Marion County Invasive Plant Species

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1 Marion County Invasive Plant Species Educate and Control: False Brome (Brachypodium sylvaticum) Description: Perennial bunchgrass that grows in clumps. Leaves are a bright yellow-green color, wide and flat, with small hairs growing along the edges. The stem droops down and seeds are attached directly to the stem. Can be found along trails, roadsides, forest understories, in pastures and other areas that direct sunlight. Height: ft. Bloom Time: July - September Control Options: Control before plant goes to seed. Plants can be pulled or mowed early then mulched, but be sure to follow up to check for resprouts. Herbicides can be applied until the plant blooms. Mow before plant goes to seed, follow with herbicide. Knotweeds: Giant, Japanese, Himalayan and Bohemian (Polygonum sp. or Fallopia sp) Description: Fast growing, semi-woody perennial; stems are hollow, reddish in color, and look like bamboo. Plants grow 6-12 feet tall in one season depending on the species. Leaves are oval to heart shaped. Bohemian knotweed has narrower leaves. The plant has small white/green flowers in late summer and drops its leaves in the fall. Found mainly in riparian areas, but can also be found along roads, trails and in yards planted as an ornamental. Caution: Can spread by very small root and stem fragments. Height: Himalayan, Japanese and Bohemian 6-10 ft. Giant ft. Bloom Time: July - October Control Options: Plants are generally difficult to control and require several years of repeated cutting or herbicide treatment. Cut in June, followed by herbicide in fall. Herbicides can be applied by injection into stem. Digging is not effective. Treat foliage with herbicide in late summer. Meadow Knapweed (Centaurea jacea x nigra) Description: Perennial plant with several branched stems from a basal rosette. Leaves are long and narrow; up to 6 long at the base. Leaves futher up are shorter, tapering off toward the top. Flowers are bright pink/purple with fringed bracts surrounding the flower head. Meadow knapweed flowers are usually larger than spotted or diffuse knapweed. Meadow knapweed plants generally are more robust with larger leaves. Found in disturbed areas, along roadsides and in pasture or rangelands. Height: 1-4 ft. herbicide. Wear gloves when pulling. Herbicide control is most effective in the rosette stage. Biological control available for this plant.

2 Marion County Invasive Plant Species: Educate and Control continued Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea stoebe C. maculosa) Description: This perennial has several branched stems extending from a basal rosette. Leaves at the base are up to 6 in. long, narrow, deeply lobed; similar to diffuse knapweed. Futher up the stalk they are shorter, tapering off toward the top. Flowers are pink to purple with black tipped bracts surrounding them. Found in disturbed areas, along roadsides, in pasture and rangelands. herbicide which is most effective in the rosette stage. Wear gloves when pulling. Biological control is available for this plant. Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum) Description: A biennial plant it has distinct white marbling on leaves and forms basal rosette in the first year. Leaf edges and stems are spiny. Stems are large and branching. One large pink - purple flower is produced at the top of each stem and is surrounded by large spines. It is found along roadsides, ditches, heavily grazed areas and disturbed areas. Height: ft. Bloom Time: April - October / or herbicide use. Wear gloves when pulling, and herbicide control is most effective in the rosette stage. Puncturevine (Tribulus terrestris) Description: This perennial, mat forming plant grows up to 5 ft. in diameter. It grows from a single stem and splits into several branching stems. Leaves are hairy and small; 1/4-1/2 in. Its small yellow flowers have 5 petals and form seed pods in clusters of 4 with sharp spines that resemble goat heads. Seeds stick to bicycle and car tires and can be carried several miles. It is found along roadsides, in ditches, in disturbed areas and pastures. Height: Mat forming up to 3 in. tall, up to 5 ft. wide herbicide. Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) Description: This perennial plant has multiple stems and produces tall stalks of bright small purple flowers with 5-7 petals. The stems are square while leaves lance shaped, opposite and are 1-4in. long. It is found along waterways and in moist, marshy areas. Though it is often cultivated by gardeners, it can completely take over wetlands and displace native species. Height: Up to 10 ft. Bloom Time: July - September Control Options: Cut plants back, dig up or hand-pull small plants. To control spread cut flowering spikes off plants. This will prevent seed reproduction. Root weevils and beetles help control this plant.

