ASTRONOMY REVIEW Qs (2) (3) (4)

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "ASTRONOMY REVIEW Qs (2) (3) (4)"

Transcription

1 1. Which statement provides evidence that Earth revolves around the Sun? (1) Winds at different latitudes are curved different amounts by the Coriolis effect. (2) Different star constellations are visible from Earth at different seasons of the year. (3) The Sun follows an apparent arc across the sky during the day. (4) The stars appear to circle Earth during the night. 2. The diagram below represents the major stars of the constellation Orion, as viewed by an observer in New Jersey. 5. Which photograph of star trails was taken by an observer facing directly north in New Jersey? (1) (2) (3) (4) Which statement best explains why Orion can be observed from New York State on December 21 but not on June 21? (1) Orion has an eccentric orbit around Earth. (2) Orion has an eccentric orbit around the Sun. (3) Earth revolves around the Sun. (4) Earth rotates on its axis. 3. When observed from a location in Maine for one night, the North Star (Polaris) appears to (1) rise in the east and set in the west (2) rise in the west and set in the east (3) move southward along an arc-shaped path (4) remain stationary in the sky 4. Which object is closest to Earth? (1) the Sun (3) the Moon (2) Venus (4) Mars 6. Which statement best explains the apparent daily motion of the stars around Polaris? (1) The Earth's orbit is an ellipse. (2) The Earth has the shape of an oblate spheroid. (3) The Earth rotates on its axis. (4) The Earth revolves around the Sun. 7. Which event takes the most time? (1) one revolution of Earth around the Sun (2) one revolution of Venus around the Sun (3) one rotation of the Moon on its axis (4) one rotation of Venus on its axis

2 8. The diagram below shows an instrument made from a drinking straw, protractor, string, and rock. ASTRONOMY REVIEW Qs 10. How does the position of Polaris appear to change as an observer travels due north from the Equator? (1) The angle of Polaris above the northern horizon decreases. (2) The angle of Polaris above the northern horizon increases. (3) Polaris appears to move westward. (4) Polaris appears to move eastward. This instrument was most likely used to measure the (1) distance to a star (2) altitude of a star (3) mass of the Earth (4) mass of the suspended weight 9. Base your answer to the following question on the latitude and longitude system shown below. The map represents a part of the Earth's surface and its latitude-longitude coordinates. Points A through F represent locations in this area. 11. Based on observations made in the Northern Hemisphere, which statement is the best supporting evidence that the Earth rotates on its axis? (1) The stars appear to follow daily circular paths around Polaris. (2) The apparent solar diameter varies throughout the year. (3) The length of the daylight period varies throughout the year. (4) The seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter) repeat in a cyclic pattern. 12. The diagram below shows several planets at various positions in their orbits at a particular time. As a person travels from location B to location E the observed altitude of Polaris will (1) decrease (3) remain the same (2) increase Which planet would be visible from the Earth at night for the longest period of time when the planets are in these positions? (1) Mercury (3) Mars (2) Venus (4) Jupiter

3 13. The table below shows the altitude and compass direction of one planet, as viewed by an observer in New York State at 10 p.m. on the first day of each month from April through November. Which graph best represents a plot of this planet's apparent path, as viewed by the observer over the 7-month period? (1) (2) (3) (4)

4 Base your answers to questions 14 and 15 on the diagram below, which shows a portion of the solar system. 14. Mercury and Venus are the only planets that show phases when viewed from Earth because both Mercury and Venus (1) revolve around the Sun inside Earth's orbit (3) are eclipsed by Earth's shadow (2) rotate more slowly than Earth does (4) pass behind the Sun in their orbit 15. The actual orbits of the planets are (1) elliptical, with Earth at one of the foci (3) circular, with Earth at the center (2) elliptical, with the Sun at one of the foci (4) circular, with the Sun at the center 16. If viewed from the Earth over a period of several years, the apparent diameter of Mars will (1) decrease constantly (2) increase constantly (3) remain unchanged (4) vary in a cyclic manner 17. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 18. The same side of the Moon always faces Earth because the (1) Moon s period of rotation is longer than its period of revolution around Earth (2) Moon s period of rotation is shorter than its period of revolution around Earth (3) Moon rotates once as it completes one revolution around Earth (4) Moon does not rotate as it completes one revolution around Earth 19. One complete cycle of the phases of the Moon takes approximately one (1) day (3) month (2) week (4) year The best inference that can be made based on the diagrams is that this planet is (1) tilted on its axis (3) revolving (2) changing seasons (4) rotating 20. The time required for the Moon to show a complete cycle of phases when viewed from Earth is approximately (1) 1 day (3) 1 month (2) 1 week (4) 1 year

5 21. The diagram below shows the Moon orbiting Earth, as viewed from space above Earth s North Pole. The Moon is shown at eight positions in its orbit. ASTRONOMY REVIEW Qs 23. Which sequence of Moon phases could be observed from Earth during a 2-week period? (1) (2) (3) An eclipse of the Sun is most likely to occur when the Moon is in which position? (1) 1 (3) 5 (2) 3 (4) The diagram below shows Earth s orbit around the Sun and different positions of the Moon as it travels around Earth. Letters A through D represent four different positions of the Moon. (4) 24. The diagram below shows the Moon at four positions in its orbit around Earth. An eclipse of the Moon is most likely to occur when the Moon is at position (1) A (3) C (2) B (4) D An observer on Earth could see a solar eclipse when the Moon is at position (1) 1 (3) 3 (2) 2 (4) 4

6 25. The diagram below represents the Sun s rays striking Earth and the Moon. Numbers 1 through 4 represent positions of the Moon in its orbit around Earth. The highest tides on Earth occur when the Moon is in positions (1) 1 and 3 (2) 2 and 4 (3) 3 and 2 (4) 4 and The diagram below shows the Moon orbiting Earth, as viewed from space above Earth s North Pole. The Moon is shown at eight positions in its orbit. 27. What is represented by the diagram below? (1) changing phases of the Sun (2) changing phases of the Moon (3) stages in an eclipse of the Sun (4) stages in an eclipse of the Moon Spring ocean tides occur when the difference in height between high tide and low tide is greatest. At which two positions of the Moon will spring tides occur on Earth? (1) 1 and 5 (3) 3 and 7 (2) 2 and 6 (4) 4 and A cycle of Moon phases can be seen from Earth because the (1) Moon s distance from Earth changes at a predictable rate (2) Moon s axis is tilted (3) Moon spins on its axis (4) Moon revolves around Earth

7 29. Base your answer to the following question on the passage below. A Newly Discovered Planet Scientists studying a Sun-like star named Ogle-Tr-3 discovered a planet that is, on the average, 3.5 million kilometers away from the star s surface. The planet was discovered as a result of observing a cyclic decrease in the brightness of Ogle-Tr-3 every 28.5 hours. The changing brightness is the result of the planet blocking some of the starlight when it is between Ogle-Tr-3 and Earth. This observation allowed scientists to find not only the planet, but also to determine the planet s mass and density The mass has been calculated to be approximately 159 times the mass of Earth. The planet is only 20% as dense as Jupiter. Scientists think that this low density is the result of being very close to Ogle-Tr-3. The planet was discovered when it passed between Earth and the star Ogle-Tr-3. Which event in our solar system results from a similar type of alignment of the Moon between Earth and the Sun? (1) summer solstice (2) winter solstice (3) solar eclipse (4) lunar eclipse 30. The diagram below shows the positions of the Moon and the Sun at sunset during an evening in New York State. Points A, B, C, and D represent positions along the western horizon. At sunset on the following evening, the Moon will be located at position (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D 31. The passage of the Moon into Earth's shadow causes a (1) lunar eclipse (3) new Moon (2) solar eclipse (4) full Moon 32. In which direction on the horizon does the Sun appear to rise on July 4 in Maine? (1) due north (3) north of due east (2) due south (4) south of due east 33. If the distance between the Moon and Earth were double its present distance, the Moon s cycle of phases would occur (1) in reverse order and more slowly (2) in reverse order and more quickly (3) in the same order but more slowly (4) in the same order but more quickly

8 Base your answers to questions 34 and 35 on the diagram below, which shows the Moon, Earth, and the Sun s rays as viewed from space. Letter A indicates a certain position of the Moon in its orbit. 34. Which diagram represents the phase of the Moon, as seen by an observer on Earth, when the Moon is located at position A in its orbit? (1) (2) (3) (4)

