Jatropha Curcas and Bio-diesel Development in Madagascar

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1 Jatropha Curcas and Bio-diesel Development in Madagascar

2 Outline Definition of bio-diesel Agricultural techniques and plantations of Jatropha Curcas Oil extraction and bio-diesel production Markets and prices Bio-diesel development models Legal and regulatory framework Economic and environmental impacts Conclusions and recommendations

3 What is BIO-DIESEL? Bio-diesel is diesel produced from vegetal oil The process is a well known technique called «Trans-esterification». It is now profitable because of high prices of fossil oil. Bio-diesel can totally replace fossil diesel, or can be mixed with it. Vegetal oil from the seeds of Jatropha Curcas is among the best source of bio-diesel.

4 Why Jatropha Curcas? Shrubs (2 to 5 meters) growing on poor soils, in dry to humid areas Low cost, easy to grow, perennial plant (40 years). First harvest after 18 months Produces cheap, but toxic, vegetal oil: no need of subsidies to produce bio-diesel Farmers can make $200 to 250$/ha/year on marginal lands No competition with food or cash crops

5 Madagascar

6 Pictures of Jatropha Curcas

7 TECHNIQUE OF PLANTING Seeds NURSERY Direct sowing in pot Young plant in pot PLANTATION Hole digging Transplantation 3kg/ha seeds Cost of nursery: $60/ha 2500 plants/ha Cost of plantation: $70/ha Pruning-Weeding Harvest Drying -Sorting Packaging-Storage Yield: At least 5T/ha Harvest : Feb to August

8 OIL EXTRACTION PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL PROCEDE D EXTRACTION Seeds Graines Décortiquage-Broyage Crushing Vapeur d eausteam humidification Chauffage Heating Expelling Trituration-Pression Filtration Tourteau Seed cake Used as Fertilizer or Charcoal Huile brute Crude oil RAFFINAGE Refinery BIODIESEL Yield: 30%

9 D1Oils plc UK company, listed on the London Stock Exchange; among the world leaders in bio-diesel processing and production. Works in the UK, Southern Africa/Madagascar, India, Asia/Pacific and Australia/New Zealand. Has developed a small refinery, to produce bio-diesel from Jatropha oil that meets high quality European norms. Capacity: 8000 T/year of bio-diesel.

10 By-Products from Seed Cake Organic fertilizer with high content in Nitrogen (5%). See results of tests on rice below. Jatropha briquettes could be used as substitute to charcoal: early stage of research Biomass for electricity production. Rendement de paddy (t/ha) Rendement SRI 3 Rendement SRA T0 T1=0,5 T2=1 T3=2 Dose de tourteau (t/ha) T4=3

11 Crude Oil Market Rural Communities: (soaps, lights). Limited impacts. Domestic soap industry: raw material, often blended with palm oil. Larger market but problem of toxicity.

12 Bio-diesel Markets Domestic market: mandatory incorporation in fossil diesel (5% in Madagascar in 2010). This is a $15/20 million market International Market: An European Union directive recommends that 5.75% of all diesel consumed in Europe must come from vegetal source by This represents a market of more than $40 billion, with heavy subsidies by European Union to bio-diesel producers. In India, 20% of the diesel market will be bio-diesel in 2020.

13 Prices of Fossil Oil and Bio-diesel Assumption: Prices of bio-diesel are equal to prices of imported fossil diesel that vary depending on prices of fossil oil/barrel. Bio-diesel producers will buy crude Jatropha oil from farmers at a price which is approximately $200 less than the bio-diesel price. Linkages between prices of fossil oil, fossil diesel/bio-diesel and crude Jatropha oil Price of fossil oil/barrel Price of biodiesel = fossil diesel C&F Madagascar/T Price of crude Jatropha oil/t

14 Bio-diesel development Model Outgrower Scheme Farmers Associations of small farmers Big farmers Bio-diesel refiners Contracts For instance, the local branch of D1Oils plc. Private firms Plantation - Extraction Grow Jatropha. Extract crude oil Follow instruction of D1 Crude oil Refining into Biodiesel Provide Technical assistance Give seeds, plastic pots Fund nurseries Purchase crude Jatropha oil

15 Bio-diesel Development Model Outgrower scheme M Nurseries Expellers Plantations Refineries Villages Crude Jatropha oil M:model farm

16 Bio-diesel Development Model Outgrower Scheme Challenges Securing land tenure. Signing mutually profitable contracts with farmers Financing farmer plantations. Identifying and financing appropriate post harvest technology (Expellers). Setting up an efficient logistical network.

