Masonry Standard Joint Committee (2008) TMS /ACI 530/08/ASCE 5 08 International Building Code (2006, 2009) Chapter 21

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1 1 Mortar and grout materials Proportion specification Property specification Field testing Concrete knowledge does not always apply tronger mortar is not better ebraska Concrete Masonry Association January 2011 Masonry tandard Joint Committee (2008) TM /ACI 530/08/ACE 5 08 International Building Code (2006, 2009) Chapter 21 References MJC MJC Code Plastic (Unhardened) Mortar Workability Water retention Board life Consistency Adhesion Hardened Mortar Durability trength Weather protection Look good ATM C 270 tandard pecification for Mortar for Masonry ATM C 780 Preconstruction and Construction Evaluation of Masonry Mortars ATM C 1586 tandard Guide for Quality Assurance of Mortars

2 2 Historically: Mud Clay Earth/ashes Ox blood/earth and/lime : main binder Portland cement: ATM C 150 (Type I, II, III) Durability High early strength Bond strength hrinkage Lime: ATM C 207, hydrated lime Type, A (special) for mortar Type, A (normal) for plaster Late age strength Workability Water retention Portland cement/lime Masonry cement: ATM C 91 Good workability, convenient, low cost Type,, M Contains Portland cement, fillers, admixtures Air content: 8% to 21% Lower bond strength Restricted use in seismic zones Portland cement/lime Masonry cement Mortar cement: ATM C 1329 A new type of cement Developed for use in seismic zones Air content: 8% min. to 16%, max. Minimum bond strength: 70 to 115 psi Water retention: 70% Masonry sand: ATM C 144 Mortar Materials Water Potable, clean Admixtures? ATM C 1384 Pigments, workability enhancers. o chlorides! Proper flow for mason workability

3 3 Pre-1954 A-1 A-2 B C D ow M A O W O R K ATM C 270 Method 1: Proportion pecification ingredients, mix design o laboratory testing required M a o w O r K Proportions by volume Portland Lime and Type M: 1 portland cement ¼ lime 3 ½ sand Type : 1 portland cement ½ lime 4 ½ sand Type : 1 portland cement 1 lime 6 sand Type O: 1 portland cement 2 lime 9 sand M 1 ¼ 1 ¼ to ½ 1 ½ to 1 ¼ O 1 1 ¼ to 2 ½ 2 ¼ to 3 times cement and lime volumes Remember: 1 bag portland cement = 1 cubic foot 1 bag lime = 1 cubic foot (usually) Masonry cement and mortar cement Typical Proportions Masonry/Mortar Portland M M 1 M ½ 1 O 1 and 2 ¼ to 3 times total cement volume ATM C 270 Method 1: Proportion pecification Method 2: Property pecification minimum strength, water retention, air content bond strength? Laboratory testing required

4 4 Preconstruction tests in lab using job site materials Minimum Compressive trength (psi) Typical Compressive trength (psi) M O Preconstruction tests in lab using job site materials Water Retention 75% (PCL and MC); 70% Mortar Air Content Lime Air Content, max. % Masonry Mortar M, to 14, O to 16 High Increased mortar strength Increased mortar durability Increased rigidity High Lime Improved bond Improved watertightness at bondline ote that mortar does not fill irregular surface of unit. Mud is too stiff. Problems: Poor bond and leaky walls ote that mortar completely fills irregular surface of unit. Mud is workable. Results: Good bond and tight walls Bond strength depends on: absorption Mortar type Mortar water retention Weather conditions Care in laying units Mortar bond line delamination

5 5 Inadequate bond hrinkage cracking (too much cement) Mortar too dry It s in the mason s best interest to provide a mortar that has the proper consistency Proper consistency will ensure a durable wall Workmanship (quality) has the greatest effect on trength Bond Water penetration resistance pecify a mortar that the mason can work with Masonry fails in compression by tension splitting of the units.ot BECAUE mortar crushes Large changes in mortar strength do not change prism strength significantly Lateral expansion under compression Consider: 1. Plastic properties Easy for mason to use 2. Hardened properties Adequate strength, durability Choose your mortar wisely strength comes at the expense of workability, water retention, weather resistance 28 day Cube trength (psi) Water Retention Tensile Bond trength M Very High Low High High Mod. High Moderate High Mod. O Low Very High Low

6 6 Extent of bond Bond durability Permeability in wall tests (leakage) M Low Very low High High Moderate Moderate High High Low O Very high Very High Low o single mortar is best for all uses ever use mortar stronger than the units General Rule of Thumb: Choose weakest mortar that satisfies project performance requirements Efflorescence potential? What s easier to clean? Type General all-around use Exterior walls Masonry veneers Repointing mortar evere weather exposure: above grade only Type High flexural bond strength Reinforced masonry Unreinforced masonry: where strength is important High seismic zones Good durability evere weather exposure: below grade, retaining walls Type O Cost effective Low strength Interior, non-load bearing masonry Repointing mortar: pre masonry Type M Very high compressive strength Good durability: Below grade Retaining walls ewers Manholes Location Exterior, above grade Exterior, at or below grade Interior Building egment Reinforced, Loadbearing Veneer, on-loadbearing Parapets, Chimneys Foundations, Retaining Walls, Paving Load-bearing on-load-bearing Recommended O Alternate M Fully grouted 8 wall 52% of the wall volume is grout! tructural strength Bonds reinforcing bars and units into one structural system Fire resistance ound resistance Thermal mass