9 35. Which diagram correctly shows the direction of Earth s rotation and revolution? (1) (2) (3) (4) 36. The diagram below shows the Moon at four positions in its orbit around Earth as viewed from above the North Pole. Beginning with the Moon at position X (the new- Moon phase), which sequence of Moon phases would be seen by an observer on Earth during 1 month? (1) (2) (3) (4) 37. Which statement best explains why different phases of the Moon can be observed from the Earth? (1) The size of the Earth's shadow falling on the Moon changes. (2) The Moon moves into different parts of the Earth's shadow. (3) Differing amounts of the Moon's sunlit surface are seen because the Moon revolves around the Sun. (4) Differing amounts of the Moon's sunlit surface are seen because the Moon revolves around the Earth. 38. The new-moon phase occurs when the Moon is positioned between the Earth and the Sun. However, these positions do not always cause an eclipse (blocking) of the Sun because the (1) Moon's orbit is tilted relative to the Earth's orbit (2) new-moon phase is visible only at night (3) night side of the Moon faces toward the Earth (4) apparent diameter of the Moon is greatest during the new-moon phase 39. Which motion causes the apparent rising and setting of the Moon each day, as seen from a location in Kansas? (1) the Earth revolving around the Sun (2) the Moon revolving around the Earth (3) the Earth rotating on its axis (4) the Moon rotating on its axis

10 40. The diagrams below represent Earth s ocean tides at four different positions of the Moon. Which diagram shows the Moon position that will produce the highest high tides and the lowest iow tides? (The diagrams are not drawn to scale.) ASTRONOMY REVIEW Qs 42. The diagram below represents the Moon in its orbit, as viewed from above Earth s North Pole. Position 1 represents a specific location of the Moon in its orbit. (1) (2) (3) Which phase of the Moon will be seen from Earth when the Moon is at position 1? (1) (3) (4) (2) (4) 41. Which event is a direct result of Earth's revolution? (1) the apparent deflection of winds (2) the changing of the Moon phases (3) the seasonal changes in constellations viewed in the night sky (4) the daily rising and setting of the Sun 43. Summer days in Texas are likely to be hotter than winter days because in summer (1) Earth is closer to the Sun (2) the number of sunspots increases (3) Earth s northern axis is tilted toward the Sun (4) the Sun gives off more energy 44. On which day of the year does Connecticut have the fewest hours of daylight? (1) April 21 (3) October 21 (2) June 21 (4) December 21

11 Base your answers to questions 45 and 46 on the diagram below, which has lettered arrows showing the motions of Earth and the Moon. 45. Which lettered arrow represents the motion that causes the Moon to show phases when view from Earth (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D 46. Which two motions are completed in about the same amount of time? (1) A and B (2) B and C (3) C and D (4) A and D

12 Base your answers to questions 47 through 49 on the world map below, which shows regions of Earth where a solar eclipse was visible on May 20, Location A, B, C, and D are on Earth's surface. 47. Which diagram best represents the positions of Earth (E), the Sun, and the Moon that created the solar eclipse? (Diagrams are not drawn to scale.) (1) (3) (2) (4)

13 48. Which statement best describes the visibility of this eclipse from locations in New York State? (1) A total eclipse was visible all day. (2) A total eclipse was visible only from noon until sunset. (3) A partial eclipse was visible only from noon until sunset. (4) Neither a partial nor a total eclipse was visible. 49. At which location could an observer have viewed this total solar eclipse if the skies were clear? (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D Base your answers to questions 50 and 51 on the graph below. The graph shows the recorded change in water level (ocean tides) at a coastal city in the northeastern United States during 1 day. 50. According to the pattern shown on the graph, the next high tide will occur on the following day at approximately (1) 12:30 a.m. (2) 2:00 a.m. (3) 3:15 a.m. (4) 4:00 a.m. 51. Which inference about tides is best made from this graph? (1) The hourly rate of tidal change is always the same. (3) The tidal change is a random event. (2) The rate of tidal change is greatest at high tide. (4) The tidal change is cyclic. 52. The apparent daily path of the Sun changes with the seasons because (1) Earth's axis is tilted (2) Earth's distance from the Sun changes (3) the Sun revolves (4) the Sun rotates 53. A student read in a newspaper that the maximum length of the daylight period for the year in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, had just been reached. What was the date of this newspaper? (1) March 22 (3) September 22 (2) June 22 (4) December 22

14 54. Which diagram sequence correctly shows the order of Moon phases, as viewed from Earth, for a period of 1 month? [Note that some phases have been omitted.] (1) (2) (3) (4)

15 Base your answers to questions 55 through 58 on the graph below, which shows the maximum altitude of the Moon, measured by an observer located at a latitude of 43 N during June in a particular year. The names and appearance of the four major Moon phases are shown at the top of the graph, directly above the date on which the phase occurred. 55. Which terms describe both the changes in the maximum altitude of the Moon and the changes in the Moon s phases over a period of several years? (1) cyclic and predictable (3) noncyclic and predictable (2) cyclic and unpredictable (4) noncyclic and unpredictable 56. Which city is closest in latitude to the location where these observations were made? (1) Binghamton (2) New York City (3) Albany (4) Syracuse 57. Which diagram best represents the Moon s phase observed on June 11? (1) (2) (3) (4) 58. What was the maximum altitude of the Moon on June 22? (1) 40 (2) 43 (3) 46 (4) 50

16 59. The diagram below shows the Moon orbiting Earth as viewed from space above the North Pole. The Moon is shown at eight different positions in its orbit. At which two positions of the Moon is an eclipse of the Sun or Moon possible? (1) 1 and 5 (2) 2 and 6 (3) 3 and 7 (4) 4 and The diagram below shows Earth, the Moon, and the Sun's rays as viewed from space. For observers on Earth, which phase of the Moon is represented by the diagram? (1) (2) (3) (4)

17 61. The diagram below shows the Moon in different positions as it revolves around Earth, as observed from above the North Pole (NP). Which image correctly represents the Moon at position 8, as observed from Earth? (1) (2) (3) (4)

18 Base your answers to questions 62 through 66 on the diagram below, which represents the Moon orbiting Earth as viewed from space above the North Pole. The Moon is shown at eight different positions in its orbit. 62. When the Moon is in position 2, which phase would be visible to an observer in Maine? (1) (2) (3) (4) 63. Which motion causes the Moon to show phases when viewed from Earth? (1) rotation of Earth (3) revolution of Earth (2) rotation of the Sun (4) revolution of the Moon 64. As the Moon changes location from position 2 to position 6, the visible portion of the Moon as observed from Earth (1) decreases, only (3) decreases, then increases (2) increases, only (4) increases, then decreases 65. The approximate time required for the Moon to move from position 3 to position 7 is (1) 1 hour (2) 2 weeks (3) 3 months (4) 4 days 66. Which device when placed on the Moon would provide evidence of Moon rotation? (1) Foucault pendulum (2) seismograph (3) thermometer (4) wind vane

19 Base your answers to questions 67 through 70 on the chart below, which shows phases of the Moon as viewed by an observer on Earth during What is the approximate diameter of the Moon? (1) km (2) km (3) km (4) km 68. Why does the Moon show these phases when viewed by an observer on Earth? (1) The Moon rotates on its axis. (3) The Sun lights only half of Earth. (2) Earth s orbit is nearly circular. (4) The Moon revolves around Earth. 69. The Moon goes through a complete cycle of phases approximately every (1) 14 days (2) 23 days (3) 29 days (4) 365 days 70. During 1996, the maximum intensity of moon-light was received on Earth twice in the month of (1) February (2) June (3) October (4) December 71. Which diagram most correctly shows the portion of Earth that is illuminated by sunlight and the portion that is in shadow on the first day of summer in the Northern Hemisphere? (1) (2) (3) (4)

20 72. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which represents a model of the Earth-Moon system as viewed from above the North Pole. The numbers 1 through 8 represent positions of the Moon as it revolves around Earth. The parts of the diagram lettered A through D show how the Moon's phases appear to an observer in New Jersey. As the Moon's phase changes from first quarter to last quarter, the visible portion of the Moon as observed from Earth will (1) decrease, only (3) decrease, then increase (2) increase, only (4) increase, then decrease 73. The diagram below shows Earth on a particular day in its orbit around the Sun. The dashed line represents Earth s axis. 74. The diagram below shows the noontime shadows cast by a student and a tree. Which date is represented by the diagram? (1) March 21 (3) September 23 (2) June 21 (4) December 21 If the time is solar noon and the student is located in New York State, in what direction is the student facing? (1) north (3) east (2) south (4) west

21 75. The diagram below shows the relative positions of the Earth, Moon, and Sun for a 1-month period. ASTRONOMY REVIEW Qs 77. The diagrams below show the phases of the Moon as viewed by an observer in New York State at different times in August. Which phase could have been observed on August 17? Which diagram best represents the appearance of the Moon at position P when viewed from the Earth? (1) (3) (1) (3) (2) (4) (2) (4) 76. The diagram below shows Earth on a particular day in its orbit around the Sun. The dashed line represents Earth s axis. 78. The diagram below shows Earth on a particular day in its orbit around the Sun. The dashed line represents Earth s axis. What happens to the length of daylight at this location on this date as you travel from the Arctic Circle to the Antarctic Circle? (1) Increases (2) Decreases (3) Stays the same (4) Increases then decreases Which Earth location is receiving the most intense insolation? (1) North Pole (3) Tropic of Cancer (2) South Pole (4) Tropic of Capricorn

