF.6. Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph F-IF.7. a. Graph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima. F-BF.1.a. Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context. F-LE.5. Interpret the parameters in a linear or exponential function in terms of a context.

4 Unit 3 N-Q.2. Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems. Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. A-CED.1. Create equations that describe numbers or relationships. Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions. A-CED.3. Create equations that describe numbers or relationships. Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or nonviable options in a modeling context. For example, represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different foods. A-REI.3. Solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters. A-REI.12. Graph the solutions to a linear inequality in two variables as a half-plane (excluding the boundary in the case of a strict inequality), and graph the solution set to a system of linear inequalities in two variables as the intersection of the corresponding halfplanes. Topic: Solving Linear Inequalities /Enduring How can you use an inequality to describe a real-life statement? Write, solve, and graph one-step linear inequalities. Formulate and use different strategies to solve one-step and multi-step linear inequalities, including inequalities with rational coefficients. Write, solve, and graph one-step and multi-step inequalities in one and two variables. 3.1 Writing and Graphing Inequalities 3.2 Solving Inequalities Using Addition or Subtraction 3.3 Solving Inequalities Using Multiplication or Division 3.4 Solving Multi-Step Inequalities 3.5 Graphing Linear Inequalities in two Variables Teacher observation Student sheets Quizzes Tests

5 Unit 4 Topic: Solving Systems of Linear Equations /Enduring N-Q.2. Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems. Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. A-CED.3. Create equations that describe numbers or relationships. Represent constraints by equations or inequalities, and by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions as viable or nonviable options in a modeling context. For example, represent inequalities describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different foods. 8.EE.8. Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations. a. Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously. b. Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. For example, 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution because 3x + 2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6. c. Solve real-world and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables. For example, given coordinates for two pairs of points, determine whether the line through the first pair of points intersects the line through the second pair. A-REI.5. Prove that, given a system of two equations in two variables, replacing one equation by the sum of that equation and a multiple of the other produces a system with the same How can you solve a system of linear equations? Reason about and solve simple one-variable equations and inequalities. Write and solve one-step and two-step linear equations in one variable with one solution, no solution, or infinitely many solutions. Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically and graphically. Graph the solution set to a system of linear inequalities in two variables as the intersection of the corresponding halfplanes. 4.1 Solving Systems of Linear Equations by Graphing 4.2 Solving Systems of Linear Equation Substitution 4.3 Solving Systems of Linear by Elimination 4.4 Solving Special Systems of Linear Equations 4.5 Systems of Linear Inequalities Teacher observation Student sheets Quizzes Tests

6 solutions. A-REI.6. Solve systems of linear equations exactly and approximately (e.g., with graphs), focusing on pairs of linear equations in two variables. A-REI.11. Represent and solve equations and inequalities graphically. Explain why the x-coordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) and y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately, e.g., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations. Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, absolute value, exponential, and logarithmic functions. A-REI.12. Graph the solutions to a linear inequality in two variables as a half-plane (excluding the boundary in the case of a strict inequality), and graph the solution set to a system of linear inequalities in two variables as the intersection of the corresponding half-planes.

7 Unit 5 Topic: Linear Functions /Enduring 8.F.1. Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output. 8.F.2. Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions 8.F.3. Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. For example, the function A = s2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line. 8.F.4. Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values. 8.F.5. Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally. F-IF.1. Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. The graph of f is the graph of the equation y = f(x). How can you find the domain and range of a function? Construct and analyze tables, graphs, and equations that represent linear relationships between dependent and independent variables. Identify and plot ordered pairs in all four quadrants. Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations. Construct and analyze tables, graphs, and models to represent, analyze, and solve problems related to linear functions, including analysis of domain, range, and the difference between discrete and continuous data. Translate among representations of linear functions in words, tables, graphs, equations, and function notation. Compare graphs of linear and nonlinear functions. 5.1 Domain and Range of Function 5.2 Discrete and Continuous Domains 5.3 Linear Functions Patterns 5.4 Function Notation 5.5 Comparing Linear and Nonlinear Functions 5.6 Arithmetic Sequences Teacher observation Student sheets Quizzes Tests

