Guided Reading in the Kindergarten Classroom

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Guided Reading in the Kindergarten Classroom"

Transcription

1 Guided Reading in the Kindergarten Classroom Lisa A. Jelinek Spring 2005 Elem Ed 720 Action Research in Curriculum and Instruction Dr. Judith Hankes and Elem Ed 792 Seminar in Curriculum and Instruction Dr. Michael Beeth

2 Table of Contents Abstract Page 3 Statement of the Problem Page 4 Situating the Problem Page 4 Review of Literature Page 6 Methods Page 15 Data Collection Page 15 Results Page 18 Conclusions Page 25 References Page 29 Apppendices Page 30 2

3 Abstract Strong research shows that students learn best when lessons are differentiated for their own needs. An effective way to differentiate literacy instruction is through the use of guided reading, a process I was previously familiar with but lacked enough information to effectively use this method with my students. In an effort to meet the needs of my students, I researched this method and utilized it with my kindergarten students. I began my study by researching the guided reading instructional process developed by Fountas and Pinnell (1996) and used this information to format lessons that would best fit students needs based on their current reading levels. Students were grouped with others who had similar needs. I met with these groups frequently over a four-week period to teach concepts about print and decoding strategies for students to apply during their independent reading times as well as practicing letter and sound recognition. The use of guided reading groups helped my students to learn necessary strategies in order to become more effective independent readers. Data gathered after the intervention period shows that every student made gains in literacy, including rhyming word recognition, letter and sound recognition and understanding basic concepts about print. Observations of the students during independent reading times also show that the students were applying these skills without prompting from the teacher. 3

4 Statement of the Problem The district in which I teach strongly supports and encourages the use of guided reading as a literacy instruction method for kindergarten through grade 5. However, as a third year kindergarten teacher, I did not feel adequately prepared to use this approach. This problem motivated me to conduct the study reported in this paper. The following questions guided my review of literature: 1. What are the most important kindergarten literacy skills? 2. What is the format of a guided reading lesson? 3. How are guided reading lessons sequenced? I utilized the answers to these questions in conjunction with other research to discover how to effectively teach guided reading to maximize my students learning. Situating the Problem The K 5 elementary school where I currently teach and conducted this study has approximately four hundred students. The school has and serves a predominantly middle class socioeconomic community with very little ethnic diversity. I conducted this study during my third year teaching kindergarten, my third year attempting to use guided reading as a method of teaching literacy to kindergarteners. In many ways, I feel that my first two years of teaching were more like a survival game. I found myself constantly trying to learn about the curriculum, hone my classroom management skills and truly begin to understand what kindergarten children need. Although I feel much more settled and comfortable with my job and expectations, I am by no means under the impression that my understandings about kids are complete. In 4

5 fact, this was the perfect time to use my current understandings along with researched methods to become a more effective instructor. In my classroom, much like a majority of classrooms these days, my students have a broad range of academic backgrounds. There are some kindergarteners who begin their formal educational experiences in preschool, long before they enter my classroom. Others have some limited experience in day care facilities. Still others have had little to no experience with formal educational settings. This, in addition to other factors, contributes to the broad range of levels of understanding in my classroom, from low to average and even advanced. There is a distinct difficulty in meeting all student needs in the most effective manner. Often, whole group instruction does not allow all students to participate and practice skills, especially skills at their own level of understanding. It is difficult to teach lessons that challenge those at a more advanced level. Also, the attention of all students is never guaranteed continuously. Allowing the students to learn literacy in centers also poses many of the same problems. These instructional methods are both important and necessary to use in classrooms. However, to maximize student learning, lessons need to be more individualized to meet each student s needs. One research based instructional method that addresses this issue is guided reading. As I reflected on my teaching of literature and guided reading from last year, I recalled how unhappy I was with my guided reading lessons. Often these lessons lacked a focus, a scaffolding of skills and a revisiting of previously taught skills. There was no smooth flow from one reading skill to another. Because these skills and strategies were not reinforced as much as they should be, students quickly forgot about them and frequently did not employ them during independent reading times. I wanted to know how I could improve my instruction. 5

6 My goal for this action research project is to sharpen my guided reading instruction to encourage students to become more effective and independent readers. As a result, I expect to see a good portion of my students exceed the school district s goal of reading at a Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) level four by the end of kindergarten. I also expect that my students will be proficient on the district s Integrated Literacy Checklist which assesses reading comprehension, alphabet recognition and early literacy skills (such as concepts about print). If I am successful, my students will employ these effective reading behaviors on their own during independent reading times. Review of Literature In 1996, regular education classroom teachers were introduced to a new way of teaching literacy known as guided reading. Prior to its introduction in regular education classrooms, this method was used in Reading Recovery programs under the direction of Marie Clay in New Zealand and other countries. Since its mainstream introduction through the book Guided Reading: Good First Teaching for All Children (Fountas & Pinnell, 1996) this innovative literacy approach has been embraced by teachers around the world as an effective means to teach reading to all children. The district in which I am employed strongly supports and encourages the use of this approach at the elementary level. Early literacy skills kindergarten students should know According to Marie Clay, elementary teacher and clinical psychologist, children eventually need to grasp the following concepts (although not necessarily at the same time) (Clay, 2002): 6

7 Knowing the front and back of the book Understanding that print contains a message Knowing which page to begin reading, where to start reading on that page, which way to go and to return sweep at the end of a line Word-by-word matching (one to one match) Knowing the concept of first and last Understanding different punctuation and what each is used for Understanding the concept of a word and a letter Knowing the difference between capital and lowercase letters Reading words in the correct sequence In addition to teaching these basic concepts about print, guided reading lessons should focus on teaching a variety of decoding strategies and teaching text comprehension strategies. What is Guided Reading? Guided reading is an approach that begins by looking at students strengths and needs. The classroom teacher s observations are used in conjunction with the Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) by Joetta Beaver to determine a child s current reading level. The DRA has two portions the students are assessed on. One part is a mathematical percentage score based on the accuracy of the child s reading of a text using a running record (see appendix A for two examples of running records). This includes errors and self-corrections that are made. The other portion of the score is an assessment of the child s reading behaviors, such as basic concepts about print and the fluency of the oral reading. At levels four and up, the reading behaviors assessment also includes questions about the child s comprehension of the text and requires the student to retell the story. Both an independent reading level (95% accuracy and above) and an instructional reading level (90% accuracy and above) are determined based on these two factors. After a reading level is determined for the students, they are grouped together in groups comprised of no more than five students based on similar DRA levels and common reading strategies that they use. These groups will work with the teacher to 7

8 gradually learn additional reading strategies and apply them to strengthen their own reading skills and move up in DRA levels. Benefits of using guided reading The ultimate goal in guided reading is to help children learn how to use independent reading strategies successfully (Fountas & Pinnell, 1996). Guided reading is an approach to teaching literacy that builds on the strengths already present in students. It is a way to differentiate and individualize learning to a student s specific needs. Guided reading helps encourage confidence in readers by taking what they know and slowly adding new reading strategies with support from their teacher. It may be true that using guided reading as the primary literacy instructional method may mean more work and training for a teacher who is accustomed to using a basal reader for the primary literacy instruction method. However, in a typical elementary classroom the broad range of achievement levels makes the classroom basal highly ineffective and unable to meet a majority of the student s needs. The information gathered from students reading behaviors during guided reading lessons is also a driving force during whole group classroom instruction. What happens in the guided reading groups? Each guided reading group is very fluid. As students independently use more skills and increase in their DRA levels, they are regrouped to best meet their needs. Groups could potentially change every few weeks, depending on how the students perform. In the guided reading approach, the teacher constantly assesses (usually informally) and makes observations as to whether the books read are posing enough/too much challenge for each student in the group. Each guided reading group generally meets with the classroom teacher (or in some cases, the reading specialist) a minimum of three times per week. While meeting with the teacher, the group learns new reading strategies and concepts 8

