The Causes of the American Revolution. I. Effects of the French & Indian War (Seven Years' War) 1. War ends with the signing of the Treaty of Paris.

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1 The Causes of the American Revolution I. Effects of the French & Indian War (Seven Years' War) A. Proclamation of War ends with the signing of the Treaty of Paris. 2. Boundary drawn. American colonists restricted from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. B. Rise of Liberalism and Republicanism inspires revolutionary thought 1. Enlightenment influence. 2. Locke's theories : "social contract. 3. Standing in opposition to tyrants, republicanism called for the protection liberty through the rule of law and civic virtue. C. The Navigation Acts & Writs of Assistance 1. Mercantilism enforced. 2. Effort to increase revenues.

2 3. Cracking down on American smugglers. 4. Customs officials were empowered with writs of assistance (transferable, open-ended search warrants), which permitted them to search warehouses, homes, and ships on a whim without cause. Angered by this trampling of their rights, colonial merchants voiced their disapproval. 5. Admiralty courts created to take smuggling cases out of colonial courts. 6. In England, Lord Grenville introduces idea of taxing colonies to off set the cost increased colonial defiance on the frontier and to pay war debt. D. New Taxes & Boycotts 1. April 5, 1764, the Sugar Act (a tax of three pence per gallon on molasses). 2. "taxation without representation," as they had no members of Parliament to represent their interests. 3. March 22, 1765, Parliament passed the Stamp Act which called for tax stamps to be placed

3 on all paper goods sold in the colonies. 4. First attempt to levy a direct tax on the colonies. 5. Led by vocal orators such as James Otis and Patrick Henry, the colonists began a massive boycott. 6. Imports to fall from 2,250,000 in 1764, to 1,944,000 in "Sons of Liberty" formed. 8. Pennsylvanian John Dickinson, the congress drew up the Declaration of Rights and Grievances which stated that as the colonies had no representation in Parliament, the tax was unconstitutional and against their rights as Englishment. 9. Benjamin Franklin argued a similar point and

4 warned that continued taxation could lead to rebellion. 10. Relenting, Parliament repealed the tax, but issued the Declaratory Act (March 1766) which stated that they retained the power to tax the colonies. E. Townshend Acts June 29, An indirect tax, the acts placed import duties on commodities such as lead, paper, paint, glass, and tea. 2. Created three new Admiralty courts in the colonies and reaffirmed the legality of writs of assistance. 3. Colonial leaders organized boycotts of the taxed goods, smuggling increased and efforts commenced to develop domestically-produced alternatives. F. Boston Massacre March 5, Parliament repealed most aspects of the Townshend Acts in April 1770, but left a tax on tea.

5 Actively patrolling to prevent smuggling, the Royal Navy drew the ire of many colonial merchants. This came to a head on June 9, when the revenue schooner HMS Gaspée ran aground. 3. Members of the Providence Sons of Liberty, led by Abraham Whipple, rowed out and attacked the stranded vessel. 4. Committees of Correspondence react. G. The Tea Act, May 10, British East India Company struggling. Given right to sell directly to colonies. 2. As a result, tea prices in America would be reduced, with only the Townshend tea duty assessed. Aware that this was an attempt by Parliament to break the colonial boycott of British goods. H. The Boston Tea Party December 16, "raiders" tossed 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor. 2. Many uncertainties surround this important historical event:

6 Did the soldiers fire with provocation? Did they fire on their own? Was Captain Preston guilty of ordering his men to fire into a crowd of civilians? Was he innocent and being used by men like Samuel Adams to confirm the tyranny of England? 3. Paul Revere s print. American propaganda? I. The Intolerable Acts: The Boston Port Act 1. The port of Boston was closed to all shipping until full restitution was made to the East India Company and the King for the lost tea and taxes. 2. Other colonies began sending relief to the blockaded city. Massachusetts Government Act 1. May 20, 1774, the Massachusetts executive council would no longer be democratically elected and its members would instead be appointed by the king.

7 2. Many colonial offices that were previously elected officials would henceforth be appointed by the royal governor. 3. Across the colony, only one town meeting was permitted a year unless approved by the governor. Administration of Justice Act 1. Allowed travel expenses to be paid to witnesses, few colonists could afford to leave work to testify at a trial. 2. Dubbed the "Murder Act" by some, it was felt that it allowed royal officials to act with impunity and then escape justice. Quartering Act Contrary to popular belief, it did not permit the housing of soldiers in private homes. Typically, soldiers were first to be placed in existing barracks and public houses, but thereafter could be housed in inns, victualing houses (taverns serving food), empty building, barns, and other unoccupied structures. Quebec Act

8 1. Did not have a direct effect on the thirteen colonies. 2. Intended to ensure the loyalty of the king's Canadian subjects, the act greatly enlarged Quebec's borders and allowed the free practice of the Catholic faith. J. Reaction to the Intolerable Acts 1. Committees of correspondences across colonies. 2. First Continental Congress. If the Intolerable Acts were not repealed within a year, the colonies agreed to halt exports to Britain as well as support Massachusetts if it was attacked. 3. Boycott of all British goods, importation of British goods dropped 97% in Mass. governor, Governor Thomas Hutchinson departs Boston, and is replaced by royal authority. 6. Lieutenant General Thomas Gage as the new royal governor on April 2, In the spring of 1775, Gage began a series of raids with the goal of disarming the colonial militias. On the evening of April 18, Gage ordered

9 some of his troops to march to Concord to seize munitions and gunpowder. The next morning, British troops encountered colonial militia in the village of Lexington.

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