How Can the Percent Composition of a Salt, Sand and Iron Mixture be Determined?

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1 Lab 2 Name How Can the Percent Composition of a Salt, Sand and Iron Mixture be Determined? Pre-Lab Assignment This written pre-lab is worth 15% (3 points) of your lab report grade and must be turned in to your lab instructor before lab begins. Read the entire lab handout and answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. 1. List one possible safety hazard associated with this experiment. 2. What measurements are needed to calculate the percent of iron in the mixture? 3. Briefly describe how you can determine how much of each component is present in a mixture. 4. Describe three important tips for measuring volume of a liquid using a graduated cylinder. 5. Draw a simple diagram of a Bunsen burner and label the portions responsible for flame height and flame color. Experimental Question How can the percent composition of a salt, sand and iron mixture be determined? Learning goals Make detailed qualitative observations in your data record. Make metric measurements with proper units. Use different types of glassware and understand their functions. Use a Bunsen burner properly. Investigate the principle behind filtration. Use different methods for separating different kinds of mixtures. Procedure Please work with a partner; record his/her full name. My lab partner is: Write down all qualitative and quantitative observations and measurements directly on this sheet. During the experiment, make a note of any possible sources of loss of a component or the mixture. The equipment needed for each experiment is located either in your lab drawer, on the cart in the center of the lab or in a labeled cabinet or drawer. Obtain and make qualitative observations on the mixture as described below. Invert the bottle containing the mixture of salt, sand and iron several times to mix it well. Obtain about 10 ml of the mixture in a small beaker. Make observations on the mixture. Samples of the mixture are set up under dissecting microscopes in the lab. Examine the mixture under the microscope and record the appearance of the particles you see. Distinguish between the salt crystals, the grains of sand and the iron filings in drawings and your description

2 Lab 2: How Can the Percent Composition of a Salt, Sand and Iron Mixture be Determined 2 Critical Thinking Question 1: Do you expect teams to get the same or different percent compositions of the mixture? Explain briefly. Take your beaker containing the salt, sand & iron mixture along with the small flask to the top loading electronic balance and weigh about 5 grams of the mixture according to the instructions below. Mass measurements using a top-loading balance: When using a balance to make mass measurements, be sure all containers and substances are at room temperature. Place a piece of weighing paper on the balance pan. Close the top of the balance. Wait until the reading holds steady and push the tare button. The balance should now read or 0.00 grams, depending on the precision of the balance. Hold the mouth of the beaker over the weighing paper, then tap on the side so that small amounts of the mixture pour onto the paper. Keep adding the mixture until you have a mass between 4.5 and 5.5 grams. Record the actual mass of your sample in grams, including all digits, even zeros at the end. For example, if the balance shows a readout of 5.200, you need to record g on your paper, NOT 5.2 g. Carefully pour the sample from the paper into another small beaker. Dispose of the paper and any excess mixture in the trash can. m mixture = g Separate the iron from the mixture: Spread the mixture into a very thin layer over a full sized piece of paper. Weigh and record the mass of a second piece of weighing paper and set it aside. m weighing paper = g Wrap a small square of clear plastic over the magnet. Remove the iron filings by passing the magnet closely over the surface of the entire mixture. Repeat several times to make sure you ve collected all the iron. Holding the magnet over the weighing paper, carefully remove the plastic and allow all the iron to fall onto the paper. Weigh and record the mass. Determine the mass of the iron filings by subtraction and record this value in the Data Table on page 4. m iron+weighing paper = g Describe the appearance of the mixture after removing the magnetic component. At your bench, use the graduated cylinder to measure 25.0 ml of water. Volume measurements using a graduated cylinder: To read the volume: Place your cylinder on a flat surface. Put your eye level with the meniscus meniscus (meniscus: the curve of the liquid surface).read the volume at the bottom of the meniscus. Pour the water into the beaker containing the mixture that remains after removing the magnetic component. Describe the appearance before, during, and after swirling the mixture continuously for 1 minute: Critical Thinking Question 2: What happened to the salt? Where is the salt now?

3 Lab 2: How Can the Percent Composition of a Salt, Sand and Iron Mixture be Determined 3 Filter the mixture as follows: Place the funnel in a ring clamp and set the clamp so that the end of the funnel feeds into the mouth of a small beaker. Use a PENCIL (not pen) to label a piece of filter paper with your initials. Weigh the filter paper. m filter paper = g Fold a piece of filter paper into quarters and place into the funnel, forming a cone. Wet the paper with a squirt from a wash bottle to hold the paper in place. Transfer the liquid into the funnel by pouring the liquid down a stirring rod (see instructor demo). Rinse with a small amount of water from the wash bottle. The liquid (called the filtrate) should come through the filter with a clear appearance. If necessary repeat the filtration step with new filter paper. Let the rinse water drain completely. Describe the appearance of the liquid filtrate and the solid remaining on the filter paper. Place a new beaker or flask under the funnel. Rinse with about 5 ml of ethanol. Place the filter paper in the oven to completely dry the residue (at least 15 minutes). The ethanol filtrate may be disposed of down the sink. Note: while the solid is drying, proceed with the rest of the experiment. Weigh the filter paper plus the dry residue. Describe the appearance of the residue. m filter paper + residue = g Critical Thinking Question 3: Where is the sand now? Where is the salt now? Evaporate the filtrate as follows: Weigh an evaporating dish and record the mass. m evaporating dish = g Pour the filtrate into the evaporating dish. Adjust the clamp so it rests 3-5 inches above the Bunsen burner. Connect the burner to the gas outlet, and have the instructor inspect your set-up before you light the burner. Instructor initials: Wear safety goggles. Watch your hair and clothing, and have proper footwear. Clear the work area around the burner. Light a match and hold it over the end of the burner. Open the bench valve completely. Adjust the flame color to blue by turning the barrel, and adjust the height of the flame using the knob at the base of the burner so that it just touches the bottom of the gauze on the ring clamp. Allow the liquid to come to a gentle boil in the evaporating dish and keep heating until the water completely evaporates. Be careful of splattering. Turn off the burner by closing the bench valve. Record descriptions before, during and after heating.

