RFID Technology. 1 Basics and Fundamentals. Henrik B. Granau

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1 RFID Technology 1 Basics and Fundamentals Henrik B. Granau

2 RFID Educational 1 Basics and Fundamentals 2 Live demo and real-world considerations 3 Privacy Impact Assessment and RFID Signing 4 Introduction to GS1 and EPC standards 5 EPCIS, data capture and integration 6 SmartCards and Near Field Communication (NFC)

3 What Constitutes an RFID System? One or more RF tags Two or more antennas One or more interrogators One or more host computers Appropriate software

4 RFID System Components (block diagram) Antenna Asset/Tag Asset Reader Firmware Tag Insert Host TCP/IP Power ~ Customer s MIS Application Software API

5 RFID Operation (Passive Tags) APPLICATION INTERROGATOR RF TAG Application Program Interface DEVICE COMMANDS APPLICATION COMMANDS Command / APPLICATION RESPONSES DEVICE RESPONSES Encoder Decoder Response Unit Logical Memory DATA PROTOCOL PROCESSOR Tag Driver and Mapping Rules PHYSICAL INTERROGATOR AIR INTERFACE COMMANDS RESPONSES Tag Physical Memory Logical Memory Map Note: The Logical Memory Map in the Tag Physical Memory is given by the Tag architecture and the mapping rules in the Tag Driver. All the information in the Logical Memory is represented in the Logical Memory Map ISO/IEC ISO/IEC ISO/IEC ISO/IEC Annexes

6 RFID Operation (Passive Tags)

7 The RFID Tag Chip Inlays Antenna Tag (SmartLabel)

8 Tag Variations

9 Tag Variations

10 Tag Variations

11 RFID Readers/scanners Readers/scanners can be in a fixed position, like; Entrance/Exit At a Cach Register In a Warehouse Intelligent shelves Readers/scanners can also be mobile Hand held wireless in Labtop s in PDA s in Smart Phones!

12 RFID frequences and active/passive

13 Technical Standards Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31/WG 4/SG 3 RFID for Item Management Air Interface (ISO 18000) ISO/IEC Generic parameters - Air interface ISO/IEC Parameters for air interface below 135 khz ISO/IEC Parameters for air interface at MHz ISO/IEC Parameters for air interface at 2.45 GHz ISO/IEC Parameters for air interface at MHz ISO/IEC Parameters for active air interface at MHz

14 RFID Primer Frequencies LF: Animal ID HF: I.C. Cards Inductive technology (Magnetic Field Coupling): Near Field 30 khz to 30 MHz 130 khz MHz

15 <150 khz (125 khz & 134 khz ) Advantages Uses normal CMOS processing basic and ubiquitous Relative freedom from regulatory limitations Well suited for applications requiring reading small amounts of data at slow speeds and minimal distances Penetrates materials well (water, tissue, wood, aluminum)

16 <150 khz (125 khz & 134 khz ) Disadvantages: Does not penetrate or transmit around metals (iron, steel) Handles only small amounts of data Slow read speeds Large Antennas -- compared to higher frequencies Minimal Range

17 13.56 MHz Advantages Uses normal CMOS processing--basic and ubiquitous Well suited for applications requiring reading small amounts of data and minimal distances Penetrates water/tissue well Simpler antenna design (fewer turns of the coil); lower costs to build Higher data rate (than 125 khz--but slower than higher MHz systems) Thinner tag construction (than 125 khz) Popular Smart Card frequency

18 13.56 MHz Disadvantages Government regulated frequency (U.S. and Europe recently harmonized) Does not penetrate or transmit around metals Large Antennas (compared to higher frequencies) Larger tag size than higher frequencies Reading Range of 0.7 m

19 RFID Primer Frequencies Data Terminal RFID: Toll Roads Cell Phone Propagative technology (Electric Field Coupling): Far Field Lower Range UHF >300 MHz <3 (<1) GHz 1000 MHz

20 >300 MHz <1GHz Advantages Effective around metals Best available frequency for distances of >1m Tag size smaller than MHz Smaller antennas Good non-line-of-sight communication (except for conductive, "lossy" materials) High data rate; Large amounts of data Controlled read zone (through antenna directionality)

21 >300 MHz <1GHz Disadvantages Does not penetrate water/tissue Regulatory issues (differences in frequency, channels, power, and duty cycle) Regulatory issues in Europe, Japan, Korea, and Australia are reasonably reconciled China remaining as a significant regulatory development activity

22 RFID Primer Frequencies WLAN RFID: Item Management EAS Propagative technology (Electric Field Coupling): 2.45 GHz 2.45 GHz

23 2.45 GHz Advantages Tag size smaller than inductive or lower range UHF (1"x 1/4") Range: greater range than inductive w/o battery More bandwidth than lower range UHF (more frequencies to hop) Smaller antennas than lower range UHF or inductive High data rate

24 2.45 GHz Advantages Good non-line-of-sight communication (except for conductive, "lossy" materials) Can transmit large amounts of data more quickly than lower frequencies Controlled read zone (through antenna directionality)

25 2.45 GHz Disadvantages ISM band -- Public, unlicensed band More susceptible to electronic noise than lower UHF bands, e.g. 433 MHz, MHz Shared spectrum with other technologies-- microwave ovens, RLANS, TV devices, etc. Requires non-interfering, "good neighbor" tactics like FHSS Competitive requirement: single chip--highly technical; limited number of vendors

26 RFID Primer Frequency RFID: European Tolls GHz >5.8 GHz (European Road Telematics) Advantages: Less congested band/less interference Disadvantages: Not available in many countries Must orient antennas carefully Range limited (due to scaling issues/ wavelengths) High power consumption Chip difficult to build Expensive

27 Fundamental questions for RFID Systems At what distance do we need to read the tags? How fast do we need to read the tags? How many tags do we need to read simoultaniously? How many tags do we need? How much will each tag be used? To what will the tags be attached? In which environment does the tags need to operate?

28 RFID Educational 1 Basics and Fundamentals 2 Live demo and real-world considerations 3 Privacy Impact Assessment and RFID Signing 4 Introduction to GS1 and EPC standards 5 EPCIS, data capture and integration 6 SmartCards and Near Field Communication (NFC)

29 RFID Technology 1 Basics and Fundamentals Henrik B. Granau

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