9 about print necessary for independent reading and comprehension while reading a new book. In kindergarten, the groups also learn early concepts about print, such as knowing where to begin reading on a page, knowing the difference between letters and words, knowing how to return sweep, etc. As the DRA levels progress and early concepts about print are mastered, the emphasis in guided reading groups shift to decoding strategies as well as comprehension strategies. What a guided reading lesson looks like A guided reading lesson begins long before the groups of children are seated in front of the teacher. A teacher must prepare for the guided reading lessons by choosing appropriate texts for each group. The texts which are chosen must be just challenging enough that the children are forced to problem solve and use a variety of reading strategies, but not so much that the problem solving interferes with their comprehension of the story. An important factor to keep in mind while choosing books is the students familiarity with the concepts in the book (a child s background knowledge) along with the appeal of the concepts in the book. Each child has their own copy of the book throughout the lesson, so it is imperative that multiple copies of the text are available. Once appropriate texts are chosen, the groups are ready to begin. In some cases, a guided reading lesson may begin with a re-reading of a familiar text, more than likely one which was read during a previous guided reading lesson. Then, it is time for the teacher to begin introducing the new text. This introduction will vary depending on the reading level and interests of the readers as well as the difficulty of the text. At times, an introduction might be as simple as giving a concise overview of the story along with a brief picture walk. In other cases, the introduction may be much more supportive, such as leading the children through the pictures page by page and discussing each one. Either way, the goal of the introduction is not to simplify the book or rewrite the story. [It s 9

10 job] is to focus the children s attention on critical aspects of reading the story by highlighting what they need to take into account and learn about before they begin to read (Pinnell & Scharer, 2001). The introduction of the book should allow enough preparation for the students that during the first reading they should be able to problem solve with a limited amount of help. Now it s time for the students to read the text on their own. At early levels, such as kindergarten, it is acceptable for students to read aloud quietly. Eventually, the goal is to encourage students to read silently. During this reading time, a teacher will listen to the students reading and may take a running record to help analyze errors and selfcorrections. This information will either lead to the mini-lesson portion of the guided reading lesson or to help prepare the guided reading lesson for the following session. The teacher s role at this stage is to also praise the children s appropriate uses of strategies and to help students problem solve when appropriate. Frequently these books are read several times during this portion of the lesson. After reading, the text is discussed with the group. This discussion may include a retelling of the story or connecting it to previous readings. At this time, a strategy may be taught to assist students during future readings. In addition, this would be the time in the lesson to work with words (using white boards, magnetic letters, etc.) that have been troubling students while reading. This strategy will then be practiced, either through another reading of the story, through a written response to the reading, or working with the strategy in another capacity. An important goal of the post-reading portion of the lesson is to allow the children time to reflect on the strategies they used and learned. These can then be applied during future reading times. The books read during guided reading lessons should be placed in browsing boxes that are accessible to children during independent reading time. 10

11 Guided reading in a kindergarten classroom Typically for most students in kindergarten, guided reading does not begin until January. Generally students are not developmentally ready before this time. Sometime between December and January, the children are assessed using the Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) (Beaver, 2004). In this assessment, children read books at a variety of levels and are asked comprehension questions about the reading. An instructional reading level is found for the student based on the scores of the text reading (from a running record) and the comprehension questions. These instructional levels, generally from levels A to 6 in kindergarten, are used to group kids based on common strengths and needs. Again, these groups of children (guided reading groups) are fluid and change often based on updated DRA scores which may be done as much as once a month. The guided reading groups, which are normally comprised of 2-5 children, meet with the classroom teacher or reading resource teacher at least once a week. Each guided reading lesson generally begins with the reading of a familiar book from a previous lesson. Then, the teacher introduces a new book in which the strategy or skill is practiced. Next, the teacher leads the group in word work and/or the introduction of a new reading strategy. The group may practice the strategy together or with a familiar book. The next guided reading lesson will revisit this skill and, if the group is ready, move on to a new skill the teacher thinks necessary based on the group s earlier reading. Kindergarten reading behaviors A majority of kindergarteners fall in one of two developmental reading stages (or somewhere in between), the emergent reading stage and the early reading stage. A few of the more advanced students may fall into a third stage of development, the transitional reading stage. 11

12 At the emergent reading stage, most children rely heavily on the pictures for reading. Generally, they are not aware of concepts about print (such as how words carry meaning and that we are actually reading these words while we read books). Books at this level (DRA levels A-2 or Fountas and Pinnell s Guided Reading Levels O, A and B) generally have concepts familiar to the students, a small amount of print per page (often only on the left page), large spaces between words, print which is separated from the pictures and pictures which are highly supportive of the text (Pinnell & Scharer, 2001). These books are also very repetitive and utilize a large proportion of high frequency words. Guided reading lessons at this level focus on: How to handle books (finding the front cover, how to turn pages, etc.) Concepts about print (reading left to right, matching one to one, finding the beginning and end of words/sentences, etc.) Following patterns in text Finding known and unknown words Predicting Self-monitoring See appendix B for a sample of a book at the emergent reading stage. In the early stage, children have already gained the basic building blocks of how books work. They can read fluently with phrasing and use at least two of the three cueing systems (meaning, language and visual) to decode while reading. Books at this level (DRA levels 3-14 or Fountas and Pinnell s Guided Reading Levels D-H) have gradually increasing amounts of text, more difficult plots, difficult vocabulary and less repetition. Guided reading lessons at this level focus on: Reading with phrasing and fluency Cross checking information using different cueing systems Reading for meaning Self-correcting while reading Making predictions and connections Discussing story elements (characters, setting, problem, resolution, etc.) See appendix C for a sample of a book at the early reading stage. 12

13 Sometimes, although rarely, a kindergartener will be reading at the transitional level. Generally this stage occurs near the third grade. At this stage, students do not need to spend as much time on word solving (decoding), which allows reading to be more automatic than the previous two stages. This also allows them to begin to read using expression. Students rely heavily on print for information (Pinnell & Scharer, 2001). Books at this level (DRA levels or Fountas and Pinnell s Guided Reading Levels I- P) include many genres of literature (fiction and non-fiction), have complex story and language structures, and few if any illustrations. Guided reading lessons at this level focus on: Understanding and interpreting stories Comprehension strategies Reading critically Using texts as resources Reading silently See appendix D for a sample of a book at the beginning of the transition stage. Long range planning for kindergarten Guided Reading The nature of using Guided Reading is that it builds on individual strengths of children and adapts to meet these needs. This means that it is virtually impossible to plan for a full year s teaching and scaffolding for Guided Reading in addition to concepts covered in guided reading lessons. In fact, it also means that it may be difficult to even plan a month in advance for guided reading lessons. The most effective way to plan for guided reading groups is to reflect daily on the children s strengths and needs, then adapt lessons to fit these needs. For a general overview of concepts that could be covered in kindergarten guided reading groups throughout the course of a year, see Table 1 (Franzese, 2002). Keep in mind that this table does not take into account which skills 13

14 students may have already learned and is also reflective of a classroom that begins guided reading in mid-november. Table 1 Nov./Dec Jan./Feb. Mar./Apr. May/June Use picture to predict text Understand return sweep Self-monitor to see of what is read makes sense, sounds right, and looks right (notices errors) Locate where to begin reading Understand directionality Integrate meaning, structural and visual cues Reread to clarify confusions Reread Verbalize how to use reading strategies Notice if what is read doesn t Self-correct Self-correct match text Turn page correctly Begin to develop fluency and phrasing Match letters and words oneto-one Cross-check meaning with visual cues (initial letters of words) Develop a bank of high frequency words Read and locate known words within a variety of texts Cross-check meaning and structural cues with visual cues (going across word looking for chunks and parts of words-th, sh, ch, wh Develop fluency and phrasing Increase sight word vocabulary Problem solve through analogy (use known to get to the unknown) and search or known features within words clusters str, fr Apply and integrate reading strategies to higher level texts Locate and frame known high frequency words and letters within a word Use known initial letters to figure out unknown words Begin to understand the meaning and use of periods, question marks, and exclamation points Recognize sentence beginnings and endings Understand the meaning and use of quotation marks and ellipses ` Identify capital letters, periods, and spaces between words Differentiate between a letter and a word Make predictions based on title and pictures Understand the meaning of author and illustrator Recognize story patterns 14

15 METHODS Participants The participants in this study were 21 students in my kindergarten classroom. These students ranged in age from 5 to 6 years old and were comprised of almost equal amounts of males and females. There was a vast array of achievement levels ranging from advanced to low, which is generally representative of the other kindergarten classes in the urban elementary school in which I teach. Data Collection In order to evaluate my effectiveness in teaching guided reading and encouraging students to apply these skills in their reading, I collected data from the students and used this in conjunction with data reflecting on my acquired skills. The data collection process from the students began at the beginning of January when I administered the DRA to all students in my class. This was a district mandated three-week window of testing that occurred in all kindergarten classrooms throughout the district. In addition, I assessed the students using my school district s Integrated Literacy Checklist which tested students on their knowledge of concepts about print and letter/sound recognition during the same time frame. See appendix E for a sample of the Integrated Literacy Checklist. The same two assessments were administered at the end of my four-week intervention period, in the middle of February. In addition to these two data sources, data was collected on each student while in their guided reading groups through the use of anecdotal records and running records. Reading was monitored each time I met with the groups. Data was collected through the use of observations during whole group instructional times. These observations were then evaluated to determine if I had indeed gained new skills in my guided reading instruction. 15