3 Marion County Invasive Plant Species: Educate and Control Continued Tansy Ragwort (Senecio jacobea) Description: Producing single and multiple stems, this perennial has dark green, deeply lobed leaves. The basal rosette can look much different in a mature plant. Lower leaves may not be as lobed as upper leaves. Clusters of small yellow, ray flowers appear at the top of branches. Its seeds resemble dandelion seeds. It is toxic to livestock. It is found in pastures, roadsides and lawns. Height: ft. Bloom Time: June - October Control: Can involve digging, pulling and herbicide. Control before the plant flowers. The cinnabar moth is a successful biological control. Yellow Flag Iris (Iris pseudacorus) Description: This aquatic perennial plant grows in or near water. Its leaves are long, flat and sword-like. Multiple bright yellow flowers with three petals grow on the stalk; it appears different from the common bearded iris. Seeds are produced in large capsules with 3 sides and can float long distances. It can spread vigorously by water and is found along waterways or water features. Height: 3-4 ft. Bloom Time: June - July Control: Small infestations can be pulled or dug; remove all root fragments because it can re-sprout from any left behind. Aquatic approved herbices should be used near water. Yellow Toad Flax (Linaria vulgaris) Description: Commonly called butter and eggs, this multi branching plant has clusters of yellow flowers similar to snapdragons and can form dense colonies. The flowers have a bright orange spot on the lower lip. Its leaves have smooth edges, are pointed at the end, alternate, are 1 to 2.5 in. long and are attached directly to the main stem. It is found in sunny areas, along roads, in fields and in meadows. Control: Controlling this plant can involve digging, pulling and herbicide. Marion County Invasive Plant Species: Immediate Action Common Gorse (Ulex europaeus) Description: This woody, multi-branched shrub resembles Scotch Broom and produces yellow pea-like flowers with leaves that turn into stout spines as plant matures. Its seeds are fomed in pods that are nearly 1 in. long. While it is more common to the southern Oregon coast, it can be found in the Willamette Valley growing along woodland edges, roadsides and open fields. Height: 3-6 ft. Bloom Time: Most blooms in March - May. Control: Pull small plants before seeding; cut mature plants at base in late summer or use herbicide.

4 Marion County Invasive Plant Species: Immediate Action Continued Diffuse Knapweed (Centaurea diffusa) Description: This biennial plant has a single stem, with several lateral branches stemming from a basal rosette. The leaves are long, narrow and deeply lobed and are shorter at the top of the plant. It resembles spotted knapweed but leaves are a lighter green-gray color. Flowers are white to light pink with pointed bracts surrounding them. It is found in rocky, dry soils in disturbed areas, along roadsides and in pasture and rangelands. It is more common east of the Cascades. Bloom Time: August - September herbicide; this is most effective in the rosette stage. Wear gloves when pulling. A biological control available. Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata) Description: A biennial plant, it forms large rosettes the first year. Basal leaves are dark green, kidney shaped with scalloped edges. Plants form 1-2 flowering stems with a cluster of 4 small petaled flowers. Stem leaves are alternate and more triangle shaped than the basal leaves. Seed pods are long, thin and are formed at the top of the plant whichsmells like garlic when crushed. It is found in forest understory, shaded roadsides and forest edges. Bloom Time: May - June Control Options: This plant is easliy pulled in the spring when it is bolting BEFORE it goes to seed. Other methods are digging and herbicide. Giant Hogweed (Heracleum mantegazzianum) Description: This large, tall plant has big leaves and flower head. The flowering stalk develops after 2-4 years. Stalks are hollow with purple blotches and sparse hairs. The flower head is a large umbrella-like cluster up to 2.5 ft. in diameter. The leaves can be 3-5 ft. wide and are deeply lobed with pointed ends. Take caution, plant sap is extremely toxic. It can be found in disturbed soils, roadsides, ditches or vacant areas. Report sightings of this plant to Marion SWCD, Marion County Weed Control District or the Oregon Department of Agriculture. Height: ft. Bloom Time: May - July Control Options: This plant is highly toxic and should only be controlled by a professional. Italian Thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus) Description: An annual plant, it has spiny wings on the stem and spines on the leaf edges. Fine white hairs are located on stem and underside of leaf. Flowers grow in small clusters at the top of the stalk and have purple cylindrical shaped heads. Found in dry, open areas, along roadsides, fields and pastures. Height: 8 in ft. Bloom Time: May - June Control Options: Control before the plant flowers. This can involve digging, pulling and herbicide.