8 F-IF.2. Use function notation, evaluate functions for inputs in their domains, and interpret statements that use function notation in terms of a context. F-IF.3. Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. For example, the Fibonacci sequence is defined recursively by f(0) = f(1) = 1, f(n+1) = f(n) + f(n-1) for n 1. F-IF.5. Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. F-IF.7. b. Graph square root, cube root, and piecewise-defined functions, including step functions and absolute value functions. F-IF.9. Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). F-BF.1.a. Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context. F-BF.2. Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms. F-BF.3. Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them. F-LE.1.b. Recognize situations in which one quantity changes at a constant rate per unit interval relative to another. F-LE.2. Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two input-output pairs (include reading these from a table).

9 Unit 6 Topic: Exponential Equations and Functions /Enduring N-RN.1. Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms of rational exponents. For example, we define 51/3 to be the cube root of 5 because we want (51/3)3 = 5(1/3)3 to hold, so (51/3)3 must equal 5. N-RN.2. Rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational exponents using the properties of exponents. A-SSE.1.a. Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients. A-SSE.1.b.Interpret complicated expressions by viewing one or more of their parts as a single entity. For example, interpret P(1+r)n as the product of P and a factor not depending on P. A-SSE.3. c. Use the properties of exponents to transform expressions for exponential functions. For example the expression 1.15t can be rewritten as (1.151/12)12t t to reveal the approximate equivalent monthly interest rate if the annual rate is 15%. A-CED.1. Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions. A-CED.2. Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. A-REI.10. Understand that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of all its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve (which could be a line). How can you multiply and divide square roots? Extend understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers. Evaluate expressions involving whole-number exponents. Reason about and solve onevariable equations. Use rational numbers to approximate irrational numbers. Work with radicals and integer exponents. Solve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations. Use properties of rational and irrational numbers. Extend the properties of exponents to rational exponents. Write and graph exponential equations and functions to model, analyze, and solve real-world problems. 6.1 Properties of Square Roots 6.2 Properties of Exponents 6.3 Radicals and Rational Exponents 6.4 Exponential Functions 6.5 Exponential Growth 6.6 Exponential Decay 6.7 Geometric Sequences Teacher observation Student sheets Quizzes Tests

10 A-REI.11. Explain why the x-coordinates of the points where the graphs of the equations y = f(x) and y = g(x) intersect are the solutions of the equation f(x) = g(x); find the solutions approximately, e.g., using technology to graph the functions, make tables of values, or find successive approximations. Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, absolute value, exponential, and logarithmic functions. 8.F.2. Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change. F-IF.3. Recognize that sequences are functions, sometimes defined recursively, whose domain is a subset of the integers. For example, the Fibonacci sequence is defined recursively by f(0) = f(1) = 1, f(n+1) = f(n) + f(n-1) for n 1. F-IF.7. e. Graph exponential and logarithmic functions, showing intercepts and end behavior, and trigonometric functions, showing period, midline, and amplitude. F-IF.8. b. Use the properties of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions. For example, identify percent rate of change in functions such as y = (1.02)t, y = (0.97)t, y = (1.01)12t, y = (1.2)t/10, and classify them as representing exponential growth or decay. F-IF.9. Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a graph of one quadratic function and an algebraic expression for another, say which has the larger maximum. F-BF.1.a.Determine an explicit expression, a recursive process, or steps for calculation from a context. F-BF.1.b.Combine standard function types using arithmetic operations. For example, build a function that models the temperature of a cooling body by adding a constant function to a

11 decaying exponential, and relate these functions to the model. F-BF.2. Write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and with an explicit formula, use them to model situations, and translate between the two forms. F-BF.3. Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them. F-LE.1.a. Prove that linear functions grow by equal differences over equal intervals, and that exponential functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals. F-LE.1.c.Recognize situations in which a quantity grows or decays by a constant percent rate per unit interval relative to another. F-LE.2. Construct linear and exponential functions, including arithmetic and geometric sequences, given a graph, a description of a relationship, or two input-output pairs (include reading these from a table). F-LE.5. Interpret the parameters in a linear or exponential function in terms of a context.