16 Intervention Guided reading groups begin After conducting the DRA and the Integrated Literacy Checklist with my students, I used this information to form groups. For this first month of guided reading, I had six groups with no more than four students in each group. The first time I met with each group, it was necessary to explain the purpose of our meeting and clearly outline my expectations for them while they were in the group. Students were told meeting in guided reading groups was a time to learn about reading and to become the best readers possible. My expectations during our meeting were: putting forth their best effort, attempting a task independently before asking for assistance and allowing others the opportunity to do the same. We talked about the different materials we would use during our group time, including dry erase boards, magnetic boards and letters, books and pointers. Then they were able to find a book from the classroom that they felt they could read on their own. In most cases, the students made appropriate choices and were able to independently complete these books on their own while I monitored them. After reading a familiar book, the group s new books were introduced. Since this was the first time any of the students had been in a guided reading group, my introductions were very supportive of the text, regardless of the level they were reading at. We looked through the texts together, using the language of the text and for some groups, I even introduced the pattern of the text. Then students were asked to read the books on their own. I quickly discovered that with my two lower groups, we would have to stop and work on a strategy before they could continue. We went back to the first page and I modeled one to one matching using a pointer. Then the students were asked to do the same. After they understood the strategy and understood the pattern of the story, they were able to complete the reading on their own with minimal assistance. For my other groups, they 16

17 were generally able to read to the end of the story and we were able to go back and work on a strategy using the text. Students then went back and re-read their books while applying their new strategy. After reading, we discussed our favorite parts of the books or retold the story. I explained that this book would be put in their book buckets to read any time they wanted to read it. Guided Reading groups continue The next time I met with each group, we began our guided reading session by re-reading the book we worked on during our previous meeting. I informed the groups that I would be looking for them to be using the strategy we worked on the last time we met. After rereading the familiar text, I introduced their new book. For my higher groups, this introduction was much briefer than the previous one. However, for my two lowest groups who were still struggling with one to one match and following patterns, this introduction was still very supportive of the text. For these two groups I also decided to continue to work on one to one matching for their strategy of the day after noticing these students had not applied the strategy during their independent reading time earlier that week. My other groups were able to read through the texts and then we worked on our strategy of the day. These groups worked on looking at the initial consonants or looking at pictures to help predict what a word might say as well as working on comprehension of the story plot. I met with each group at least one more time before the four-week intervention period was over. During the next meeting, groups chose from two texts in their reading buckets for their re-reading. Each group was encouraged to apply their previously learned strategies while reading their familiar book and their new book as well. Introductions to new books were similar to what they were for the previous meeting - 17

18 more supportive for the lower groups, less supportive for the middle and higher groups. Strategies focused on during this session included: using the pictures to help predict words for the two lowest groups, comprehension strategies for my middle groups and finding a word they knew within an unknown word to aid in decoding for my higher groups, also known as chunking. Results After my intervention period, significant changes happened in my classroom in regard to literacy. The biggest change was that students were much more confident in their reading skills. I observed many students choosing to read their book bucket books during free choice times and other independent reading times. I found some rather significant changes in their DRA scores considering the short intervention window. See table 2 for the class DRA scores and Appendix F for individual student data. There were DRA reading level gains of at least one level or more in 43% of the class, and for the 57% who did not move up any reading levels, all but two of these students maintained their previous reading level. After the intervention window, over half of the class was on track to achieving the district goal of reading at a level four by the end of the year (a level two by this point of the year), a 10% increase in the intervention s 4 week time period. Interestingly enough, after examining my data and reviewing the running records of those two students who appeared to make no progress based on the DRA score, these students did in fact make progress. In the case of my three lowest groups, the main focus of my guided reading lessons was to get them to understand one to one match. After looking back at the running records of these students, almost every one of these 10 children did apply one to one match while reading their post-assessment DRA book. What prevented these students from attaining 90% accuracy or better on these books was no longer a 18

19 problem with concepts about print. In fact, in almost every single case of students who were reading at a level one or under, the mistakes they were now making were that they weren t always paying attention to the initial consonant to help predict what a word was. For instance, they might look at a picture of a sailboat accompanying text on a page, and when reading the word sailboat, would say boat instead. If they had been looking at the initial consonant as well as the picture, a majority of these students probably would have used the correct word. I knew after noticing this common error in the students running records that this would be the next skill to focus on with these students. Table 2 Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) Levels Amount of change in levels Number of students Range of levels preintervention Range of levels postintervention +3 to +6 3 Level 1 to level 4 Level 4 to level to +2 6 No change 10 Level A not passed to level 3 Level A not passed to level 4 Level 1 to level 4 Level A not passed to level 4-1 to -2 2 Level A to level 1 Level A not passed Not only did I notice many behavior changes and changes in DRA levels after my intervention period, but I also found some significant literacy gains based on the Integrated Literacy Checklist (ILC). See tables 3-7 for the class data regarding the ILC and Appendices G, H and I for individual student test results. As you can see from these tables, 95% of the class, all but one student, made some type of gain in literacy skills, even though this might not have been reflected in a growth in their DRA levels. In some skill areas, specifically identifying rhyming words, there was a significant amount of 19

20 students who made no change (19 out of 21 students), yet all 19 of these students had already received the full 6 points during the pre-intervention assessment for identifying all rhyming elements. However, out of these 19 students who had no change in this area, only one had no literacy gains overall. This student scored full points in every preintervention assessment and was already reading at a level 4, which is an end of the year goal in kindergarten. Table 3 Integrated Literacy Checklist Letter Identification Amount of change Number of students Amount identified pre-intervention (52 total) Amount identified post-intervention (52 total) +10 to to to to to to 52 No change to to 52 Table 4 Integrated Literacy Checklist Sound Identification Amount of change Number of students Amount identified pre-intervention (26 total) Amount identified post-intervention (26 total) +10 to to to to to to to to 25 6 to 26 No change

21 Table 5 Integrated Literacy Checklist Concepts About Print Amount of change Number of students Scores pre-intervention (16 total) Scores post-intervention (16 total) +3 to to 9 12 to to to to 16 No change Table 6 Integrated Literacy Checklist Rhyming Words Identification Scores preintervention (6 total) intervention (6 total) Scores post- Amount of change Number of students +1 to to 5 6 No change Table 7 Amount of change Integrated Literacy Checklist Beginning Sounds Identification Number of students Scores preintervention (10 total) Scores postintervention (10 total) to to 9 3 to 10 No change

22 Individual Student Progress Three Cases Case #1 Student 2 comes from a family with an older brother and a younger brother. Her parents are very conscientious about making sure this child reads and practices academic skills nightly. Student 2 came into kindergarten with a lot of literacy knowledge, including already knowing a lot of concepts about print. She could recognize all 52 upper and lowercase letters when assessed for the first time in September. She could also recognize all 26 letter sounds when initially assessed in January. Student 2 quickly picks up skills taught in class, but without guidance is not always able to synthesize these skills and apply them in her own work. In other words, she needs someone to clearly connect her learning and show her how to apply new skills before she is able to use them on her own. Student 2 began the intervention reading at a level 2. A level 2 requires students to have a good basis of concepts about print, the ability to follow a pattern as well as a significant sight word vocabulary. This student had no problems with any of these skills. During the pre-intervention DRA assessment, this student struggled most with decoding unknown words. What she needed most was to learn a variety of decoding strategies. During the intervention period in her guided reading group, we focused on exactly this skill. The group worked on chunking words and finding words they knew (most often high frequency words) within the unknown word. When student 2 was reassessed at the end of the intervention window, she had jumped 4 DRA levels! She was more confident in her reading, more fluent, and made multiple attempts to decode unknown words. Case #2 Student 5 is the youngest child in her family with one older sister who is five years older than her. Her family also works with her significantly at home in both reading and writing. Chronologically she falls in the middle of the class with a February 22