22 79. The diagram below shows the shadow cast by a telephone pole on March 21 at solar noon at a location in New York State. ASTRONOMY REVIEW Qs 83. The diagram below shows the altitude of the Sun at solar noon on March 21, as seen by an observer at 42 N latitude. Which shadow was cast by the same telephone pole on December 21 at solar noon? (1) (3) Compared to the altitude of the Sun observed at solar noon on March 21, the altitude of the Sun observed at solar noon on June 21 will be (1) 15 higher in the sky (2) 23.5 higher in the sky (3) 42 higher in the sky (4) 48 higher in the sky 84. The diagram below represents Earth at four different positions, A, B, C, and D, in its orbit around the Sun. (2) (4) 80. The lowest surface air temperatures in the Southern Hemisphere usually occur during the month of (1) January (3) July (2) April (4) October 81. During how many days of a calendar year is the Sun directly overhead at noon in New Jersey? (1) only 1 day (3) 365 days (2) only 2 days (4) 0 days 82. Approximately how many degrees per day does Earth revolve in its orbit around the Sun? (1) 1 (3) 15 (2) 13 (4) 23.5 Between which positions would Texas be experiencing the summer season? (1) A and B (3) C and D (2) B and C (4) D and A

23 Base your answers to questions 85 and 86 on the world map below. Letters A through D represent locations on Earth s surface. 85. At which location on December 21 is the Sun directly overhead at solar noon? (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D 86. Which location receives 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness on June 21? (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D 87. Which observation is a direct result of the 23½º tilt of Earth's axis as Earth orbits the Sun? (1) Locations on Earth's Equator receive 12 hours of daylight every day. (2) The apparent diameter of the Sun shows predictable changes in size. (3) A Foucault pendulum shows predictable shifts in its direction of swing. (4) Winter occurs in the Southern Hemisphere at the same time that summer occurs in the Northern Hemisphere. 88. The tilt of the Earth on its axis is a cause of the Earth's (1) uniform daylight hours (2) changing length of day and night (3) 24-hour day (4) 365 -day year 89. To an observer located at the Equator, on which date would the Sun appear to be directly overhead at noon? (1) February 1 (3) March 21 (2) June 6 (4) December 21

24 90. Which graph best represents the average monthly temperatures for one year at a location in the Southern Hemisphere? (1) (3) (2) (4) 91. The diagram below shows the apparent daily path of the Sun, as viewed by an observer at a certain latitude on three different days of the year. At which latitude were these apparent Sun paths most likely observed? (1) 0 (2) 23.5 N (3) 43 N (4) 66.5 N

25 92. A student in New York State looked toward the eastern horizon to observe sunrise at three different times during the year. The student drew the following diagram that shows the positions of sunrise, A, B, and C, during this one-year period. Which list correctly pairs the location of sunrise to the time of the year? (1) A June 21 B March 21 C December 21 (2) A December 21 B March 21 C June 21 (3) A March 21 B June 21 C December 21 (4) A June 21 B December 21 C March The diagram below, which represents a horizon in Pennsylvania, shows four positions of sunrise, A, B, C, and D, on different days of the year. At which position would sunrise occur on June 21? (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D 94. The best evidence that Earth spins on its axis is the motion of (1) tectonic plates (2) Polaris (3) a wind vane (4) a Foucault pendulum 95. A Foucault pendulum appears to change its direction of swing over a period of several hours because of Earth s (1) rotation (3) tilted axis (2) revolution (4) gravity

26 96. Which diagram best shows the Sun s apparent path, as seen by an observer on July 21 in New Jersey? (1) (3) (2) (4) 97. Which diagram shows the position of the Earth relative to the Sun's rays during a winter day in the Northern Hemisphere? 99. The diagram below represents a swinging Foucault pendulum. (1) (3) (2) (4) 98. On March 21, at which location in New York State would sunrise occur first? (1) Riverhead (3) Buffalo (2) Syracuse (4) Massena This pendulum will show an apparent change in the direction of its swing due to Earth s (1) curved surface (3) rotation (2) tilted axis (4) revolution

27 Base your answers to questions 100 and 101 on the diagram below, which represents an exaggerated view of Earth revolving around the Sun. Letters A, B, C, and D represent Earth s location in its orbit on the first day of each of the four seasons. ASTRONOMY REVIEW Qs 104. The diagram below shows the shadow cast by a telephone pole on March 21 at solar noon at a location in New York State. Which shadow was cast by the same telephone pole on June 21 at solar noon? 100. Which location in Earth s orbit represents the first day of fall (autumn) for an observer in Pennsylvania? (1) A (3) C (2) B (4) D 101. Earth s rate of revolution around the Sun is approximately (1) 1 per day (3) 15 per hour (2) 360 per day (4) 23.5 per hour (1) (2) (3) (4) 102. The Coriolis effect causes winds in New York State to generally curve (1) to the right of the direction of travel (2) to the left of the direction of travel (3) upward away from Earth s surface (4) downward toward Earth s surface 103. In the Northern Hemisphere, planetary winds blowing from north to south are deflected, or curved, toward the west. This deflection is caused by the (1) unequal heating of land and water surfaces (2) movement of low-pressure weather systems (3) orbiting of Earth around the Sun (4) spinning of Earth on its axis 105. Surface ocean currents curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere because (1) the Moon spins on its axis (2) the Moon travels in an orbit around Earth (3) Earth spins on its axis (4) Earth travels in an orbit around the Sun 106. The length of an Earth day is determined by the time required for approximately one (1) Earth rotation (3) Sun rotation (2) Earth revolution (4) Sun revolution

28 Base your answers to questions 107 through 109 on the diagram below, which represents a model of the sky (celestial sphere) for an observer in New York State. The curved arrow represents the Sun s apparent path for part of one day. The altitude of Polaris is also indicated On which date could this observation of the Sun s apparent path have been made? (1) March 21 (2) July 21 (3) October 21 (4) December Where is this observer most likely located? (1) Massena (2) Oswego (3) Slide Mountain (4) Mt. Marcy 109. According to this diagram, what is the Sun s altitude at solar noon? (1) 23.5 (2) 42 (3) 48 (4) 90

29 Base your answers to questions 110 through 112 on the diagram below, which shows the altitude and apparent position of the noontime Sun, as seen from various latitudes on Earth on a particular day of the year. Letters A through D represent locations on Earth's surface Which season will begin at 41 N latitude, three months after the date represented by this diagram? (1) summer (2) fall (3) winter (4) spring 111. What is the altitude of the noontime Sun at the Equator on this date? (1) 23 (2) 43 (3) 66 (4) Which lettered location will experience the shortest period of daylight during one Earth rotation on this day? (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D 113. In New York State, the constellation Pisces can be seen in the night sky between the middle of summer and the middle of winter. The constellation Scorpio can be seen in the night sky between early spring and early fall. The reason these two constellations can be viewed only at these times is a direct result of Earth s (1) spin on its axis (2) movement around the Sun (3) axis having a 23.5 tilt (4) distance from the Sun 114. Which observable change would occur in New York State if Earth s rate of rotation were onehalf its present rate? (1) The Sun would rise in the southwest each day. (2) The length of a day would be longer. (3) The time needed to complete a cycle of Moon phases would be greater. (4) The seasonal changes would not occur Units of time are based on Earth's motion relative to other celestial objects. The year is best defined as Earth's motion relative to the (1) asteroids (3) Moon (2) Sun (4) planets

30 116. Which model best represents the apparent path of the Sun observed at various times during the year at the Equator? (1) ASTRONOMY REVIEW Qs Base your answers to questions 119 and 120 on the diagram below, which shows numbered positions of the Sun at four different times along the Sun s apparent daily path, as seen by an observer in New Jersey. Numbers 1 through represent apparent positions of the Sun. (2) (3) (4) 119. During which day of the year is the Sun most likely to follow the apparent path shown? (1) March 1 (3) October 1 (2) July 1 (4) December The observer had the longest shadow when the Sun was at position (1) 1 (3) 3 (2) 2 (4) The diagram below represents the direction of Earth s rotation as it appears from above the North Pole. Point X is a location on Earth s surface If the axis of Earth were not tilted relative to the plane of its orbit around the Sun, the result would be (1) a greater number of hours in a day (2) a greater number of days in a year (3) a reversal of polar and equatorial climates (4) an equal number of hours of daylight at most locations 118. Which change would occur if the Earth's rate of rotation were to increase? (1) The year would be shorter. (2) The day would be shorter. (3) The year would be longer. (4) The day would be longer. The time at point X is closest to (1) 6 a.m. (3) 6 p.m. (2) 12 noon (4) 12 midnight

31 Base your answers to questions 122 and 123 on the diagram below, which shows the angle of the Sun s noontime rays received at different Earth latitudes on May At which latitude can the noontime Sun be observed in the northern part of the sky? (1) 0 (2) 30 N (3) 60 N (4) 90 N 123. Which changes can be expected to occur at 45 N over the next 30 days? (1) The duration of insolation will decrease and the temperature will decrease. (2) The duration of insolation will decrease and the temperature will increase. (3) The duration of insolation will increase and the temperature will decrease. (4) The duration of insolation will increase and the temperature will increase.