7 7 Grout A mixture of cementitious materials and aggregate to which water has been added such that the mixture will flow without segregation of the constituents Can you use mortar in place of grout??? O!!! on structural masonry filling cells in a chimney, for instance 1 to to 7 8 to 11 Concrete Mortar Grout lump Test Comparison Portland (ATM C 150) Blended (ATM C 595) Up to 40% fly ash, ground blast furnace slag Lime mall percentage permitted Pumping aid? ATM C 404 Aggregates for Masonry Grout Fine aggregate sand Coarse aggregate 3/8 chip gravel Larger sizes? Method 1: Proportion pecification Type Portland or Blended Hydrated Lime or Lime Putty Fine 1 0to1/10 2¼to3times times cement + lime Coarse 1 0 to 1/10 2 ¼ to 3 times cement + lime Aggregate measured in a damp, loose condition Fine (and) Coarse (3/8 ) 1 to 2 times cement + lime Typical proportions Fine grout: 1 part cement, 3 parts sand Coarse grout: 1 cement, 3 sand, 2 gravel Method 2: Property pecifications Grout trength 2000 psi minimum strength Min. = f m eed not be stronger than unit strength Grout lump lump: 8 to 11 inches

8 8 Engineer: design requires f m = 1,500 psi What should your grout strength be? 1,500 psi? 2,000 psi? 3,000 psi or more? pecifying high strength grout does not give you high strength masonry!!! Coarse grout works best for most applications Less shrinkage Grout Clear Better strength pace aves money Coarse grout: 24-foot lift, 3 x 4 space required Leave the choice of grout type up to the mason Low Lift Up to 5 foot grout pour o cleanouts required Walls gain strength daily o mortar cure time needed but Frequent lap splices Frequent grouting More inspection High Lift Grout pour more than 5 feet 12 8 foot lifts up to 24 foot pour Faster, easier inspection elf inspecting for wall ties, workmanship Efficient use of mason labor but Cleanouts required More wall bracing needed cheduling grout is critical! MJC Building Code Requirements for Masonry tructures ection Leave the choice of grout lift height up to the mason elf-consolidating grout demonstration panel Building Code requirements ATM Field vs. lab tests In the past: Too much emphasis on field tests for mortar strength In the future (now): Use lab tests for mortar strength Keep track of mix proportions, batching operations Masonry strength (f m ) by prism tests

9 9 Who requires tests? Project pecifications Building Codes Compliance with f m: Prisms s Grout Mortar??? Empirical Design, Veneer, or Glass Masonry Engineered Design MJC Level A = Level B = Level C = IBC one Level 1 Level 2 Required Tests and ubmittals Masonry material certificates Level A Level B Level C Verify f m prior to construction Verify f m during construction (1 test per 5,000 sq. ft.) Verify proportions of materials in mortar, grout, prestressing grout Verify proportions Watch batching and mixing Manufacturer s submittals Mortar, grout tests ot required by code!! When required.. follow ATM methods Method 1: Proportion pecification Quality Control per ATM C270: Type M,, Volume of Lime and o job site testing required! Verify materials used on job are correct Verify material proportions are correct

10 10 Quality control per ATM C270: Testing required to pre qualify mortar mix Laboratory methods Flow Water retention Air content Compression strength: 2 inch cubes Method 2 Property pecification Type M,, Property pecifications o job site testing required Verify proportions in the field ATM C270 can not be used for site testing!!! ATM C780: Construction evaluation Min. trength Max. Air Content Min. Water Retention ATM C 270 only for lab prepared mortar ATM C 780 only for quality control o correlation between mortar properties and masonry performance Results not required to meet requirements of C270 ATM C inch by 4-inch cylinders Mortar sampled direct from mixer More water = lower strength ATM C tandard Guide for Quality Assurance of Mortars Proper use of ATM C 270 and C 780 pecify properties or proportions, but not both Do not use C 270 to evaluate site produced mortars Using C 780 to determine compliance with C 270 compressive strength requirements is not appropriate Whether using proportion or property method - there are specified proportions that must be used. o - verify those proportions are being used. Visual observation Mortar Aggregate Ratio test Monitor mortar proportions on site How do you feel about shovel counts?

11 11 Proportions Fine grout Coarse grout Aggregate size lump 1 cement : 3 sand (typical) 1 cement : 3 sand : 2 gravel (typical) 3/8 max. size 8 to 11 inches Grout pecifications ATM C 476 lump: 8 to 11 inches Min. strength: 2,000 psi GroutTest Method ATM C 1019 High lump Grout High initial water/cement ratio Water absorbed by units Final w/c ratio ~ 0.45 ATM C 1019 The Masonry ociety Brick Institute of America ational Concrete Masonry Association Portland Association masonrysystems.org Design ideas Technical information Cost calculator. Atkinson-oland & Associates, Inc. Boulder, Colorado /06/97 * 1

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