12 Unit 7 Topic: Polynomial Equations and Factoring A-SSE.1.a.Interpret parts of an expression, such as terms, factors, and coefficients. A-SSE.2. Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it. For example, see x4 y4 as (x2)2 (y2)2, thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x2 y2)(x2 + y2). A-SSE.3. a. Factor a quadratic expression to reveal the zeros of the function it defines. A-APR.1. Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials. A-REI.4.b. Solve quadratic equations by inspection (e.g., for x2 = 49), taking square roots, completing the square, the quadratic formula and factoring, as appropriate to the initial form of the equation. Recognize when the quadratic formula gives complex solutions and write them as a ± bi for real numbers a and b. /Enduring How can you use algebra tiles to model and classify polynomials? Evaluate algebraic expressions at specific values of their variables. Solve one-step linear equations. Evaluate algebraic expressions at specific values of their variables. Solve one-step linear equations. Perform arithmetic operations on polynomials. Solve problems involving polynomial equations by factoring. 7.1 Polynomials 7.2 Adding and Subtracting Polynomials 7.3 Multiplying Polynomials 7.4 Special Products of Polynomials 7.5 Solving Polynomial Equations in Factored Form 7.6 Factoring Polynomials Using the GCF 7.7 Factoring x2 + bx+ c 7.8 Factoring ax2 + bx+ c 7.9 Factoring Special Products Teacher observation Student sheets Quizzes Tests

13 Unit 8 A-CED.2. Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. A-REI.10. Understand that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of all its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve (which could be a line). 8.F.5. Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally. F-IF.4. Interpret functions that arise in applications in terms of the context. For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity. F-IF.7. a. Graph linear and quadratic functions and show intercepts, maxima, and minima. Topic: Graphing Quadratic Functions /Enduring What are the characteristics of the graph of the quadratic function y = ax 2? How does the value of a affect the graph of y = ax 2? Solve unit rate problems. Use equations, tables, and graphs to express and analyze linear relationships between independent variables and dependent variables. Describe the effect of transformations on two-dimensional figures. Analyze proportional relationships using tables, graphs, equations, and so on, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Describe the relationship between a line and its equation. Graph quadratic functions and interpret key features of their graphs. Describe how various changes in a quadratic equation affect its graph. Compare the rates of change of linear, exponential, and quadratic functions using graphs and tables. 8.1 Graphing y =ax2 8.2 Focus of a Parabola 8.3 Graphing y = ax2 +c 8.4 Graphing y=ax2 + bx + c 8.5 Comparing Linear, Exponential, and Quadratic Functions Teacher observation Student sheets Quizzes Tests F-BF.3. Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k)

14 for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Include recognizing even and odd functions from their graphs and algebraic expressions for them. F-LE.3. Observe using graphs and tables that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically, or (more generally) as a polynomial function.

16 Unit 10 Topic: Square Root Functions and Geometry /Enduring N-RN.2. Rewrite expressions involving radicals and rational exponents using the properties of exponents. N-Q.3. Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. A-CED.2. Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. A-REI.10. Understand that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of all its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve (which could be a line). F-IF.4. For a function that models a relationship between two quantities, interpret key features of graphs and tables in terms of the quantities, and sketch graphs showing key features given a verbal description of the relationship. Key features include: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity. F-IF.7.b. Graph square root, cube root, and piecewise-defined functions, including step functions and absolute value functions. 8.G.6. Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse. 8.G.7. Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in real-world and mathematical problems in two and three dimensions. 8.G.8. Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between two points in a coordinate system. How can you sketch the graph of a square root function? Write, analyze, and solve onevariable linear equations. Find the areas of right triangles. Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations. Draw and construct triangles and describe the relationships between them. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares. Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem. Solve square root equations Graphing Square Root Functions 10.2 Solving Square Root Equations 10.3 The Pythagorean Theorem 10.4 Using the Polyagorean Theorem Teacher observation Student sheets Quizzes Tests