32 Base your answers to questions 124 through 126 on the diagram below, which shows a model of the apparent path and position of the Sun in relation to an observer at four different locations, A, B, C, and D, on Earth s surface on the dates indicated. The zenith (z) and the actual position of the Sun in the model at the time of the observation are shown. [The zenith is the point directly over the observer.] 124. From sunrise to sunset at location B, the length of the observer s shadow will (1) increase, only (3) increase, then decrease (2) decrease, only (4) decrease, then increase 125. Where on Earth s surface is the observer at location C located? (1) at the Equator (2) at the South Pole (3) at the North Pole (4) in Oswego, New York 126. According to the Sun s actual position shown in the diagrams, the most intense insolation is being received by the observer at location (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D

33 127. The shaded portion of the map below indicates areas of night and the unshaded portion indicates areas of daylight. What day of the year is best represented by the map? (1) March 21 (2) June 21 (3) September 21 (4) December The diagram below represents a plastic hemisphere upon which lines have been drawn to show the apparent paths of the Sun at a location in New York State on the first day of each season. Letters A through I represent points on the paths. Which point represents the sunrise location on the first day of winter? (1) G (2) F (3) E (4) D 129. What is the total number of degrees that the Earth rotates on its axis during a 12-hour period? (1) 1º (3) 180º (2) 15º (4) 360º 130. Which object orbits Earth in both the Earthcentered (geocentric) and Sun-centered (heliocentric) models of our solar system? (1) the Moon (3) Venus (2) the Sun (4) Polaris

34 131. The maps below show the amount of sea ice surrounding the continent of Antarctica at two different times of the year. Map A represents late August when the area covered by sea ice approaches its greatest extent. Map B represents the minimum extent of sea ice. Which month is most probably represented by map B? (1) February (2) May (3) June (4) October 132. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which represents the planetary wind and moisture belts in Earth s Northern Hemisphere. The paths of the surface planetary winds are curved due to Earth s (1) revolution (2) rotation (3) circumference (4) size

35 133. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which represents the apparent path of the Sun observed at four locations on Earth's surface on March 21. The present positions of the Sun, Polaris, and the zenith (position directly overhead) are shown for an observer at each location. State the approximate time of day for the observer at location B when the Sun is at the position shown in the diagram The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? 135. In which type of model are the Sun, other stars, and the Moon in orbit around the Earth? (1) heliocentric model (3) concentric model (2) tetrahedral model (4) geocentric model 136. Which planet s orbit around the Sun is most nearly circular? (1) Mercury (3) Pluto (2) Neptune (4) Venus (1) Earth (3) Moon (2) Sun (4) Polaris 137. Which planet has an orbital eccentricity most like the orbital eccentricity of the Moon? (1) Pluto (3) Mars (2) Saturn (4) Mercury

36 138. In which map does the shaded area correctly represent the part of Earth that receives direct (perpendicular) rays from the Sun sometime during the year? (1) (3) (2) (4) 139. Which object is located at one foci of the elliptical orbit of Mars? (1) the Sun (3) Earth (2) Betelgeuse (4) Jupiter 140. An observer on Earth determines that the apparent diameter of the Moon as viewed from Earth varies in a cyclic manner. The best explanation for this observation is that the (1) Moon is rotating (2) Moon s orbit is elliptical (3) atmospheric transparency of the Moon changes (4) distance between the Moon and the Sun changes 141. The shape of the orbits of most of the planets in the solar system would best be described as (1) elliptical and very elongated (2) parabolic (3) nearly circular (4) perfectly circular 142. In what way are the planets Mars, Mercury, and Earth similar? (1) They have the same period of revolution. (2) They are perfect spheres. (3) They exert the same gravitational force on each other. (4) They have elliptical orbits with the Sun at one focus.

37 143. Which graph best represents the angle of the Sun above the horizon as observed from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. on September 23 at a location in New York State? (1) ASTRONOMY REVIEW Qs Base your answers to questions 145 through 147 on the diagram below, which represents latitude and longitude lines on Earth. Points A through E represent locations on Earth. Arrows represent direction of rotation. (2) (3) (4) 145. At which location will the Sun reach the highest angle above the horizon at solar noon? (1) A (3) C (2) E (4) D 146. Which location has the longest duration of insolation on December 21? (1) A (3) C (2) B (4) E 144. Which observation is a direct result of changes in distance between Earth and the Sun? (1) A Foucault pendulum shows predictable changes in its direction of swing. (2) The apparent diameter of the Sun shows predictable changes in size. (3) The length of daylight at the poles changes from 0 to 24 hours during the year. (4) Summer occurs in the Northern Hemisphere at the same time that winter occurs in the Southern Hemisphere When the local time at location C is 3 p.m., the local time at location D is (1) 1 p.m. (3) 3 p.m. (2) 5 p.m. (4) 3 a.m The actual shape of the Earth's orbit around the Sun is best described as (1) a very eccentric ellipse (2) a slightly eccentric ellipse (3) an oblate spheroid (4) a perfect circle

38 149. A student accurately measured the altitude of the noontime Sun from the same New Jersey location on four days during the school year. Which sequence best shows these measurements? (1) (2) (3) (4) 150. The period of time a planet takes to make one revolution around the Sun is most dependent on the planet's average (1) rotation rate (2) mass (3) insolation from the Sun (4) distance from the Sun 151. When the distance between the foci of an ellipse is increased, the eccentricity of the ellipse will (1) decrease (3) remain the same (2) increase 152. The elliptical shape of the Earth's orbit results in (1) changes in the orbital velocity of the Earth (2) tilting of the Earth's axis (3) the oblate spheroid shape of the Earth (4) the phases of the Moon

39 153. The diagram below represents a Foucault pendulum swinging freely for 8 hours. ASTRONOMY REVIEW Qs 155. The diagram below represents an activity in which an eye dropper was used to place a drop of water on a spinning globe. Instead of flowing due south toward the target point, the drop followed a curved path and missed the target. The Foucault pendulum appears to gradually change its direction of swing due to Earth s (1) orbit around the Sun (3) tilted axis (2) curved surface (4) spin on its axis 154. Which diagram correctly shows how surface winds are deflected (curved) in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres due to Earth's rotation? The actual path results from (1) the tilt of the globe's axis (2) the Coriolis effect (3) the globe's revolution (4) dynamic equilibrium 156. The diagram below shows Earth as viewed from above the North Pole (NP). Points A and B are locations on Earth's surface. (1) (3) (2) (4) At location A, the time is 12 noon. What is the time at location B? (1) 6 a.m. (3) 3 p.m. (2) 6 p.m. (4) 12 midnight

40 157. The diagram below shows some examples of how surface winds are deflected in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres because of Earth's rotation. Earth's rotation causes winds to be deflected to the (1) right in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres (2) right in the Northern Hemisphere and left in the Southern Hemisphere (3) left in the Northern Hemisphere and right in the Southern Hemisphere (4) left in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres 158. The diagram below shows the latitude-longitude grid on an Earth model. Points A and B are locations on the surface Which diagram best represents a portion of the heliocentric model of the solar system? [S = Sun, E = Earth, and M = Moon] (1) (3) (2) On Earth, the solar time difference between point A and point B would be (1) 1 hour (3) 12 hours (2) 5 hours (4) 24 hours (4)

41 160. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below, which shows Earth's planetary wind belts and pressure belts. The surface winds shown in the diagram follow curving paths mainly due to Earth's (1) revolution (2) rotation (3) gravitational field (4) magnetic field 161. The diagram below shows the elliptical orbit of a planet revolving around a star. The star and F 2 are the foci of this ellipse The diagram below represents the elliptical orbit of a moon revolving around a planet. The foci of this orbit are the points labeled F 1 and F 2. What is the approximate eccentricity of this ellipse? (1) 0.22 (3) 0.68 (2) 0.47 (4) 1.47 What is the approximate eccentricity of this elliptical orbit? (1) 0.3 (3) 0.7 (2) 0.5 (4) 1.4