23 birthday. It is also important to note that this child also receives speech therapy three times a week. Significant amounts of research have found a negative correlation between the occurrence of a speech disability and the attainment of literacy skills. Student 5 came into kindergarten having much basic knowledge about literacy and also picked up much in the first half of kindergarten, similar to student 2. She could identify all 26 upper and lower case letters in January, as well as recognize many beginning sounds and rhyming elements. However, student 5 had distinct difficulties applying these skills in her own reading. She began her guided reading instruction unable to pass a level A. Student 5 struggled most with one to one match. In her guided reading group, she and her 4 group mates worked intensively on this crucial skill. This group read books at a level A, books with 4-5 words per page with very repetitive text. After practicing pointing to each word on the page as it was read, the students counted how many words were on the page to reinforce this skill. At the end of the intervention period, student 5 not only passed a level A, but now comfortably reads at a level 1. She also gained one more point in the Concepts About Print assessment. Case #3 Student 21 is the older of the two children in her family. Although this student is not one of the youngest in the class, at times her immaturity and attention span hinder her learning. There is little home support and reinforcement of reading or writing skills. In large groups, student 21 struggles with attention and grasping a lot of basic concepts. For this student, working in a small group like our guided reading group or even individually is much more effective. It is also important to note that this student also receives speech therapy three times a week. When student 21 came into kindergarten, she had limited literacy skills in regard to literacy. During the pre-intervention assessment in January, she was able to recognize 23

24 a total of 36 upper and lower case letters and only 14 of 26 letter sounds. She also scored 9 out of 16 points in the Concepts About Print assessment. In January, this student was reading at a DRA level 1. The group she worked in was working on books at level A. Although when initially tested student 21 appeared to have no problems with one to one match, in her guided reading group it was quickly evident that she didn t always apply this skill on her own. In this particular guided reading group, the skill we focused on a majority of the time was using the pictures to help support the text. After the rest of the group went back to work at their literacy centers, I worked with this student individually to focus on one to one match. After the intervention period, this particular student was unable to pass DRA level A, which was actually 2 DRA levels below what she had previously tested. However, the mistakes she made during the post-intervention running record were of a different nature than those previously made. She did, in fact, begin to look at the pictures to help support what she was reading. Instead, the mistakes resulted from the student not looking closely at the initial letters of the unknown words as well as still not consistently applying one to one match. The combination of these two types of errors resulted in an accuracy rate of only 80%, 10% less than what is required for an instructional level. After the post-intervention assessment, I knew exactly what skills to target with her next during guided reading. What I did discover though after the assessment, was that after working with student 21 in this new format, her scores on the other assessments went up. After the intervention, she could identify 13 more upper and lower case letters, 4 more letter sounds, gained 3 points on the Concepts About Print assessment and could identify all 10 of the beginning letters of the pictures shown to her. In a 4 week time span, this was a considerable amount of knowledge for her to master, especially compared to what she had accomplished up to that point in kindergarten! 24

25 Conclusions As I prepared for my intervention, I felt confident that I knew exactly what I was going to do. However, I discovered a few months before my intervention window that everything would not run as smoothly as anticipated. The first stumbling block I encountered was my district s change in assessment tools. The Integrated Literacy Checklist which was used for years to determine children s literacy readiness, along with assessing skills communicated with parents via report cards and identifying children who may need extra support in first grade, was being discontinued. Although the results of this assessment would no longer be formally reported and utilized for classroom purposes, after conferring with reading specialists, I discovered I could still utilize it for my own information purposes. This assessment tool is currently being revamped by our district s reading specialists and will be used to some extent next year. Although the entire Integrated Literacy Checklist will not be employed as I now know it, I may still administer portions of it not included in our new literacy assessment tool to future classes simply for my own information purposes. The next stumbling block which occurred was the district s policy change regarding using the DRA with kindergarten students. In years past, I began using the DRA with my students for the first time in October. This allowed me to not only get baseline information on all the students literacy awareness early in the year, but also gave the students a chance to become familiar with the DRA and what was expected of them during the assessment s initial administration. In addition, when January came about, DRA testing in previous years took significantly less time, since I was able to approximate where I felt the students were performing based on October s DRA level and progress since that testing period. That is, I did not necessarily have to test each student starting at the beginning DRA level, level A. This school year the district 25

26 decided that kindergarten teachers were able to begin using the DRA with their students for the first time in January. Hence, when January came about my assessment took almost a week longer than expected, thereby setting back my start date for guided reading groups. After my intervention period, I was surprised by many of the results most were positive, others were slightly more negative. Overall, I would say I am happy with the changes which took place, not only in the gain of skills reflected in my results, but also with the general atmosphere and attitudes in the classroom in regard to reading. More and more often, students would choose to read and write books during their free choice times and during indoor recess. During these times, I would see more of the skills worked on in guided reading groups being employed by the students independently. There was more participation in our school s reading incentive rewards program. The students even seemed to be more attentive during read alouds and noticed more about the books which were read to them. Most importantly, every child in my classroom made some type of literacy gain during the intervention period. Even those students who did not move up in DRA levels expanded their literacy knowledge in regard to letter and sound identification, concepts about print and rhyming words. The biggest realization and disappointment I had after my intervention was that not all of the students made measurable gains in regard to DRA scores. After analyzing this information though, I realized just how much a gain of even one level meant in kindergarten. Throughout the course of their 9 month long kindergarten career they are expected to be able to independently read at least 5 DRA levels - A, 1, 2, 3, and 4. This averages to the students moving one DRA level every 7 weeks or so. My intervention period only lasted 4 weeks, which for some students may have been too short a time period to move up a level (or more). Also, so many of the beginning levels of books 26

27 require students to have a strong knowledge of concepts about print. In most cases, the guided reading groups focused on one or two of these skills. More of these concepts might have been needed before the student moved to the next level, much like student 21 s situation as discussed previously. Even though I was disappointed with the lack of growth shown in DRA levels, when looking at all of my other data, I clearly saw that every student made gains and the guided reading instruction was indeed effective. The greatest outcome of my action research project was the effect it had on my own teaching. Although guided reading is a teaching technique I had been using for the past 2 years, I had never felt completely comfortable in my abilities to use it. After conducting my review of literature, I was able to understand the process and foundations of using guided reading effectively. I was also able to clarify the short and long-term foci of each guided reading level/guided reading group. Next year I will be able to use these skills to get my students prepared for January and the beginning of guided reading groups much earlier in the school year by helping them to understand the process of group work as well as expectations of them in these groups from early on. Next year I plan to use my guided reading groups in different ways. New research has recently come out citing the effectiveness of grouping students with similar needs (but not necessarily the same reading levels). In this situation for instance, all students that struggle with str- blends may be grouped together, yet each student may be using a different book at their own level which would support learning this skill. I plan to use my action research project as a stepping-stone to discover even more about the effectiveness and importance of guided reading. I have utilized many opportunities this year to learn more about this topic, including attending the Wisconsin State Reading Association Conference. I hope to continue to pursue professional development opportunities in this area of study. The topic of early literacy lends itself to 27

28 a variety of research questions I may wish to explore in the future. Some further questions which could be explored in regard to early literacy could include the differences of learning between male and female students or the impact of cultural stereotypes that exist in literature on same culture student learning. This project has reinforced that the more informed I am, the more effective I will be in my literacy instruction. 28

29 References Clay, M. (2002). An Observation Survey. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Fountas, I. & Pinnell, G. (1996). Guided Reading. (1996). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Franzese, R. (2002). Reading and Writing in Kindergarten. New York: Scholastic Professional Books. Montgomery County Public Schools. (1999). Guided Reading. Retrieved 11/25/04 from Pinnell, G. & Scharer, P. (2003). Teaching Comprehension in Reading. New York: Scholastic Professional Books. Taberski, S. (2000). On Solid Ground. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. 29

30 Appendix A Samples of running records 30

31 31

32 Appendix B Sample of Guided Reading Level A text (DRA level 1) I Like to Eat by Sharon Siamon 32

33 Appendix C Sample of Guided Reading Level D Text (DRA level 4) Kitty Cat and the Fish by Annette Smith 33

34 Appendix D Sample of Guided Reading Level J (DRA level 17) Henry and Mudge and Mrs. Hopper s House by Cynthia Rylant 34

