CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. Part II

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1 CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION Part II

2 FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR Last of a series of wars fought between Britain and France Fighting over land and fur trade in N. America. George Washington gains military experience

3 EFFECTS: FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR British won. French lose claims in N. America. Broke, England had to enforce trade regulations and begin taxing the colonies to raise revenue for Britain (not for the colonies). DEBT!!!

4 PROCLAMATION OF 1763 Colonists were being killed by Native Americans west of the Appalachian Mountains and requested protection of British Army. Parliament declared no colonial settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. Kept colonists from clashing with Native Americans.

5 EFFECTS: PROCLAMATION OF 1763 Those already settled in the West and those wishing to move were outraged (infringed on their rights). Antagonized important colonial leaders.

6 SUGAR ACT 1764 Import duty placed on molasses, sugar, luxuries and textiles. Passed specifically to raise REVENUE for Britain.

7 EFFECTS: SUGAR ACT 1764 Colonists felt tax would hurt their businesses. Came up with slogan No taxation without representation. Colonists resist violation of their rights as British citizens! Colonists make non-importation agreements.

8 CURRENCY ACT 1764 Forbade the colonists the issuing of paper money and required the use of gold in business transactions. Many colonists did not operate or have gold

9 EFFECTS: CURRENCY ACT 1764 Colonial businessmen were angry! Most didn t have gold. Led to protests.

10 QUARTERING ACTS 1765 & 1766 Required colonial governments to provide barracks and supplies as needed by English troops in the colonies. Required putting soldiers in inns, taverns and homes, paid by COLONISTS!

11 EFFECTS: QUARTERING ACTS 1765 & 1766 Colonists saw these acts as an invasion of their homes and privacy. Angered those not harmed by the revenue acts. Violation of English Bill of Rights

12 STAMP ACT 1765 Every legal document (wills, marriage licenses, etc.), newspapers, almanacs, playing cards, etc. was required to have a stamp affixed to show tax was paid. Law breakers were tried in Vice Admiralty Courts (no juries).

13 EFFECTS STAMP ACT 1765 Many feared more direct taxes. Many disliked change in colonial legal system (juries). Written and oral protests occurred. Sons and Daughters of Liberty used violence (ex: tarring & feathering tax collectors). Stamp Act Congress wrote Declaration of Rights and Grievances. Parliament repealed the act

14 DECLARATORY ACT 1766 Parliament declared that they had the authority to pass laws for the colonies in all cases whatever. Parliament is reasserting its authority.

15 EFFECTS: DECLARATORY ACT 1766 Continuing protest over taxation without representation!

16 TOWNSHEND ACTS 1767 Tax on glass, lead, paper, paint and tea. Income was for defense of colonies. New Vice Admiralty Courts were set up to enforce these acts.

17 EFFECTS: TOWNSHEND ACTS 1767 Sam Adams sent circular letter to colonies calling for new non-importation agreements. Attacks on tax collectors. British troops sent to Boston. Va. House of Burgesses was dissolved. Parliament repealed all but tax on tea.

18 BOSTON MASSACRE: MARCH 5, 1770 Previous Days: A young boy is accidentally killed by a customs officer when a group of boys harasses the home. Angry colonists harass soldiers in Boston Square taunting, swearing, challenging, and allegedly assaulting them. Someone yells FIRE and the massacre occurs 5 colonists are killed

19 EFFECTS: BOSTON MASSACRE John Adams represents soldiers in court All but 2 are acquitted Colonists become extra angry

20 TEA ACT 1773 Allowed British East India Co. to ship tea to America without paying heavy tax in England. This let them undersell colonial importers and smugglers.

21 EFFECTS: TEA ACT 1773 Angered colonial merchants as it gave East India Co. exclusive control of American tea trade. Public demanded tea be returned. Boston Tea Party.

22 BOSTON TEA PARTY Dec Governor of MA refused to send tea ships back to England. Led by Sons of Liberty Men dressed as Indians boarded ships and dumped tea into Boston Harbor.

23 EFFECTS: BOSTON TEA PARTY Parliament responds by passing the Intolerable Acts Also known as Coercive Acts

24 INTOLERABLE ACTS Punish Boston for Tea Party. Closed port of Boston until tea was paid for. Government of MA was brought under King s direct control. British officials accused of crimes were tried in England, not in colonies. New Quartering Act.

25 EFFECTS: INTOLERABLE ACTS First Continental Congress met (1774). Suffolk Resolves called for people to disobey acts and collect their own taxes. Declared acts unconstitutional and called for complete non-importation of British goods. Parliament declared MA to be in rebellion. People began to arm and organize militias.

26 ENGLISH BILL OF RIGHTS Passed in1689 English colonists brought these ideas over Influenced by John Locke NO royal interference with the law. Though the sovereign remains the fount of justice, he or she cannot unilaterally establish new courts or act as a judge. NO taxation by Royal Prerogative Freedom to petition the monarch without fear of retribution NO standing army may be maintained during a time of peace NO excessive bail or cruel and unusual punishments Critical Thinking: Explain the connection between the English Bill of Rights, two taxes, and the reaction in the colonies

27 FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS Convention of delegates were called from each of the 13 colonies. Georgia did not send delegates fighting against Native Americans and wanted to keep support options open. Convention = Gathering of people for a purpose Delegate (n.) = Representative Delegate (v.) = Give responsibilities to another

28 FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS September 5, 1774 October 26, 1774 GOALS: Voice a united complaint to King George III of England Some colonies were told to represent colonies to resolve issues FAMOUS DELEGATES: George Washington, John Adams, Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams *This was a direct response to the Intolerable Acts (Coercive Acts)

29 EFFECTS OF CONTINENTAL CONGRESS Demanded right to self-govern Demanded self-taxation Called for new boycotts Parliament ignores demands Agree to reconvene in May IMAGE: Franklin Hall, Philadelphia, PA

30 CONCILIATORY RESOLUTION January 1775 Parliament passes this resolution to reach a settlement with colonies Any colony that contributed to the common defense and supported civil government would be relieved of taxes except those that regulated trade Sent from Britain to each colony Idea was to make some colonies support it to weaken their union Critical Thinking: Should the colonists have accepted this? Explain.

31 LEXINGTON AND CONCORD April 19, 1775 British troops led by Gage sent to collect weapons cache. Message intercepted and passed on by Dawes, Prescott, and Revere. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow One by land, two by sea Supplies were moved before British regulars arrived in Concord Militias, organized after first CC engaged in Shot heard round the world -Ralph Waldo Emerson (Concord Hymn) Militia retreated then regrouped and forced British to retreat

32 EFFECTS OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD Growing number of colonial sympathizers King George III becomes more upset Colonists feel hope that they can win Think back to Common Sense

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