42 Base your answers to questions 163 and 164 on the diagram below. The diagram represents the Earth at a position in orbit around the Sun, the Sun's rays at solar noon, and the direction to Polaris. Letters A through D represent positions on the Earth's surface. ASTRONOMY REVIEW Qs 165. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below which shows twelve constellations that are visible in the night sky to an observer in New Jersey, over the course of a year. Different positions of Earth are represented by letters A through D. The arrows represent the direction of Earth's motion around the Sun A projectile is launched from a point near the North Pole toward the Equator. Which diagram best represents the apparent path of the projectile, as viewed from the Earth? Which constellations are both visible at midnight to an observer in New Jersey when Earth is located at position D? (1) Aries and Taurus (2) Pisces and Libra (3) Leo and Virgo (4) Aquarius and Scorpio (1) (3) 166. Which diagram shows a planet with the least eccentric orbit? ( Key: = planet * = star ) (2) (4) (1) (3) 164. What is the latitude of position A? (1) 23 º N (3) 66 º N (2) 47º N (4) 90º N (2) (4)

43 167. Letters A, B, C, D, and X on the map below represent locations on Earth. The map shows the latitude-longitude grid. Solar time is based on the position of the Sun. If the solar time is 1 p.m. at location X, at which location is the solar time 5 p.m.? (1) A (2) B (3) C (4) D Base your answers to questions 168 and 169 on the diagram below, which shows sunlight entering a room through the same window at three different times on the same winter day This room is located in a building in Connecticut. On which side of the building is the window located? (1) north (2) south (3) east (4) west

44 169. The apparent change in the Sun s position shown in the diagram is best explained by (1) the Sun rotating at a rate of 15 per hour (3) the Sun s axis tilted at an angle of 23 (2) Earth rotating at a rate of 15 per hour (4) Earth s axis tilted at an angle of Base your answer to the following question on the map below. Letters A through F are locations on Earth s surface. When solar time at location E is 12 noon, solar time at location A is closest to (1) 6 a.m. (2) 8 a.m. (3) 12 noon (4) 4 p.m.

45 171. The diagram below shows one model of a portion of the universe. ASTRONOMY REVIEW Qs 172. Base your answer to the question below on the diagram below. The diagram represents the path of a planet orbiting a star. Points A, B, C, and D indicate four orbital positions of the planet. When viewed by an observer on the planet, the star has the largest apparent diameter at position (1) A (3) C (2) B (4) D What type of model does the diagram best demonstrate? (1) a heliocentric model, in which celestial objects orbit Earth (2) a heliocentric model, in which celestial objects orbit the Sun (3) a geocentric model, in which celestial objects orbit Earth (4) a geocentric model, in which celestial objects orbit the Sun 173. The diagram below represents the Earth's orbital path around the Sun. The Earth takes the same amount of time to move from A to B as from C to D. Which values are equal within the system? (1) The shaded sections of the diagram are equal in area. (2) The distance from the Sun to the Earth is the same at point A and at point D. (3) The orbital velocity of the Earth at point A equals its orbital velocity at point C. (4) The gravitational force between the Earth and the Sun at point B is the same as the gravitational force at point D.

46 Base your answers to questions 174 and 175 on the diagram of the solar system below Which kind of model of the solar system is represented by the diagram? (1) heliocentric model (2) geocentric model (3) sidereal model (4) lunar model 175. According to Kepler's Harmonic Law of Planetary Motion, the farther a planet is located from the Sun, the (1) shorter its period of rotation (3) longer its period of rotation (2) shorter its period of revolution (4) longer its period of revolution

47 Answer Key

48 Answer Key :30 pm () 1 hour)

Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X?

Solar System. 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? Solar System 1. The diagram below represents a simple geocentric model. Which object is represented by the letter X? A) Earth B) Sun C) Moon D) Polaris 2. Which object orbits Earth in both the Earth-centered

More information

1. In the diagram below, the direct rays of the Sun are striking the Earth's surface at 23 º N. What is the date shown in the diagram?

1. In the diagram below, the direct rays of the Sun are striking the Earth's surface at 23 º N. What is the date shown in the diagram? 1. In the diagram below, the direct rays of the Sun are striking the Earth's surface at 23 º N. What is the date shown in the diagram? 5. During how many days of a calendar year is the Sun directly overhead

More information

EARTH'S MOTIONS. 2. The Coriolis effect is a result of Earth's A tilted axis B orbital shape C revolution D rotation

EARTH'S MOTIONS. 2. The Coriolis effect is a result of Earth's A tilted axis B orbital shape C revolution D rotation EARTH'S MOTIONS 1. Which hot spot location on Earth's surface usually receives the greatest intensity of insolation on June 21? A Iceland B Hawaii C Easter Island D Yellowstone 2. The Coriolis effect is

More information

Motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun

Motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun Motions of Earth, Moon, and Sun Apparent Motions of Celestial Objects An apparent motion is a motion that an object appears to make. Apparent motions can be real or illusions. When you see a person spinning

More information

astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times.

astronomy 2008 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 1. A planet was viewed from Earth for several hours. The diagrams below represent the appearance of the planet at four different times. 5. If the distance between the Earth and the Sun were increased,

More information

Explain the Big Bang Theory and give two pieces of evidence which support it.

Explain the Big Bang Theory and give two pieces of evidence which support it. Name: Key OBJECTIVES Correctly define: asteroid, celestial object, comet, constellation, Doppler effect, eccentricity, eclipse, ellipse, focus, Foucault Pendulum, galaxy, geocentric model, heliocentric

More information

EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1

EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1 Instructor: L. M. Khandro EDMONDS COMMUNITY COLLEGE ASTRONOMY 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Test # 1 1. An arc second is a measure of a. time interval between oscillations of a standard clock b. time

More information

lat/long/size&shape of Earth 1. Which statement provides the best evidence that Earth has a nearly spherical shape?

lat/long/size&shape of Earth 1. Which statement provides the best evidence that Earth has a nearly spherical shape? Name: Tuesday, September 23, 2008 lat/long/size&shape of Earth 1. Which statement provides the best evidence that Earth has a nearly spherical shape? 1. The Sun has a spherical shape. 3. Star trails photographed

More information

Earth In Space Chapter 3

Earth In Space Chapter 3 Earth In Space Chapter 3 Shape of the Earth Ancient Greeks Earth casts a circular shadow on the moon during a lunar eclipse Shape of the Earth Ancient Greeks Ships were observed to disappear below the

More information

FIRST GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES

FIRST GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES FIRST GRADE 1 WEEK LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES UNIVERSE CYCLE OVERVIEW OF FIRST GRADE UNIVERSE WEEK 1. PRE: Describing the Universe. LAB: Comparing and contrasting bodies that reflect light. POST: Exploring

More information

Celestial Sphere. Celestial Coordinates. Lecture 3: Motions of the Sun and Moon. ecliptic (path of Sun) ecliptic (path of Sun)

Celestial Sphere. Celestial Coordinates. Lecture 3: Motions of the Sun and Moon. ecliptic (path of Sun) ecliptic (path of Sun) Lecture 3: Motions of the and Moon ecliptic (path of ) ecliptic (path of ) The 23.5 degree tilt of Earth s spin axis relative to its orbital axis around the causes the seasons Celestial Sphere Celestial

More information

The Four Seasons. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. The Moon s Phases

The Four Seasons. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. A Warm Up Exercise. The Moon s Phases The Four Seasons A Warm Up Exercise What fraction of the Moon s surface is illuminated by the Sun (except during a lunar eclipse)? a) Between zero and one-half b) The whole surface c) Always half d) Depends

More information

Lab Activity on the Causes of the Seasons

Lab Activity on the Causes of the Seasons Lab Activity on the Causes of the Seasons 2002 Ann Bykerk-Kauffman, Dept. of Geological and Environmental Sciences, California State University, Chico * Objectives When you have completed this lab you

More information

Earth in the Solar System

Earth in the Solar System Copyright 2011 Study Island - All rights reserved. Directions: Challenge yourself! Print out the quiz or get a pen/pencil and paper and record your answers to the questions below. Check your answers with

More information

Answer Sheet. Astronomy. Your ES Teacher: Name. Spring School 2015. Page 7 Page 9 Page 10 #3) #5) #29) #39) #52) #40) #66) Tide height: #45) Time:

Answer Sheet. Astronomy. Your ES Teacher: Name. Spring School 2015. Page 7 Page 9 Page 10 #3) #5) #29) #39) #52) #40) #66) Tide height: #45) Time: Your ES Teacher: Date: ( M W Th ) Astronomy CIRCLE ONE Answer Sheet Page 7 Page 9 Page 10 Name Spring School 2015 #3) #5) #29) Page 8 #36) #37) #38) #39) #40) #45) #46) #47) #52) #66) Tide height: Time:

More information

Aphelion The point in the orbit of a planet or other celestial body where it is furthest from the Sun.