35 Appendix E - Integrated Literacy Checklist 35

36 36

37 Appendix F: Developmental Reading Assessment Levels (DRA) Student Pre-Intervention Post-Intervention Amount of change Student Student Student Student 4 A 2 +2 Student 5 A not passed 1 +2 Student 6 A not passed 1 +1 Student Student Student 9 A 1 +1 Student 10 A not passed A not passed 0 Student 11 A not passed A not passed 0 Student 12 A not passed A not passed 0 Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student 20 A A not passed -1 Student 21 1 A not passed -2 37

38 Student Appendix G: Integrated Literacy Checklist Alphabet and Sound Recognition Alpha-Pre- Intervention (52 total) Alpha-Post- Intervention (52 total) Amount of change Sound-Pre- Intervention (26 total) Sound-Post- Intervention (26 total) Amount of change Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student

39 Appendix H: Integrated Literacy Checklist Concepts About Print Assessment Student Pre-Intervention Post-Intervention Amount of (16 total points) (16 total points) change Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student Student

40 Student Student 1 Student 2 Student 3 Student 4 Student 5 Student 6 Student 7 Student 8 Student 9 Student 10 Student 11 Student 12 Student Appendix I: Integrated Literacy Assessment Rhyming Words and Beginning Sounds Rhyming Pre- Intervention (6 total) Rhyming Post- Intervention (6 total) Amount of change Sounds Pre- Intervention (10 total) Sounds Post- Intervention (10 total) Amount of change `

41 41

Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System (1 and 2): The Research Base

Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System (1 and 2): The Research Base Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System (1 and 2): The Research Base The Fountas and Pinnell Benchmark Assessment System consists of a series of carefully designed benchmark books that measure

More information

How to Take Running Records

How to Take Running Records Running Records are taken to: guide teaching match readers to appropriate texts document growth overtime note strategies used group and regroup children for instruction How to Take Running Records (adapted

More information

Guided Reading Lesson Plan Levels 1-2 Day 1. During Reading (4 5 minutes) Pause. Praise an attempt.

Guided Reading Lesson Plan Levels 1-2 Day 1. During Reading (4 5 minutes) Pause. Praise an attempt. Text Level Determine Lesson Focus: One-to-one matching (V) Directionality (KOP) Return sweep (KOP) Maintain language pattern (S) Recognize sight words (V) Use picture cues (M) Set purpose for reading:

More information

Guided Reading with Emergent Readers by Jeanne Clidas, Ph.D.

Guided Reading with Emergent Readers by Jeanne Clidas, Ph.D. Bebop Books Guided Reading with Emergent Readers by Jeanne Clidas, Ph.D. What Is Guided Reading? Guided reading involves a small group of children thinking, talking, and reading through a new text with

More information

Grading Benchmarks FIRST GRADE. Trimester 4 3 2 1 1 st Student has achieved reading success at. Trimester 4 3 2 1 1st In above grade-level books, the

Grading Benchmarks FIRST GRADE. Trimester 4 3 2 1 1 st Student has achieved reading success at. Trimester 4 3 2 1 1st In above grade-level books, the READING 1.) Reads at grade level. 1 st Student has achieved reading success at Level 14-H or above. Student has achieved reading success at Level 10-F or 12-G. Student has achieved reading success at Level

More information

(MIRP) Monitoring Independent Reading Practice

(MIRP) Monitoring Independent Reading Practice (MIRP) Monitoring Independent Reading Practice ~ A Returning Developer ~ For further information contact Kathy Robinson Lake Country Elem. School 516 County Road 29 Lake Placid, Florida 33852 863.699.5050

More information

Reading Strategies by Level. Early Emergent Readers

Reading Strategies by Level. Early Emergent Readers The charts below were created as a common language for teachers and students in the Wallingford Public Schools in kindergarten through eighth grade. The level of the chart selected for use in the classroom

More information

Reading: Text level guide

Reading: Text level guide Reading: Text level guide Text level guide for seen text and accompanying background information. As teachers we provide the range of experiences and the instruction necessary to help children become good

More information

Standardized Criterion-referenced Tests Norm Referenced Tests Informal Reading Inventories Miscue Analyses Portfolio Assessment Running Records

Standardized Criterion-referenced Tests Norm Referenced Tests Informal Reading Inventories Miscue Analyses Portfolio Assessment Running Records Standardized Criterion-referenced Tests Norm Referenced Tests Informal Reading Inventories Miscue Analyses Portfolio Assessment Running Records Rubrics Retellings for Assessment Text Leveling In theory,

More information

FAQ about Reading Workshop

FAQ about Reading Workshop FAQ about Reading Workshop My child is in Level M. What does that mean as far as a grade level that I can understand? Several different systems exist today for organizing reading levels. The one used in

More information

Guided Reading Observations Level A Observations

Guided Reading Observations Level A Observations Level A Understands familiar concepts in stories and illustrations Differentiates print from pictures Holds book and turns pages from left to right Begins to match word-byword pointing with 1 finger under

More information

California. www.heinemann.com Phone: 800.225.5800

California. www.heinemann.com Phone: 800.225.5800 California Preschool Learning Foundations, Vol. 1 (Foundations in Language and Literacy) and The Continuum of Literacy Learning, Grades PreK 8: A Guide to Teaching by Gay Su Pinnell and Irene C. Fountas

More information

There are many reasons why reading can be hard. This handout describes

There are many reasons why reading can be hard. This handout describes Understand the problems a child may be having with reading, and target what you can do to help! Look inside for practical, research-based information for parents and teachers about: Phonological and Phonemic

More information

Language and Literacy

Language and Literacy Language and Literacy In the sections below is a summary of the alignment of the preschool learning foundations with (a) the infant/toddler learning and development foundations, (b) the common core state

More information

Using Leveled Text to Teach and Support Reading Strategies

Using Leveled Text to Teach and Support Reading Strategies Using Leveled Text to Teach and Support Reading Strategies The text structures of leveled text support the teaching of strategies along a developmental continuum. As the levels increase, the demands on

More information

Weekly Lesson Plan for Shared Reading Kindergarten

Weekly Lesson Plan for Shared Reading Kindergarten Weekly Lesson Plan for Shared Reading Kindergarten Level: Emergent Week of: Note: This sample plan contains considerably more detail than you would include in your own day book plan. This level of detail

More information

Opportunity Document for STEP Literacy Assessment

Opportunity Document for STEP Literacy Assessment Opportunity Document for STEP Literacy Assessment Introduction Children, particularly in urban settings, begin school with a variety of strengths and challenges that impact their learning. Some arrive

More information

Speech and Language Development during Elementary School

Speech and Language Development during Elementary School Speech and Language Development during Elementary School By the end of kindergarten your child should be able to do the following: Follow 1-2 simple directions in a sequence Listen to and understand age-appropriate

More information

Literacy. Work Stations. Source: Diller, D.(2003) Literacy Work Stations, Making Centers Work

Literacy. Work Stations. Source: Diller, D.(2003) Literacy Work Stations, Making Centers Work Literacy Work Stations Source: Diller, D.(2003) Literacy Work Stations, Making Centers Work Kyrene Reading Instruction Focus: Improve student achievement through implementation of curriculum and adopted

More information

Fountas-Pinnell Level M Informational Text

Fountas-Pinnell Level M Informational Text LESSON 30 TEACHER S GUIDE by Samantha Rabe Fountas-Pinnell Level M Informational Text Selection Summary Printing a newspaper in the 1700s involved hard work. Type was hand set. The letters were inked and

More information

Reading Assessment Checklist Behaviors to Notice, Teach and Support

Reading Assessment Checklist Behaviors to Notice, Teach and Support Behaviors to Notice Teach Level A/B (Fountas and Pinnell) - DRA 1/2 - NYC ECLAS 2 Solving Words - Locates known word(s) in. Analyzes words from left to right, using knowledge of sound/letter relationships

More information

RUNNING RECORDS ASSESSMENT

RUNNING RECORDS ASSESSMENT RUNNING RECORDS ASSESSMENT When a text is too hard, students begin to struggle and use less appropriate learning strategies. They learn much more from reading a text that is instructional or easy. Running

More information

Parent Resource Center Literacy Presentation September 19 th and 20 th Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Parent Resource Center Literacy Presentation September 19 th and 20 th Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Parent Resource Center Literacy Presentation September 19 th and 20 th Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) 1. How can you evaluate a grade level child and get individual and additional support? All students

More information

INTEGRATING THE COMMON CORE STANDARDS INTO INTERACTIVE, ONLINE EARLY LITERACY PROGRAMS

INTEGRATING THE COMMON CORE STANDARDS INTO INTERACTIVE, ONLINE EARLY LITERACY PROGRAMS INTEGRATING THE COMMON CORE STANDARDS INTO INTERACTIVE, ONLINE EARLY LITERACY PROGRAMS By Dr. Kay MacPhee President/Founder Ooka Island, Inc. 1 Integrating the Common Core Standards into Interactive, Online

More information

Exemplary Planning Commentary: Elementary Literacy

Exemplary Planning Commentary: Elementary Literacy Exemplary Planning Commentary: Elementary Literacy! This example commentary is for training purposes only. Copying or replicating responses from this example for use on a portfolio violates TPA policies.