5 Marion County Invasive Plant Species: Immediate Action Continued Kochia (Kochia scoparia) Description: This annual plant has many branches and slender stems with red stripes. Leaves are oblong with smooth rounded edges and are 1-2 ft. long. Flowers clumps are inconspicuous on branch tips. While found in many habitats, they mostly appear in drier areas along road sides and field edges. More common east of the Cascade Mountains. Height: 1-6 ft. Bloom Time: July - October Control: This can involve digging, pulling and herbicide. Oblong Spurge (Euphorbia oblongata) Description: Also called egg-leaf spurge, this is a small, bushy plant with multiple stems. Its leaves are smooth and oblong shaped and alternate. The leaves and stem exude a milky sap that can cause skin irritation. Flowers are modified yellow leaves at the tip of the stem. It is only known to occur along a small pond and ditch on the Oregon State Penitentiary grounds in Salem. Report sightings to Marion SWCD, Marion County Weed Control District or the Oregon Department of Agriculture. Bloom Time: Growing season. Control: Can involve digging, pulling and herbicide. Paterson s Curse (Echium plantagineum ) Description: An annual with attractive blue/purple flowers curling at the end of branchs/stems. Multi-branched with elongated basal and stem leaves; these are covered with small hairs. Toxic to livestock. It is found in grasslands and pastures. Report sightings to Marion SWCD, Marion County Weed Control District or the Oregon Department of Agriculture. Height: 8 in. - 6 ft. Bloom Time: April - July Control: Controlling this plant can involve digging, pulling and herbicide. Rush Skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea) Description: A perennial with few leaves on the stems and dandelionlike leaves at the base. It arises from a single stem and branches into thin, green hairless-stems. Small yellow flowers are produced at the tip and sparsely along the stem. The plant body can remain for many seasons after it dies. Found in shallow, gravelly or rocky soils in dry,sunny sites. It is more common east of the Cascades Mountains. Height: 1-4 ft. Control: This can involve digging, pulling and herbicide. Traveler s Joy (Clematis vitalba) Description: Also called old man s beard, this perennial is a woody, deciduous vine that spreads aggressively. Leaves are opposite and compound with 5 leaflets. Flowers are small green - white and found in clusters. The seed heads remain in winter. It is found in many habitats, along roadsides and forest edges often climbing up into trees. Height: ft. in trees. Bloom Time: June- September Control: Pull/cut young plants at the ground and dig up roots; cut stem and apply herbicide.

6 Marion County Invasive Plant Species: Immediate Action Continued Yellow Starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) Description: A branched annual it has light green/gray leaves and stem. It is multi-branching from a single stem. It forms a basal rosette with dandelion-like leaves before bolting. It produces bright yellow tufted flowers with long, sharp spines at the base. It is found in dry disturbed sites and is more common east of the Cascade Mountains. Height: 1-6 ft. Control: This can involve digging, pulling and herbicide. Marion County Invasive Plant Species: Problem Plants Vinca/Periwinkle (Vinca minor) Description: A perennial evergreen vine with showy blue/purple flowers its leaves are small, elliptical and green to yellowish-green in color. This common ornamental escapes cultivation and can often be found growing along roadsides and in forest understories. Height: 5 in. - 1 ft. Bloom Time: March - May Control: These include pulling, herbicides and shading out the plant. American Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) Description: A tall, branching perennial with pink stems, this plant produces long clusters of small, white flowers and bright green berries that turn dark purple to black as they ripen. Leaves are large and eggshaped. All parts of the plant are poisonous to humans and livestock. It is found in sunny areas in open woods, vacant lots and on roadsides. Height: 3-10 ft. Bloom Time: July - October Control: Due to its toxicity, plants should be eradicted as soon as they are found. Control by pulling, digging up the root or treating with herbicides. Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris arundinaceae) Description: A stout perennial grass. It has hollow stems which are covered with a waxy coating giving it a blue-green color. Leaf blades are flat and 1/4-3/4 in. wide. It is found in wet, disturbed sites as well as clearings, ditches, streambanks and marshy spots. It forms dense, highly productive single species stands which pose a major threat to many wetland ecosystems. Height: 2-7 ft. Bloom Time: May - June Control: This can involve burning, mowing, hand pulling, herbicide or shading out the plant. Italian Arum (Arum italicum) Description: An escaped house plant; this perennial has arrow-shaped leaves which are marbled white or yellow. It has a small white or yellow column surrounded by a greenish-white hood. Leaves die back in the summer, however spikes of bright orange-red berries remain. It is found in moist shaded areas. Bloom Time: Spring Control: Methods are being developed and tested.

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