Aphelion The point in the orbit of a planet or other celestial body where it is furthest from the Sun. SKYTRACK Glossary of Terms Angular distance The angular separation between two objects in the sky as perceived by an observer, measured in angles. The angular separation between two celestial objects in

More information

Celestial Observations

Celestial Observations Celestial Observations Earth experiences two basic motions: Rotation West-to-East spinning of Earth on its axis (v rot = 1770 km/hr) (v rot Revolution orbit of Earth around the Sun (v orb = 108,000 km/hr)

More information

Noon Sun Angle = 90 Zenith Angle

Noon Sun Angle = 90 Zenith Angle Noon Sun Angle Worksheet Name Name Date Subsolar Point (Latitude where the sun is overhead at noon) Equinox March 22 nd 0 o Equinox September 22 nd 0 o Solstice June 22 nd 23.5 N Solstice December 22 nd

More information

CELESTIAL MOTIONS. In Charlottesville we see Polaris 38 0 above the Northern horizon. Earth. Starry Vault

CELESTIAL MOTIONS. In Charlottesville we see Polaris 38 0 above the Northern horizon. Earth. Starry Vault CELESTIAL MOTIONS Stars appear to move counterclockwise on the surface of a huge sphere the Starry Vault, in their daily motions about Earth Polaris remains stationary. In Charlottesville we see Polaris

More information

CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS

CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS INTRODUCTION CELESTIAL CLOCK - THE SUN, THE MOON, AND THE STARS This is a scientific presentation to provide you with knowledge you can use to understand the sky above in relation to the earth. Before

More information

Reasons for Seasons. Question: TRUE OR FALSE. Question: TRUE OR FALSE? What causes the seasons? What causes the seasons?

Reasons for Seasons. Question: TRUE OR FALSE. Question: TRUE OR FALSE? What causes the seasons? What causes the seasons? Reasons for Seasons Question: TRUE OR FALSE? Earth is closer to the Sun in summer and farther from the Sun in winter. Question: TRUE OR FALSE? Earth is closer to the Sun in summer and farther from the

More information

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather

Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Name Period 4 th Six Weeks Notes 2015 Weather Radiation Convection Currents Winds Jet Streams Energy from the Sun reaches Earth as electromagnetic waves This energy fuels all life on Earth including the

More information

Earth-Sun Relationships. The Reasons for the Seasons

Earth-Sun Relationships. The Reasons for the Seasons Earth-Sun Relationships The Reasons for the Seasons Solar Radiation The earth intercepts less than one two-billionth of the energy given off by the sun. However, the radiation is sufficient to provide

More information

Where on Earth are the daily solar altitudes higher and lower than Endicott?

Where on Earth are the daily solar altitudes higher and lower than Endicott? Where on Earth are the daily solar altitudes higher and lower than Endicott? In your notebooks, write RELATIONSHIPS between variables we tested CAUSE FIRST EFFECT SECOND EVIDENCE As you increase the time

More information

Essential Question. Enduring Understanding

Essential Question. Enduring Understanding Earth In Space Unit Diagnostic Assessment: Students complete a questionnaire answering questions about their ideas concerning a day, year, the seasons and moon phases: My Ideas About A Day, Year, Seasons

More information

Basic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide

Basic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide Name: Basic Coordinates & Seasons Student Guide There are three main sections to this module: terrestrial coordinates, celestial equatorial coordinates, and understanding how the ecliptic is related to

More information

ASTR 1030 Astronomy Lab 65 Celestial Motions CELESTIAL MOTIONS

ASTR 1030 Astronomy Lab 65 Celestial Motions CELESTIAL MOTIONS ASTR 1030 Astronomy Lab 65 Celestial Motions CELESTIAL MOTIONS SYNOPSIS: The objective of this lab is to become familiar with the apparent motions of the Sun, Moon, and stars in the Boulder sky. EQUIPMENT:

More information

Tropical Horticulture: Lecture 2

Tropical Horticulture: Lecture 2 Lecture 2 Theory of the Tropics Earth & Solar Geometry, Celestial Mechanics The geometrical relationship between the earth and sun is responsible for the earth s climates. The two principal movements of

More information

Shadows, Angles, and the Seasons

Shadows, Angles, and the Seasons Shadows, Angles, and the Seasons If it's cold in winter, why is Earth closer to the Sun? This activity shows the relationship between Earth-Sun positions and the seasons. From The WSU Fairmount Center

More information

6. The greatest atmospheric pressure occurs in the 1) troposphere 3) mesosphere 2) stratosphere 4) thermosphere

6. The greatest atmospheric pressure occurs in the 1) troposphere 3) mesosphere 2) stratosphere 4) thermosphere 1. The best evidence of the Earth's nearly spherical shape is obtained through telescopic observations of other planets photographs of the Earth from an orbiting satellite observations of the Sun's altitude

More information

Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME. Seasons/Precession Recap. Phases of the Moon. Eclipses. Lunar, Solar. Ancient Astronomy

Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME. Seasons/Precession Recap. Phases of the Moon. Eclipses. Lunar, Solar. Ancient Astronomy Today FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME Seasons/Precession Recap Phases of the Moon Eclipses Lunar, Solar Ancient Astronomy How do we mark the progression of the seasons? We define four special points: summer

More information

The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading:

The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading: Seasons Vocabulary: The following words and their definitions should be addressed before completion of the reading: sphere any round object that has a surface that is the same distance from its center

More information

Answers for the Study Guide: Sun, Earth and Moon Relationship Test

Answers for the Study Guide: Sun, Earth and Moon Relationship Test Answers for the Study Guide: Sun, Earth and Moon Relationship Test 1) It takes one day for the Earth to make one complete on its axis. a. Rotation 2) It takes one year for the Earth to make one around

More information

Today. Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses. Ancient Astronomy. Lunar, Solar FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME

Today. Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses. Ancient Astronomy. Lunar, Solar FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME Today Solstices & Equinoxes Precession Phases of the Moon Eclipses Lunar, Solar Ancient Astronomy FIRST HOMEWORK DUE NEXT TIME The Reason for Seasons Hypothesis check: How would seasons in the northern

More information

Relationship Between the Earth, Moon and Sun

Relationship Between the Earth, Moon and Sun Relationship Between the Earth, Moon and Sun Rotation A body turning on its axis The Earth rotates once every 24 hours in a counterclockwise direction. Revolution A body traveling around another The Earth

More information

What s going on during a solar eclipse. Solar Eclipses. Total Solar Eclipse on March 29, 2006 (viewed from Turkey) Partial, Total, and Annular

What s going on during a solar eclipse. Solar Eclipses. Total Solar Eclipse on March 29, 2006 (viewed from Turkey) Partial, Total, and Annular Solar Eclipses The Sun disappears behind the Moon The Moon is always in the New phase during a solar eclipse Can only be seen from certain places on Earth These events are even more rare than lunar eclipses

More information

Geometry and Geography

Geometry and Geography Geometry and Geography Tom Davis tomrdavis@earthlink.net http://www.geometer.org/mathcircles March 12, 2011 1 Pedagogical Advice I have been leading mathematical circles using this topic for many years,

More information

OBJECT: To become familiar with some of the motions of the stars, Sun, Moon and planets as seen from the surface of the Earth.

OBJECT: To become familiar with some of the motions of the stars, Sun, Moon and planets as seen from the surface of the Earth. INSIDE LAB 2: Celestial Motions OBJECT: To become familiar with some of the motions of the stars, Sun, Moon and planets as seen from the surface of the Earth. DISCUSSION: As seen from a point of view centered

More information

Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti

Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti Exam # 1 Thu 10/06/2010 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti INSTRUCTIONS: Please, use the `bubble sheet and a pencil # 2 to answer the exam questions, by marking

More information

LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM. Chapter 8, Astronomy

LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM. Chapter 8, Astronomy LESSON 3 THE SOLAR SYSTEM Chapter 8, Astronomy OBJECTIVES Identify planets by observing their movement against background stars. Explain that the solar system consists of many bodies held together by gravity.

More information

2. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States.

2. The map below shows high-pressure and low-pressure weather systems in the United States. 1. Which weather instrument has most improved the accuracy of weather forecasts over the past 40 years? 1) thermometer 3) weather satellite 2) sling psychrometer 4) weather balloon 6. Wind velocity is

More information

The Celestial Sphere. Questions for Today. The Celestial Sphere 1/18/10

The Celestial Sphere. Questions for Today. The Celestial Sphere 1/18/10 Lecture 3: Constellations and the Distances to the Stars Astro 2010 Prof. Tom Megeath Questions for Today How do the stars move in the sky? What causes the phases of the moon? What causes the seasons?