More information

& Sample Lesson. Before Reading. Sight Word Review (1 minute)

& Sample Lesson. Before Reading. Sight Word Review (1 minute) Planning Support & Sample Lesson TIP The Early Guided Reading Lesson Plan found on page 190 in the Appendix is a template you can use to plan your lessons. Each component of the lesson is described in

More information

Guided Reading with I HAD A HIPPOPOTAMUS written and illustrated by Hector Viveros Lee

Guided Reading with I HAD A HIPPOPOTAMUS written and illustrated by Hector Viveros Lee Bebop Books Page 1 Guided Reading with I HAD A HIPPOPOTAMUS written and illustrated by Hector Viveros Lee Fiction/Fantasy Guided Reading : D DRA: 4 Reading Recovery : 6 24 pages, 119 words Focus: using

More information

Mendham Township School District Reading Curriculum Kindergarten

Mendham Township School District Reading Curriculum Kindergarten Mendham Township School District Reading Curriculum Kindergarten Kindergarten Unit 1: We Are Readers Exploring the Exciting World of Books Reading Level Benchmark: Emergent Story Books & Shared Reading

More information

Literacy Place for the Early Years Evidence-Based Research K 3

Literacy Place for the Early Years Evidence-Based Research K 3 Literacy Place for the Early Years Evidence-Based Research K 3 Table of Contents Page Daily Challenges for Teachers 2 Literacy Place for the Early Years 2 Literacy Place for the Early Years Evidence-Based

More information

WiggleWorks Aligns to Title I, Part A

WiggleWorks Aligns to Title I, Part A WiggleWorks Aligns to Title I, Part A The purpose of Title I, Part A Improving Basic Programs is to ensure that children in high-poverty schools meet challenging State academic content and student achievement

More information

Guided Reading with Chapter Books: Jeff Williams

Guided Reading with Chapter Books: Jeff Williams Guided Reading with Chapter Books: What Readers Need Jeff Williams Solon City Schools, Solon, Ohio Reading Recovery Teacher for 3 years District Literacy Teacher Leader for 3 years Classroom teacher (Grades

More information

IN THE MOUNTAINS Guided Reading: E DRA: 6 Intervention: 7

IN THE MOUNTAINS Guided Reading: E DRA: 6 Intervention: 7 Guided Reading with IN THE MOUNTAINS Guided Reading: E DRA: 6 Intervention: 7 written by Mary Cappellini illustrated by Cheryl Nathan Overview: A young Latina girl and her mother go on a nature hike through

More information

Pre-A Lesson Plan. Students: Date: Lesson # Working with Letters. Letter Activity: Letter formation: Working with Names (Circle 1) Name puzzles.

Pre-A Lesson Plan. Students: Date: Lesson # Working with Letters. Letter Activity: Letter formation: Working with Names (Circle 1) Name puzzles. Pre-A Lesson Plan Students: Date: Lesson # Activity Options * Working with Letters Observations/Notes Letter Activity: Letter formation: # Working with Names (Circle 1) Name puzzles. Make names out of

More information

OCPS Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment Alignment

OCPS Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment Alignment OCPS Curriculum, Instruction, Assessment Alignment Subject Area: Grade: Strand 1: Standard 1: Reading and Language Arts Kindergarten Reading Process The student demonstrates knowledge of the concept of

More information

What Is Leveled Reading? Learn how teachers are helping kids become better readers by matching them to the right books at the right time.

What Is Leveled Reading? Learn how teachers are helping kids become better readers by matching them to the right books at the right time. What Is Leveled Reading? Learn how teachers are helping kids become better readers by matching them to the right books at the right time. By Deborah Wilburn-Scholastic & Jennifer Smith The Importance of

More information

Guided Reading, Fluency, Accuracy, and Comprehension

Guided Reading, Fluency, Accuracy, and Comprehension Journal of Student Research 1 Guided Reading, Fluency, Accuracy, and Comprehension Kristi Heston Graduate Student, Education University of Wisconsin-Stout Guided Reading, Fluency, Accuracy, and Comprehension

More information

School District of Springfield Township

School District of Springfield Township K-5 Reading Instruction and Assessment District Philosophy and Approach The Language Arts curriculum of the School District of Springfield Township is aligned with the Pennsylvania Language Arts Standards

More information

Growing Up With Epilepsy

Growing Up With Epilepsy Teaching Students with Epilepsy: Children with epilepsy often experience learning issues as a result of their seizures. These may include ongoing problems with motor skills or cognitive functions, as well

More information

Mystery Clue Game for second grade Social Studies. Susan Wilson. 1. Important Background Information:

Mystery Clue Game for second grade Social Studies. Susan Wilson. 1. Important Background Information: III. Mystery Clue Game for second grade Social Studies Susan Wilson 1. Important Background Information: Activity Title: Mystery Clue Game for Barter and Money Economies Bibliography: Mitgutsch, A. (1985).

More information

Fountas-Pinnell Level K Realistic Fiction

Fountas-Pinnell Level K Realistic Fiction LESSON 16 TEACHER S GUIDE by Olive Porter Fountas-Pinnell Level K Realistic Fiction Selection Summary A class plans a bake sale to raise money for a field trip to a museum. First, they invite a baker to

More information

NFL Quarterback Bernie Kosar told

NFL Quarterback Bernie Kosar told RESEARCH PAPER VOLUME 1 Why It Is Important to Teach Phonemic Awareness and Alphabet Recognition by Dr. Cathy Collins Block Professor of Education Texas Christian University NFL Quarterback Bernie Kosar

More information

Year 1 reading expectations (New Curriculum) Year 1 writing expectations (New Curriculum)

Year 1 reading expectations (New Curriculum) Year 1 writing expectations (New Curriculum) Year 1 reading expectations Year 1 writing expectations Responds speedily with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of letters) for all 40+ phonemes, including, where applicable, alternative

More information

FSD Kindergarten READING

FSD Kindergarten READING College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or

More information

What do I need to know about the Common Core? Top 8 Questions Parents Ask Teachers

What do I need to know about the Common Core? Top 8 Questions Parents Ask Teachers What do I need to know about the Common Core? Top 8 Questions Parents Ask Teachers Across the country, educators are implementing the Common Core State Standards. These are standards that make sense to

More information

Elementary Literacy Plan

Elementary Literacy Plan Elementary Literacy Plan A Vision for Literacy Learning to read and write is one of life s most important achievements. A student s success in literacy development enhances learning in all subject areas,

More information

TABLE OF CONTENTS. Guidelines for Running/Reading Record Assessment...3 Purpose...3

TABLE OF CONTENTS. Guidelines for Running/Reading Record Assessment...3 Purpose...3 TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS Guidelines for Running/Reading Record Assessment...3 Purpose...3 Assessing and Evaluating Student Learning...3 Introduction...3 Tools, Tasks, and Strategies to Assess

More information

Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening

Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening Academic Standards for Reading, Writing, Speaking, and Listening Pre-K - 3 REVISED May 18, 2010 Pennsylvania Department of Education These standards are offered as a voluntary resource for Pennsylvania

More information

The National Reading Panel: Five Components of Reading Instruction Frequently Asked Questions

The National Reading Panel: Five Components of Reading Instruction Frequently Asked Questions The National Reading Panel: Five Components of Reading Instruction Frequently Asked Questions Phonemic Awareness What is a phoneme? A phoneme is the smallest unit of sound in a word. For example, the word

More information

Nevis Public School District #308. District Literacy Plan Minnesota Statute 120B.12, 2011 2015-2016. Learning together... Achieving quality together.