17 Unit 11 Topic: Rational Equations and Functions A-SSE.2. Use the structure of an expression to identify ways to rewrite it. For example, see x4 y4 as (x2)2 (y2)2, thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x2 y2)(x2 + y2). A-CED.1. Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions. A-CED.2. Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. A-REI.10. Understand that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of all its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve (which could be a line). F-BF.4.a. Solve an equation of the form f(x) = c for a simple function f that has an inverse and write an expression for the inverse. For example, f(x) =2 x3 or f(x) = (x+1)/(x 1) for x 1. /Enduring How can you recognize when two variables vary directly? How can you recognize when they vary inversely? Apply properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions. Solve simple one-variable equations to solve real-life and mathematical problems. Use variables to represent two quantities that change in relationship to one another. Use and simplify algebraic expressions to solve problems. Analyze and solve linear equations to solve real-life and mathematical problems. Create equations that describe numbers or relationships. Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions. Create and solve rational equations in one variable, and use them to solve problems Direct and Inverse Variation 11.2 Graphing Rational Functions 11.3 Simplifying Rational Expressions 11.4 Multiplying and Dividing Rational Expressions 11.5 Dividing Polynomials 11.6 Adding and Subtracting Rational Expressions 11.7 Solving Rational Equations Teacher observation Student sheets Quizzes Tests

18 Unit 12 N-Q.3. Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. 8.SP.1. Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association. 8.SP.2. Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line. 8.SP.3. Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept. For example, in a linear model for a biology experiment, interpret a slope of 1.5 cm/hr as meaning that an additional hour of sunlight each day is associated with an additional 1.5 cm in mature plant height. 8.SP.4. Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table. Construct and interpret a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables. Topic: Data Analysis and Displays /Enduring How can you use measures of central tendency to distribute an amount evenly among a group of people? Determine measures of central tendency including mean, median, mode, and range. Select appropriate measures of central tendency to describe a data set. Evaluate the reasonableness of a sample to determine the appropriateness of generalizations made about the population. Construct and analyze histograms, stemand-leaf plots, and circle graphs. Construct and analyze dot plots, histograms, box-and-whisker plots, and scatter plots. Use the shape of a data distribution to select appropriate measures of central tendency and dispersion, and to account for the effects of outliers in the data. Interpret linear models Measures of Central Tendency 12.2 Measures of Dispersion 12.3 Box and Whisker Plots 12.4 Shapes of Distributions 12.5 Scatter Plots and Lines of Fit 12.6 Analyzing Lines of Fit 12.7 Two-Way Tables 12.8 Choosing a Data Display Teacher observation Student sheets Quizzes Tests

19 S-ID.1. Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). S-ID.2. Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread (interquartile range, standard deviation) of two or more different data sets. S-ID.3. Interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers). S-ID.5. Summarize categorical data for two categories in two-way frequency tables. Interpret relative frequencies in the context of the data (including joint, marginal, and conditional relative frequencies). Recognize possible associations and trends in the data. S-ID.6a. Fit a function to the data; use functions fitted to data to solve problems in the context of the data. Use given functions or choose a function suggested by the context. Emphasize linear, quadratic, and exponential models. S-ID.6b. Informally assess the fit of a function by plotting and analyzing residuals. S-ID.6c. Fit a linear function for a scatter plot that suggests a linear association. S-ID.7. Interpret the slope (rate of change) and the intercept (constant term) of a linear model in the context of the data. S-ID.8. Compute (using technology) and interpret the correlation coefficient of a linear fit. S-ID.9. Distinguish between correlation and causation.

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