More information

The following questions refer to Chapter 19, (PAGES 259 278 IN YOUR MANUAL, 7 th ed.)

The following questions refer to Chapter 19, (PAGES 259 278 IN YOUR MANUAL, 7 th ed.) GEOLOGY 306 Laboratory Instructor: TERRY J. BOROUGHS NAME: Locating the Planets (Chapter 19) and the Moon and Sun (Chapter 21) For this assignment you will require: a calculator, colored pencils, a metric

More information

Study Guide: Sun, Earth and Moon Relationship Assessment

Study Guide: Sun, Earth and Moon Relationship Assessment I can 1. Define rotation, revolution, solstice and equinox. *Rotation and Revolution Review Worksheet 2. Describe why we experience days and years due to the rotation and r evolution of the Earth around

More information

Newton s Law of Gravity

Newton s Law of Gravity Gravitational Potential Energy On Earth, depends on: object s mass (m) strength of gravity (g) distance object could potentially fall Gravitational Potential Energy In space, an object or gas cloud has

More information

Solar energy and the Earth s seasons

Solar energy and the Earth s seasons Solar energy and the Earth s seasons Name: Tilt of the Earth s axis and the seasons We now understand that the tilt of Earth s axis makes it possible for different parts of the Earth to experience different

More information

Geography I Pre Test #1

Geography I Pre Test #1 Geography I Pre Test #1 1. The sun is a star in the galaxy. a) Orion b) Milky Way c) Proxima Centauri d) Alpha Centauri e) Betelgeuse 2. The response to earth's rotation is a) an equatorial bulge b) polar

More information

Assignment 2. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Assignment 2. Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Assignment 2 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What would you have to change about the Earth to stop our planet from having

More information

For further information, and additional background on the American Meteorological Society s Education Program, please contact:

For further information, and additional background on the American Meteorological Society s Education Program, please contact: Project ATMOSPHERE This guide is one of a series produced by Project ATMOSPHERE, an initiative of the American Meteorological Society. Project ATMOSPHERE has created and trained a network of resource agents

More information

Seasons on Earth LESSON

Seasons on Earth LESSON LESSON 4 Seasons on Earth On Earth, orange and red autumn leaves stand out against the blue sky. NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION (NOAA) PHOTO LIBRARY/NOAA CENTRAL LIBRARY INTRODUCTION Nearly

More information

Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston

Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston Chapter 6: SOLAR GEOMETRY Full credit for this chapter to Prof. Leonard Bachman of the University of Houston SOLAR GEOMETRY AS A DETERMINING FACTOR OF HEAT GAIN, SHADING AND THE POTENTIAL OF DAYLIGHT PENETRATION...

More information

Use WITH Investigation 4, Part 2, Step 2

Use WITH Investigation 4, Part 2, Step 2 INVESTIGATION 4 : The Sundial Project Use WITH Investigation 4, Part 2, Step 2 EALR 4: Earth and Space Science Big Idea: Earth in Space (ES1) Projects: Tether Ball Pole Sundial Globe and a Light Indoors

More information

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy

ASTRONOMY 161. Introduction to Solar System Astronomy ASTRONOMY 161 Introduction to Solar System Astronomy Seasons & Calendars Monday, January 8 Season & Calendars: Key Concepts (1) The cause of the seasons is the tilt of the Earth s rotation axis relative

More information

What Causes Climate? Use Target Reading Skills

What Causes Climate? Use Target Reading Skills Climate and Climate Change Name Date Class Climate and Climate Change Guided Reading and Study What Causes Climate? This section describes factors that determine climate, or the average weather conditions

More information

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review

Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Astronomy 1140 Quiz 1 Review Prof. Pradhan September 15, 2015 What is Science? 1. Explain the difference between astronomy and astrology. (a) Astrology: nonscience using zodiac sign to predict the future/personality

More information

1 The Nine Planets. What are the parts of our solar system? When were the planets discovered? How do astronomers measure large distances?

1 The Nine Planets. What are the parts of our solar system? When were the planets discovered? How do astronomers measure large distances? CHAPTER 4 1 The Nine Planets SECTION A Family of Planets BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What are the parts of our solar system? When were the

More information

Motion and Gravity in Space

Motion and Gravity in Space Motion and Gravity in Space Each planet spins on its axis. The spinning of a body, such a planet, on its axis is called rotation. The orbit is the path that a body follows as it travels around another

More information

Time, Day, Month, and the Moon

Time, Day, Month, and the Moon Time, Day, Month, and the Moon Announcements o First Homework will start on Tue Sept 20st; due on Thu, Sept 29th. o Accessible through SPARK Assigned Reading n Units 7 and 8 Goals for Today n To discuss

More information

Sun Earth Relationships

Sun Earth Relationships 1 ESCI-61 Introduction to Photovoltaic Technology Sun Earth Relationships Ridha Hamidi, Ph.D. Spring (sun aims directly at equator) Winter (northern hemisphere tilts away from sun) 23.5 2 Solar radiation

More information

1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.) Equinox b.) Celestial equator c.) Solstice d.

1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.) Equinox b.) Celestial equator c.) Solstice d. Chapter 1 1-1. How long does it take the Earth to orbit the Sun? a.) one sidereal day b.) one month c.) one year X d.) one hour 1-2. What is the name given to the path of the Sun as seen from Earth? a.)

More information

Coordinate Systems. Orbits and Rotation

Coordinate Systems. Orbits and Rotation Coordinate Systems Orbits and Rotation Earth orbit. The earth s orbit around the sun is nearly circular but not quite. It s actually an ellipse whose average distance from the sun is one AU (150 million

More information

WHAT'S UP THIS MONTH MAY 2016

WHAT'S UP THIS MONTH MAY 2016 WHAT'S UP THIS MONTH MAY 2016 THESE PAGES ARE INTENDED TO HELP YOU FIND YOUR WAY AROUND THE SKY The chart above shows the night sky as it appears on 15 th May at 21:00 (9 o clock) in the evening British

More information

Earth, Sun and Moon is a set of interactives designed to support the teaching of the QCA primary science scheme of work 5e - 'Earth, Sun and Moon'.

Earth, Sun and Moon is a set of interactives designed to support the teaching of the QCA primary science scheme of work 5e - 'Earth, Sun and Moon'. is a set of interactives designed to support the teaching of the QCA primary science scheme of work 5e - ''. Learning Connections Primary Science Interactives are teaching tools which have been created

More information

Section 3 What Is Climate?

Section 3 What Is Climate? Section 3 What Is Climate? Key Concept Earth s climate zones are caused by the distribution of heat around Earth s surface by wind and ocean currents. What You Will Learn Climate is the average weather

More information

Renewable Energy. Solar Power. Courseware Sample 86352-F0

Renewable Energy. Solar Power. Courseware Sample 86352-F0 Renewable Energy Solar Power Courseware Sample 86352-F0 A RENEWABLE ENERGY SOLAR POWER Courseware Sample by the staff of Lab-Volt Ltd. Copyright 2009 Lab-Volt Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this

More information

Solar Angles and Latitude

Solar Angles and Latitude Solar Angles and Latitude Objectives The student will understand that the sun is not directly overhead at noon in most latitudes. The student will research and discover the latitude ir classroom and calculate

More information

Motions of the Earth. Stuff everyone should know

Motions of the Earth. Stuff everyone should know Motions of the Earth Stuff everyone should know Earth Motions E W N W Noon E Why is there day and night? OR Why do the Sun and stars appear to move through the sky? Because the Earth rotates around its

More information

8.5 Motions of Earth, the Moon, and Planets

8.5 Motions of Earth, the Moon, and Planets 8.5 Motions of, the, and Planets axis axis North Pole South Pole rotation Figure 1 s axis is an imaginary line that goes through the planet from pole-to-pole. orbital radius the average distance between

More information

Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy

Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy Chapter 3 The Science of Astronomy Days of the week were named for Sun, Moon, and visible planets. What did ancient civilizations achieve in astronomy? Daily timekeeping Tracking the seasons and calendar

More information

Motions of Earth LEARNING GOALS

Motions of Earth LEARNING GOALS 2 Patterns in the Sky Motions of Earth The stars first found a special place in legend and mythology as the realm of gods and goddesses, holding sway over the lives of humankind. From these legends and

More information

Earth, Moon and Sun Study Guide

Earth, Moon and Sun Study Guide Name/Number: Part A: Define the following terms: Earth, Moon and Sun Study Guide Date: satellite: an object that moves around another object in space; the moon is a satellite of the Earth orbit: the path