Nevis Public School District #308. District Literacy Plan Minnesota Statute 120B.12, 2011 2015-2016. Learning together... Achieving quality together. Nevis Public School District #308 District Literacy Plan Minnesota Statute 120B.12, 2011 2015-2016 Learning together... Achieving quality together. SCHOOL BOARD Chairperson: Vice Chairperson: Treasurer:

More information

Contents. A Word About This Guide... 3. Why Is It Important for My Child to Read?... 4. How Will My Child Learn to Read?... 4

Contents. A Word About This Guide... 3. Why Is It Important for My Child to Read?... 4. How Will My Child Learn to Read?... 4 Contents A Word About This Guide............................... 3 Why Is It Important for My Child to Read?................ 4 How Will My Child Learn to Read?....................... 4 How Can I Help My

More information

Grade 2 Reading and Literature Objectives

Grade 2 Reading and Literature Objectives Grade 2 Reading and Literature Objectives STATE GOAL 1: Reading with understanding and fluency. 1A. Apply word analysis and vocabulary skills to comprehend selections. 1.A.1a Apply word analysis skills

More information

Reading and Writing in the EYFS

Reading and Writing in the EYFS Reading and Writing in the EYFS Aims of this session: Outline the expectations in Nursery and Reception for reading and writing Explain how we teach reading in the EYFS Give you some ideas on how you can

More information

Indiana Department of Education

Indiana Department of Education GRADE 1 READING Guiding Principle: Students read a wide range of fiction, nonfiction, classic, and contemporary works, to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United

More information

Balanced Literacy in Seattle Public Schools

Balanced Literacy in Seattle Public Schools Introduction Balanced Literacy in Seattle Public Schools The goal for literacy instruction in Seattle Public Schools is to ensure that all pre- Kindergarten through twelfth grade students become proficient

More information

Teacher's Guide to Meeting the Common Core State Standards* with Scott Foresman Reading Street 2008

Teacher's Guide to Meeting the Common Core State Standards* with Scott Foresman Reading Street 2008 Implementing the Common Core State StandArds Teacher's Guide to Meeting the Common Core State Standards* with Scott Foresman Reading Street 2008 Table of Contents Grade 5 Introduction................................................

More information

ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS

ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS INTRODUCTION Clear student learning outcomes and high learning standards in the program of studies are designed to prepare students for present and future language requirements. Changes

More information

Directions for Administering the Graded Passages

Directions for Administering the Graded Passages Directions for Administering the Graded Passages The versions (A D for grades 9 12; A and B for adult literacy students at grades 1 8) of Graded Passages are about different topics but similar in length

More information

Creating Strong Report Card Comments. A Handbook for Elementary Teachers

Creating Strong Report Card Comments. A Handbook for Elementary Teachers Creating Strong Report Card Comments A Handbook for Elementary Teachers Creating Strong Report Card Comments A comment on the report card should provide additional information about the student s level

More information

Support for Student Literacy

Support for Student Literacy Support for Student Literacy Introduction In today s schools, many students struggle with English language literacy. Some students grow up speaking, reading and/or writing other languages before being

More information

Progress Monitoring. This guide reviews the DRA2 Progress Monitoring Assessment and EDL2 Evaluación para verificar el progreso.

Progress Monitoring. This guide reviews the DRA2 Progress Monitoring Assessment and EDL2 Evaluación para verificar el progreso. Progress Monitoring Introduction This guide reviews the DRA2 Progress Monitoring Assessment and EDL2 Evaluación para verificar el progreso. Each year as teachers administer either the DRA2 or the EDL2

More information

240Tutoring Reading Comprehension Study Material

240Tutoring Reading Comprehension Study Material 240Tutoring Reading Comprehension Study Material This information is a sample of the instructional content and practice questions found on the 240Tutoring PRAXIS II Middle School English Language Arts

More information

Characteristics of the Text Genre Realistic fi ction Text Structure

Characteristics of the Text Genre Realistic fi ction Text Structure LESSON 2 TEACHER S GUIDE by Rita Cruz Fountas-Pinnell Level J Realistic Fiction Selection Summary Nora goes to a Mexican festival with Alma and her family. Each time Nora thinks she has seen the best part

More information

Reading Comprehension: Strategies for Elementary and Secondary School Students

Reading Comprehension: Strategies for Elementary and Secondary School Students Running head: READING COMPREHENSION Reading Comprehension: Strategies for Elementary and Secondary School Students Michele Harvey Harvey_mw@amherst.k12.va.us 225 Farmdale Drive Madison Heights, VA 24572

More information

APPENDIX B CHECKLISTS

APPENDIX B CHECKLISTS APPENDIX B CHECKLISTS Kindergarten First Grade Second Grade Third Grade 69 70 Teacher Visit 1 By: Date / / Time - WG SG Visit 2 By: Date / / Time - WG SG Visit 3 By: Date / / Time - WG SG VISITS 1 2 3

More information

1. Select a book that approximates the student's reading level. Explain that she/he will read out loud as you observe and record her/his reading

1. Select a book that approximates the student's reading level. Explain that she/he will read out loud as you observe and record her/his reading What is a Running Record? A running record allows you to assess a student's reading performance as she/he reads from a benchmark book. Benchmark books are books selected for running record assessment purposes.

More information

Numbers Must Make Sense: A Kindergarten Math Intervention

Numbers Must Make Sense: A Kindergarten Math Intervention Numbers Must Make Sense: A Kindergarten Math Intervention Paula Kitchen Metropolitan School District of Pike Township Do you have students who do not recognize their numbers or cannot count to ten? We

More information

Unit 2 Title: Word Work Grade Level: 1 st Grade Timeframe: 6 Weeks

Unit 2 Title: Word Work Grade Level: 1 st Grade Timeframe: 6 Weeks Unit 2 Title: Grade Level: 1 st Grade Timeframe: 6 Weeks Unit Overview: This unit of word work will focus on the student s ability to identify and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds.

More information

Main Idea in Informational Text Grade Three

Main Idea in Informational Text Grade Three Ohio Standards Connection Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text Benchmark C Identify the central ideas and supporting details of informational text. Indicator 3 Identify and list the important central

More information

Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) consists of a series of planned lessons designed to provide supplementary instruction

Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) consists of a series of planned lessons designed to provide supplementary instruction Research Base for Leveled Literacy Intervention Leveled Literacy Intervention (LLI) consists of a series of planned lessons designed to provide supplementary instruction to kindergarten, first, and second

More information

What do Book Band levels mean?

What do Book Band levels mean? What do Book Band levels mean? Reading books are graded by difficulty by reading levels known as Book Bands. Each Book Band has its own colour. The chart below gives an indication of the range of Book

More information

GRADE K LITERACY IN SCIENCE: WE ARE EXPERTS

GRADE K LITERACY IN SCIENCE: WE ARE EXPERTS GRADE K LITERACY IN SCIENCE: WE ARE EXPERTS UNIT OVERVIEW This task is embedded in a unit that introduces students to reading and writing informational texts. Students will be encouraged to ask questions

More information

Advice for Class Teachers. Moderating pupils reading at P 4 NC Level 1

Advice for Class Teachers. Moderating pupils reading at P 4 NC Level 1 Advice for Class Teachers Moderating pupils reading at P 4 NC Level 1 Exemplars of writing at P Scales and into National Curriculum levels. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance for class

More information

ALBUQUERQUE PUBLIC SCHOOLS

ALBUQUERQUE PUBLIC SCHOOLS ALBUQUERQUE PUBLIC SCHOOLS Speech and Language Initial Evaluation Name: Larry Language School: ABC Elementary Date of Birth: 8-15-1999 Student #: 123456 Age: 8-8 Grade:6 Gender: male Referral Date: 4-18-2008

More information

A Writer s Workshop: Working in the Middle from Jennifer Alex, NNWP Consultant

A Writer s Workshop: Working in the Middle from Jennifer Alex, NNWP Consultant Structure of a Workshop: A Writer s Workshop: Working in the Middle from Jennifer Alex, NNWP Consultant For the last four years, writing and reading workshops have been the foundation of my classroom practice.

