DigiPoints Volume 1. Student Workbook. Module 10 Local Area Network (LAN)

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1 Local Area Network (LAN) Page 10.1 DigiPoints Volume 1 Module 10 Local Area Network (LAN) Summary This module describes the -peed data networks found on customers premises that make possible connections at speeds in excess of 10 Mbps between users, computers, servers, databases, and other peripherals. Module Objectives Upon successful completion of the module, the student should be able to: Describe the four basic components of a LAN. Compare the various topologies used in LAN systems. Identify the generic hardware components found on a LAN. Describe the LAN protocols that make it possible to move information across a LAN. Describe common LAN implementations. Prerequisites Read, Chapter 10.

2 Local Area Network (LAN) Page 10.2 What is an example of a User Work Station? Basic LAN Components User Work Station Protocol Control Medium Interface Physical Path What type of equipment might be found composing the Physical Path?

3 Local Area Network (LAN) Page 10.3 Bus Topology Basic Legend = Device on LAN Connected via repeaters = Repeater Is the Bus a two-way communications path? What do the repeaters make possible? What are the limitations or disadvantages of having repeaters?

4 Local Area Network (LAN) Page 10.4 Star Topology Legen d = Device on LAN Name an advantage of the Star topology. Name a disadvantage.

5 Local Area Network (LAN) Page 10.5 Ring Topology Star Legend Ring Star = Device on LAN = Centralized Repeater In how many directions does the ring transmit? How does the design of a ring prevent collisions of data packets? What is a Star Ring? To what type of errors are rings susceptible?

6 Local Area Network (LAN) Page 10.6 Tree Topology What type of network does this resemble? Why does this sort of network not work well with baseband LANs? How can the CATV industry overcome this particular problem?

7 Local Area Network (LAN) Page 10.7 Mesh Topology Legend Device on LAN = = Repeater How are Mesh networks formed? What is an advantage of a Mesh topology? Discuss another advantage.

8 Local Area Network (LAN) Page 10.8 LAN Hardware Bridges Layer 2 of OSI 5 Functions Routers Layer 3 of OSI Connects dissimilar networks Firewall function Brouters Gateways Bi-directional Protocol conversions Protocol Converters Terminal emulation File transfer in one direction How are Gateways and Routers similar? Different? How do Routers and Bridges differ? What is the difference between a Gateway and a Protocol Converter? Is there a standard definition for a router, bridge, or gateway?

9 Local Area Network (LAN) Page 10.9 LAN Operating System Network Operating System Supplements OS of PC/Computers on System Installed on Network Server Multi-Tasking & Multi-User Administration, diagnostics, administration, support What is the purpose of the NOS? Must servers be special, separate computers? What are some of the characteristics and features of an advanced NOS?

10 Local Area Network (LAN) Page LAN Protocols IEEE INTERNETWORKING OSI LAYERS 3-7 logical LINK CONTROL (LLC) IEEE TYPE 1 - UNACKNOWLEDGED CONNECTIONLESS SERVICE TYPE 2 - CONNECTION MODE SERVICE TYPE 3 - ACKNOWLEDGED CONNECTIONLESS SERVICE OSI LAYER 2 MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL (MAC) CSMA/CD (ETHERNET) TOKEN BUS TOKEN RING DQDB (MAN) PHYSICAL BASEBAND COAXIAL AND UNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIR BROADBAND COAXIAL BROADBAND COAXIAL OPTICAL FIBER SHIELDED OR UNSHIELDED TWISTED PAIR OPTICAL FIBER OR COAXIAL CABLE OSI LAYER 1 How does the IEEE protocol differ from the OSI Model? What are the functions of the LLC? What type of connects can be found here?

11 Local Area Network (LAN) Page What are the functions of the MAC? What type of media does the physical layer of the standard cover?

12 Local Area Network (LAN) Page LLC and MAC Layer PDUs LLC HEADER USER DATA DSAP SSAP CONTROL LLC PDU MAC HEADER MAC TRAILER NOTES: DSAP = DESTINATION SERVICE ACCESS POINT SSAP = SOURCE SERVICE ACCESS POINT CONTENTS OF MAC HEADER AND TRAILER DEPEND ON PARTICULAR MAC LAYER TECHNOLOGY MAC FRAME How is information being communicated between the layers in 802.1? What is the purpose of the LLC Header? What type of information is being added in the MAC layer?

13 Local Area Network (LAN) Page Token PDU Start Delimiter Access Control P P P T M R R R End Delimiter P = Priority T = Token Bit M = Monitor Bit R = Reservation Bit What is the purpose of the Token PDU?

14 Local Area Network (LAN) Page Summary Basic components of a LAN Topologies Hardware Operating Systems Protocols IEEE 802.x and the defined layers Basic LAN implementations

15 Local Area Network (LAN) Page Study Questions 1. Define a Local Area Network. 2. Topology is the word used to describe the interconnection of nodes in a LAN. It can be used in two ways. To make sure you understand both connotations: a. What are the four basic topological configurations for LANs? b. Within any given LAN, what are the three separate topologies, and to what do they refer? 3. What are the differences between a repeater, a bridge, and a router? 4. What is a Network Operating System, and how does it differ from an Operating System used in a mainframe or stand-alone PC? 5. What are the protocol layers defined by the IEEE for LANs; what is the function of each; and how do they map onto the OSI protocol reference model?

16 Local Area Network (LAN) Page What is the IEEE standard corresponding to the type of LAN developed and marketed by Xerox Corporation, and what is the common name of that type of LAN? 7. What is the IEEE standard corresponding to the type of LAN developed and marketed by IBM, and what is the common name of that type of LAN? 8. True or False, and why: Logical Link Control is the same for all IEEE-specified LANs. 9. True or False, and why: Medium Access Control is the same for all IEEE-specified LANs. 10. Give a general description of how CSMA/CD handles access contention. 11. Give a general description of how a token passing LAN handles access contention.

17 Local Area Network (LAN) Page Describe the components of a typical high-speed data access system for a service offering by a cable telecommunications company, and explain how a subscriber is part of a LAN. In your descriptions, be sure to include the physical form of the digital signal at the interfaces to each component.

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