4 Lab 2: How Can the Percent Composition of a Salt, Sand and Iron Mixture be Determined 4 Critical Thinking Question 4: Once the water has evaporated, is there anything remaining in the evaporating dish? If so, what could it be? Allow the evaporating dish to cool enough so you cannot feel heat rising from it (usually about ten minutes). Use crucible tongs to grasp the evaporating dish while balancing it on the wire gauze and take it to the weighing room. Do not squeeze the tongs to hard. If your sample spills see instructor. Tare the balance to zero and weigh the dish with the residue. m evaporating dish + residue = g Clean-up Rinse out the evaporating dish in the sink. When the ring clamp and gauze have cooled sufficiently, disassemble and return all equipment to the appropriate areas. Leftover dry mixture may be returned to the community area. Sand may be discarded into the trash. Rinse the flask, funnel and other glassware with water before returning them to your drawer. Wipe your bench with a wet paper towel. Return your key to the key box. Congratulations you have just completed the first part of your scientific inquiry investigating different separation techniques. Data Analysis (complete during lab) SHOW ALL WORK. Use proper units and significant figures throughout. 1. Record experimental data in Data Table: Transfer all the previous measurements to the Data Table below. Do NOT make direct measurements here! This is the FINAL, NEATLY prepared version of your data after completing data collection. A Data Table is used to organize the observations and measurements made during the lab. Be sure to include units. Mass of mixture Mass of iron filings Mass of filter paper Mass of filter paper + sand residue Mass of empty evaporating dish Mass of evaporating dish + salt residue part 2. Calculate the percent of iron in the original sample. Percent = x100% whole Note: when doing any calculations, make units cancel. In this case, each mass must be in the same units (e.g. grams).

5 Lab 2: How Can the Percent Composition of a Salt, Sand and Iron Mixture be Determined 5 3. Calculate the mass of the salt residue. 4. Calculate the percent of salt in the original sample. 5. Calculate the mass of the sand residue. 6. Calculate the percent of sand in the original mixture. 7. Results Table. Used to organize and display the end results of your calculations in one place. Mass (g) Calculated Percent of Mixture Iron filings Salt Sand Total (add columns) Is your total 100%, greater than 100%, or lower than 100%? Why might that be? 8. A. Share your data by entering your percentages in the class spreadsheet. A. Use the class data to fill in the following table. Sand Salt Iron Average % High % Low % B. Why might different teams have different percentages? Get Instructor s Initials and you leave the lab. Instructor

6 Lab 2: How Can the Percent Composition of a Salt, Sand and Iron Mixture be Determined 6 Questions 1. Give an example of qualitative data from this lab. Give an example of quantitative data. In each case, be specific quote an example from your collected data. Qualitative: Quantitative: 2. Refer to Data Analysis #7 and #8. How reliable are your results (the percent composition of each component of the mixture)? Explain using your experimental notes and/or the class data, considering the sources of experimental uncertainty and potential loss, as well as the spread of the class data. 3. You started with a mixture of salt, sand and iron. a. Iron was the first component removed from the mixture. What unique physical property of iron allows the separation? b. After filtration and evaporation the mixture is separated into two components. What is the physical property of salt that allows this method to work? c. Is sand a pure substance? Explain using your microscope observations. d. Is salt (NaCl) a pure substance? Explain. 4. The salt could be seen in the microscope as distinct from the sand. After dissolving in water, the salt reappears after boiling off the water. On the basis of these observations classify the dissolving of salt as either a physical change or a chemical change and explain your reasons. 5. Filter paper has tiny fibers that criss-cross each other leaving tiny holes between the fibers that liquids can go through called pores. Filter paper can be purchased with different pore sizes depending on what you want to filter. Dry salt cannot pass through the filter paper, yet in the experiment you just performed the salt/water mixture passed through the filter paper. Formulate a hypothesis explaining on a particulate level (on the level of atoms, molecules and ions) why it is possible for the water and the dissolved salt to do so, while the sand stays behind.

7 Lab 2: How Can the Percent Composition of a Salt, Sand and Iron Mixture be Determined 7 6. Relate each step of the scientific method (see MasteringChemistry or your lecture notes) to a specific portion of this lab. A. Observations B. Hypothesis C. Experiment design D. Data Collection E. Data Analysis and Conclusion F. Communication of Results 7. Explain how any one aspect of this lab relates to your daily life. [Hint look at the learning goals, techniques used in lab, and chemistry concepts explored. For example, how do you separate mixtures in your daily life? Do you use any of the techniques listed here such as evaporation, filtration, or magnetic properties? Do you use any similar glassware or equipment? If so, for what purpose?] Conclusion Answer the Experimental Question using grammatically correct English sentences. How can the percent composition of a salt, sand and iron mixture be determined? Turn in the Entire Packet at the beginning of the next lab period

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