More information

Aileen A. O Donoghue Priest Associate Professor of Physics

Aileen A. O Donoghue Priest Associate Professor of Physics SOAR: The Sky in Motion y Life on the Tilted Teacup Ride Phases of the Moon Aileen A. O Donoghue Priest Associate Professor of Physics Kiva December 1997 October 27, 2009 Celestial Coordinates Right Ascension

More information

Exemplar Problems Physics

Exemplar Problems Physics Chapter Eight GRAVITATION MCQ I 8.1 The earth is an approximate sphere. If the interior contained matter which is not of the same density everywhere, then on the surface of the earth, the acceleration

More information

The Reasons for the Seasons

The Reasons for the Seasons The Reasons for the Seasons (The Active Learning Approach) Materials: 4 Globes, One light on stand with soft white bulb, 4 flashlights, Four sets of "Seasons" Cards, Four laminated black cards with 1 inch

More information

Names of Group Members:

Names of Group Members: Names of Group Members: Using telescopes and spacecraft, astronomers can collect information from objects too big or too far away to test and study in a lab. This is fortunate, because it turns out that

More information

Earth, Moon, and Sun Study Guide. (Test Date: )

Earth, Moon, and Sun Study Guide. (Test Date: ) Earth, Moon, and Sun Study Guide Name: (Test Date: ) Essential Question #1: How are the Earth, Moon, and Sun alike and how are they different? 1. List the Earth, Moon, and Sun, in order from LARGEST to

More information

Periods of Western Astronomy. Chapter 1. Prehistoric Astronomy. Prehistoric Astronomy. The Celestial Sphere. Stonehenge. History of Astronomy

Periods of Western Astronomy. Chapter 1. Prehistoric Astronomy. Prehistoric Astronomy. The Celestial Sphere. Stonehenge. History of Astronomy Periods of Western Astronomy Chapter 1 History of Astronomy Western astronomy divides into 4 periods Prehistoric (before 500 B.C.) Cyclical motions of Sun, Moon and stars observed Keeping time and determining

More information

5- Minute Refresher: Daily Observable Patterns in the Sky

5- Minute Refresher: Daily Observable Patterns in the Sky 5- Minute Refresher: Daily Observable Patterns in the Sky Key Ideas Daily Observable Patterns in the Sky include the occurrence of day and night, the appearance of the moon, the location of shadows and

More information

APS 1010 Astronomy Lab 63 Motions of the Moon MOTIONS OF THE MOON

APS 1010 Astronomy Lab 63 Motions of the Moon MOTIONS OF THE MOON APS 1010 Astronomy Lab 63 Motions of the Moon MOTIONS OF THE MOON SYNOPSIS: The objective of this lab is to become familiar with the motion of the Moon and its relation to the motions of the Sun and Earth.

More information

Observing the Constellations of the Zodiac

Observing the Constellations of the Zodiac Observing the Constellations of the Zodiac Activity UCIObs 3 Grade Level: 8 12 Source: Copyright (2009) by Tammy Smecker Hane. Contact tsmecker@uci.edu with any questions. Standards:This activity addresses

More information

Exploring Solar Energy Variations on Earth: Changes in the Length of Day and Solar Insolation Through the Year

Exploring Solar Energy Variations on Earth: Changes in the Length of Day and Solar Insolation Through the Year Exploring Solar Energy Variations on Earth: Changes in the Length of Day and Solar Insolation Through the Year Purpose To help students understand how solar radiation varies (duration and intensity) during

More information

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations

Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Grade Level Expectations Science Standard 4 Earth in Space Our Solar System is a collection of gravitationally interacting bodies that include Earth and the Moon. Universal

More information

Kepler, Newton and Gravitation

Kepler, Newton and Gravitation Kepler, Newton and Gravitation Kepler, Newton and Gravity 1 Using the unit of distance 1 AU = Earth-Sun distance PLANETS COPERNICUS MODERN Mercury 0.38 0.387 Venus 0.72 0.723 Earth 1.00 1.00 Mars 1.52

More information

Page. ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS (Page 4).

Page. ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS (Page 4). Star: ASTRONOMICAL OBJECTS ( 4). Ball of gas that generates energy by nuclear fusion in its includes white dwarfs, protostars, neutron stars. Planet: Object (solid or gaseous) that orbits a star. Radius

More information

Astronomy 10 Test #1 Practice Version

Astronomy 10 Test #1 Practice Version Given (a.k.a. `First ) Name(s): Family (a.k.a. `Last ) name: ON YOUR PARSCORE: `Bubble your name, your student I.D. number, and your multiple-choice answers. I will keep the Parscore forms. ON THIS TEST

More information

Sunlight. and space travel

Sunlight. and space travel Sunlight and space travel Distances If you drive on a motorway at 70 miles per hour in one hour you may get to Stafford. Steady speed! If you keep on driving after 3 hours you would reach London. Steady

More information

Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons

Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons Chapter 2: Solar Radiation and Seasons Spectrum of Radiation Intensity and Peak Wavelength of Radiation Solar (shortwave) Radiation Terrestrial (longwave) Radiations How to Change Air Temperature? Add

More information

The Sun-Earth-Moon System. Unit 5 covers the following framework standards: ES 9, 11 and PS 1. Content was adapted the following:

The Sun-Earth-Moon System. Unit 5 covers the following framework standards: ES 9, 11 and PS 1. Content was adapted the following: Unit 5 The Sun-Earth-Moon System Chapter 10 ~ The Significance of Earth s Position o Section 1 ~ Earth in Space o Section 2 ~ Phases, Eclipses, and Tides o Section 3 ~ Earth s Moon Unit 5 covers the following

More information

Astrock, t he A stronomical Clock

Astrock, t he A stronomical Clock Astrock, t he A stronomical Clock The astronomical clock is unlike any other clock. At first glance you ll find it has similar functions of a standard clock, however the astronomical clock can offer much

More information

Cycles in the Sky. Teacher Guide: Cycles in the Sky Page 1 of 8 2008 Discovery Communications, LLC

Cycles in the Sky. Teacher Guide: Cycles in the Sky Page 1 of 8 2008 Discovery Communications, LLC Cycles in the Sky What is a Fun damental? Each Fun damental is designed to introduce your younger students to some of the basic ideas about one particular area of science. The activities in the Fun damental

More information

CELESTIAL EVENTS CALENDAR APRIL 2014 TO MARCH 2015

CELESTIAL EVENTS CALENDAR APRIL 2014 TO MARCH 2015 CELESTIAL EVENTS CALENDAR APRIL 2014 TO MARCH 2015 *** Must See Event 2014 ***April 8 - Mars at Opposition. The red planet will be at its closest approach to Earth and its face will be fully illuminated

More information

How Do Oceans Affect Weather and Climate?

How Do Oceans Affect Weather and Climate? How Do Oceans Affect Weather and Climate? In Learning Set 2, you explored how water heats up more slowly than land and also cools off more slowly than land. Weather is caused by events in the atmosphere.

More information

INTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 2016-17

INTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 2016-17 INTERNATIONAL INDIAN SCHOOL, RIYADH SA I 2016-17 STD V WORKSHEET Page 1 of 7 SOCIAL STUDIES LESSON - 1. KNOW YOUR PLANET Fill in the blanks: 1. A book containing maps is called an. 2. A Flemish map maker,

More information

The moons of the planets

The moons of the planets 22th of October 2007 The planets of our solar system Our solar system contains eight planets. Beginning with the closest one to the sun they are in order: Mercury Venus Earth Uranus The moons in our solar

More information

STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon

STUDY GUIDE: Earth Sun Moon The Universe is thought to consist of trillions of galaxies. Our galaxy, the Milky Way, has billions of stars. One of those stars is our Sun. Our solar system consists of the Sun at the center, and all

More information

Chapter 5: Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity

Chapter 5: Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity Chapter 5: Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity 1. Earth s gravity attracts a person with a force of 120 lbs. The force with which the Earth is attracted towards the person is A. Zero. B. Small but

More information

Geography affects climate.

Geography affects climate. KEY CONCEPT Climate is a long-term weather pattern. BEFORE, you learned The Sun s energy heats Earth s surface unevenly The atmosphere s temperature changes with altitude Oceans affect wind flow NOW, you

More information

Study Guide due Friday, 1/29

Study Guide due Friday, 1/29 NAME: Astronomy Study Guide asteroid chromosphere comet corona ellipse Galilean moons VOCABULARY WORDS TO KNOW geocentric system meteor gravity meteorite greenhouse effect meteoroid heliocentric system

More information

Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity

Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity Understanding the motion of the Universe Motion, Force, and Gravity Laws of Motion Stationary objects do not begin moving on their own. In the same way, moving objects don t change their movement spontaneously.

More information