More information

NWEA Recommendations for Transitioning Students from MPG to MAP 2 5

NWEA Recommendations for Transitioning Students from MPG to MAP 2 5 NWEA Recommendations for Transitioning Students from MPG to MAP 2 5 In order to determine which test is more appropriate to administer to your elementary grade students, it is important to consider the

More information

Muhammad Ali Presents Go the Distance! Aligns to Title I, Part A. June 2007 1

Muhammad Ali Presents Go the Distance! Aligns to Title I, Part A. June 2007 1 11 Muhammad Ali Presents Go the Distance! Aligns to Title I, Part A The purpose of Title I, Part A Improving Basic Programs is to ensure that children in high-poverty schools meet challenging State academic

More information

Child-speak Reading Level 1 APP AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 AF5 AF6 AF7 Use a range of strategies, including accurate decoding text, to read for meaning

Child-speak Reading Level 1 APP AF1 AF2 AF3 AF4 AF5 AF6 AF7 Use a range of strategies, including accurate decoding text, to read for meaning Child-speak Reading Level 1 APP In some usually I can break down and blend consonant vowel consonant words e.g. cat (1c) I can recognise some familiar words in the I read. (1c) When aloud, I know the sentences

More information

What do Book Band levels mean?

What do Book Band levels mean? What do Book Band levels mean? Reading books are graded by difficulty by reading levels known as Book Bands. Each Book Band has its own colour. The chart below gives an indication of the range of Book

More information

What ARE the Other Kids Doing? K-2 Meaningful Literacy Centers

What ARE the Other Kids Doing? K-2 Meaningful Literacy Centers What ARE the Other Kids Doing? K-2 Meaningful Literacy Centers Kathy Bumgardner Literacy Specialist / Consultant National Consulting Author Macmillan McGraw Hill kbumreading@yahoo.com Kathy Keane ELA Curriculum

More information

CCSS.Math.Content.5.OA.A.1 Use parentheses, brackets, or braces in numerical expressions, and evaluate expressions with these symbols.

CCSS.Math.Content.5.OA.A.1 Use parentheses, brackets, or braces in numerical expressions, and evaluate expressions with these symbols. Directions: Respond to the prompts below (no more than 8 singlespaced pages, including prompts) by typing your responses within the brackets following each prompt. Do not delete or alter the prompts; both

More information

Operations and Algebraic Thinking Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division.

Operations and Algebraic Thinking Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division. Performance Assessment Task The Answer is 36 Grade 3 The task challenges a student to use knowledge of operations and their inverses to complete number sentences that equal a given quantity. A student

More information

The student I chose for this case study is a second grade student at an elementary

The student I chose for this case study is a second grade student at an elementary I. Analysis and Synthesis The student I chose for this case study is a second grade student at an elementary school. I will call him John Smith. John is a Hispanic student who has two other siblings: a

More information

LiteracyPlanet & the Australian Curriculum: Pre-School

LiteracyPlanet & the Australian Curriculum: Pre-School LiteracyPlanet & the Australian Curriculum: Pre-School We look at learning differently. LiteracyPlanet & the Australian Curriculum Welcome to LiteracyPlanet & the Australian Curriculum. LiteracyPlanet

More information

These Guidelines aim to maximise Reading Recovery effectiveness in Victorian schools and assure the provision of a quality intervention for students.

These Guidelines aim to maximise Reading Recovery effectiveness in Victorian schools and assure the provision of a quality intervention for students. These Guidelines aim to maximise Reading Recovery effectiveness in Victorian schools and assure the provision of a quality intervention for students. The Guidelines reflect the intent of the Australian

More information

The First 20 Days of Reading: Intermediate Description of Lessons

The First 20 Days of Reading: Intermediate Description of Lessons Day 1 The First 20 Days of Reading: Intermediate Description of Lessons Read Aloud & Independent Reading Read Aloud: Reading is Thinking! Teacher will model how they think as they read. Teacher will think

More information

Scaffolding Young Writers

Scaffolding Young Writers Scaffolding Young Writers A Writers Workshop Approach Linda J. Dorn Carla Soffos Stenhouse Publishers Portland, Maine Contents Acknowledgments Introduction ix xi 1. The Development of Young Writers 1 2.

More information

Kindergarten Common Core State Standards: English Language Arts

Kindergarten Common Core State Standards: English Language Arts Kindergarten Common Core State Standards: English Language Arts Reading: Foundational Print Concepts RF.K.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. o Follow words from

More information

Fountas-Pinnell Level O Humorous Fiction

Fountas-Pinnell Level O Humorous Fiction LESSON 1 TEACHER S GUIDE Ms. F Goes Back to School by Blaise Terrapin Fountas-Pinnell Level O Humorous Fiction Selection Summary Ms. F, a principal, takes evening classes at a local college, and shares

More information

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details

Strand: Reading Literature Topics Standard I can statements Vocabulary Key Ideas and Details Strand: Reading Literature Key Ideas and Craft and Structure Integration of Knowledge and Ideas RL.K.1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text RL.K.2. With prompting

More information

Administering and Scoring of the Oral Reading Fluency and Maze Tests

Administering and Scoring of the Oral Reading Fluency and Maze Tests Administering and Scoring of the Oral Reading Fluency and Maze Tests Path Driver for Reading uses two forms of curriculum-based measurements (CBMs) to monitor student reading development oral reading fluency

More information

Mercer County Schools

Mercer County Schools Mercer County Schools PRIORITIZED CURRICULUM Reading/English Language Arts Content Maps Third Grade Mercer County Schools PRIORITIZED CURRICULUM The Mercer County Schools Prioritized Curriculum is composed

More information

Grade 1 LA. 1. 1. 1. 1. Subject Grade Strand Standard Benchmark. Florida K-12 Reading and Language Arts Standards 27

Grade 1 LA. 1. 1. 1. 1. Subject Grade Strand Standard Benchmark. Florida K-12 Reading and Language Arts Standards 27 Grade 1 LA. 1. 1. 1. 1 Subject Grade Strand Standard Benchmark Florida K-12 Reading and Language Arts Standards 27 Grade 1: Reading Process Concepts of Print Standard: The student demonstrates knowledge

More information

Students with Reading Problems Their Characteristics and Needs

Students with Reading Problems Their Characteristics and Needs Students with Reading Problems Their Characteristics and Needs Roxanne Hudson, Ph.D. Florida Center for Reading Research Florida State University rhudson@fcrr.org We want all students to read grade level

More information

Grades K 5 Next Generation Science Standards Transition Sets Teacher Guide

Grades K 5 Next Generation Science Standards Transition Sets Teacher Guide Grades K5 Next Generation Science Standards Transition Sets Teacher Guide Grades K5 NGSS Transition Sets Teacher Guide Contents Teaching the Next Generation Science Standards in the Elementary Classroom.

More information

Choral Reading Type: Strategy Literacy Skill: Reading Domain:

Choral Reading Type: Strategy Literacy Skill: Reading Domain: Choral Reading Strategy Literacy Skill: Reading Fluency Grade Level Uses: K-20 Special Population: N/A; Need to modify the reading for ELL and Special Needs with accommodations Cognitive Process: Comprehension

More information

School policy on the teaching of phonics, reading and writing

School policy on the teaching of phonics, reading and writing School policy on the teaching of phonics, reading and writing Our pupils learn to read and write effectively and quickly using the Read Write Inc. Phonics programme. They progress onto Read Write Inc.

More information

Guided Reading: Constructivism in Action. Donna Kester Phillips, Niagara University. Abstract

Guided Reading: Constructivism in Action. Donna Kester Phillips, Niagara University. Abstract Guided Reading: Constructivism in Action Donna Kester Phillips, Niagara University Abstract Guided Reading is currently considered one of the most important components of balanced literacy instruction.

More information

SUCCEEDING IN READING: AN EARLY LITERACY SUPPORT FRAMEWORK

SUCCEEDING IN READING: AN EARLY LITERACY SUPPORT FRAMEWORK SUCCEEDING IN READING: AN EARLY LITERACY SUPPORT FRAMEWORK APRIL 26, 2011 SUCCEEDING IN READING: AN EARLY LITERACY SUPPORT FRAMEWORK FRAMEWORK OVERVIEW The Department of Education has established a framework

More information

Characteristics of the Text Genre Nonfi ction Text Structure

Characteristics of the Text Genre Nonfi ction Text Structure LESSON 23 TEACHER S GUIDE by Ashlyn Adams Fountas-Pinnell Level F Nonfiction Selection Summary We use different sounds to say what we feel. There are many ways to tell people something, from crying to

More information

Ms Juliani -Syllabus Special Education-Language/ Writing

Ms Juliani -Syllabus Special Education-Language/ Writing Ms Juliani -Syllabus Special Education-Language/ Writing * As a teacher, I have high expectations for my students and believe that they need to be encouraged, nurtured, and rewarded for their efforts.

More information