17 Bio-diesel Development Model Integrated Industrial project Plantations and infrastructure: $2 million for 5,000 ha. Industrial seed crushing unit (150 T/day): $1,5 million Bio-diesel refinery (8,000T/year): $4 million Organic fertilizer mixing and bagging plant (15,000 T/year): $200,000 Total investments: about $8 million. Conditions: secured land tenure, mandatory incorporation of bio-diesel, appropriate harbor and logistical facilities, partnership with bio-diesel refiner

18 Legal and Regulatory Framework Bio-fuel definition: Fuel from biomass (animal or vegetal origin) Ex: Bio-diesel, bio-ethanol Role of Government: Encourage production of bio-diesel Determine level and starting date for mandatory incorporation in fossil diesel Establish quality standards and monitor competitiveness Provide fiscal and custom incentives for bio-diesel processors/refiners: tax holiday for 5 years, duty free import of equipment and inputs, exemption of VAT and environmental tax.

19 Impacts of bio-diesel Environmental impacts Reduction of air pollution Green fuel: reduction of carbon emission Jatropha trees absorb CO2 Renewable resource Soil protection, erosion control Economic impacts Additional income for farmers Job creation: 250 men/day/ha Foreign currency gains Can attract large investments

20 Conclusions: How to Promote Bio-diesel Design and implement a broad sensitization campaign Train farmers and disseminate best cultural practices Identify best extraction technology and equipment Help establish productive linkages between farmers and bio-diesel producers. Promote research to valorize Jatropha cake as an alternative to charcoal and/or as a fertilizer. Work with the Government and all stakeholders to develop a conducive legal and regulatory framework Identify, attract and assist foreign producers/refiners of bio-diesel

21 WINNER support to Jatropha development WINNER will provide financing and technical assistance for Jatropha plantation and processing, working with farmer associations and private enterprises. We will be assisted by D1-BP Fuel Crops Limited, which has 220,000 ha of Jatropha curcas under cultivation in South East Asia, Africa and India. D1 Oils has developed a global research programme on 300 J. curcas cultivars with a Jatropha breeding station in Cape Verde and development centres in Zambia, Swaziland, India, Thailand and Indonesia. WINNER Interventions: Planning and evaluation phase; Cultivar improvement ; Agronomy research (nursery trials, inter-cropping, pruning, fertilization); Out-grower management systems (extension manuals, training of extension officers, etc,); dissemination of appropriate processing technology (expellers).

22 Costs of Energy in Haiti in 2003 Sources National Consum. (MT) % Price/T. (US $) Value (KUS $/T) % Fuelwood 401, , Charcoal 207, , Gasoline 118, , , Kerosene 76, , Diesel 321, ,

23 Haiti Diesel Price Structure Price category Cost (US$) Price at terminal Fees Taxes Company margin Transport Cost Total

24 Main data on Biodiesel for Haiti In Metric Tons and US Dollars Diesel imports (2006 estimations): about 350,000 T or 100 million gallons. Domestic market (2006): around $220 million Proposed biodiesel alternative: BP20 (20% biodiesel). Biodiesel needed: T or approximately 20 million gallons Rough industrial investment (based on D1 Oils data): around $35 million Jatropha plantations : between 100,000 and 70,000 ha. Cost of plantation: approximately $100/ha (cuttings) to $300/ha (seedlings): At least $10 million Cost of oil expellers for farmer cooperatives: about 280 units x $5,000: $1,4 million.

25 Next Steps Clearly define goals in terms of market share. Develop a business plan based on above goals Set up a Haitian company and put in place a good organization Start plantations during next rainy season

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