The Physics of Energy sources Renewable sources of energy Part I

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The Physics of Energy sources Renewable sources of energy Part I"

Transcription

1 The Physics of Energy sources Renewable sources of energy Part I B. Maffei Renewable sources 1

2 Introduction! Definition! Renewable energy source: extraction/generation of energy from resources that are naturally occurring, unlimited or rapidly replenished. We need to replenish the resources from which energy is extracted at least at the same rate than it is consumed! Is it worth it?! So far, renewable sources of energy were expensive in comparison to others! Due to energy price increase (mainly lately) and technological progress renewable sources are becoming competitive. Note: not all renewable sources are necessarily clean Renewable sources 2

3 Purpose! Why do we need these?! As we have seen in lecture 1, fossil fuels (on which we are very dependant) reserves are coming to an end.! Energy demand is increasing! We need to replace/complement these sources by ones that will not disappear! Government white paper on Energy has a target of 10% of energy from renewable sources by % of energy from renewable sources by 2020 At present ~ 3%! Preferably we need clean (or at least cleaner) sources! In order to fulfil the Kyoto treaty Decrease production of greenhouse gases (mainly CO 2 and NO) Target: 60% CO 2 reduction by 2050 (in comparison to 1990 level) The EU is proposing 20% by 2020, 40% by 2030 and 80% cut by 2050! To avoid radioactive waste Fission produces elements that will remain radioactive for several 100,000 years Fusion would produce less waste, less radioactive and for shorter period Renewable sources 3

4 What will we see?! Sources directly extracted from Sun radiation! Solar heating! Solar cells! Sources indirectly extracted from Sun radiation! Bio-fuels! Biomass! Wind power! Hydroelectricity! Wave power! Tidal energy! Geothermal Renewable sources 4

5 Natural energy resources for grab on Earth Renewable sources 5

6 Biomass and Biofuels Renewable sources 6

7 Photosynthesis facts! It is the making (synthesis) of organic structures and oxygen by the action of solar radiation! The creation of these chemical elements is equivalent to energy storage Potential energy! It is the most important renewable energy process! Living organisms made from material fixed by photosynthesis! This is where human metabolism gets its energy from Human metabolism continually releases ~ 150W from food! Photosynthetic output power on Earth ~ W! ~ Equivalent to 10 5 nuclear power plants! Could we use this enormous amount of energy for our needs?! As a renewable source of energy! Without effect on other resources! As a green energy source? Renewable sources 7

8 What is photosynthesis?! It is the absorption of CO 2 and H 2 O to form carbohydrates and proteins! This reaction happens in plants! It is the results of several processes than can be classified in 2 consecutive steps Light dependent reaction: photosynthetic reactions absorption of photons Light independent reactions: Calvin-Benson cycle! It is an endothermic reaction Here the energy is provided by the photons of the solar radiations! The resulting equation can be written as [ CH 2O] H2O( ) CO + H O + photons O + + 2( g) 2 2 ( l) 2( g) ( aq) l [CH 2 O] represents a basic unit of carbohydrate Ex: formation of glucose 6 CO2 + 12H 2O + photons 6O2 + C6H12O6 + 6H2O Renewable sources 8

9 1 st Process: Absorption of radiation! Solar radiation on a leaf is reflected, transmitted or absorbed! Less than 5% of the absorbed radiation is used for photosynthesis The remainder is producing heat to heat the plant or to evaporate water! The energy absorption process leading to photosynthesis:! Is not a thermal effect (raise T increase kinetic energy)! It is more like photoelectric effect: normal state conduction excited state! The absorption spectrum is not flat hν ΔE hν e ΔE + Absorption spectrum of leave Absorption spectra of separated components (lab) Abs spectrum of leave different from sum of individual abs spectra Cooperative interaction of various pigments Renewable sources 9

10 Absorption of radiation (2)! We have 2 photo-sensitive processes: PS2 and PS1 PS2: reduction of water to oxygen hν 4H2O O2 + 2H2O + 4H + + 4e 4 photons needed. ΔE= 1.82eV λ max = 680nm PS1: production of a strong reducing agent NADPH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) 4 other photons needed. ΔE= 1.77eV λ max = 700nm Renewable sources 10

11 2 nd process: dark reaction! The formation of NADPH by PS1 supplies the main reducing agent to fix CO 2 into carbohydrate.! These subsequent reactions occur by ordinary thermal chemistry! The overall Calvin-Benson cycle can be summarised by: + [ CH 2O] + 2NADP + 3ADP + H O Pi + CO + NADPH + 3ATP + 2H ADP and ATP (adenosine di- and tri-phosphate) P i inorganic phosphate Overall result [ CH 2O] H2O( ) CO + H O + photons O + + 2( g) 2 2 ( l) 2( g) ( aq) l This reaction will require the absorption of at least 8 photons. However the difference in the enthalpy between products and reactants is 4.8eV per atom of C. The full ΔH of the resulting reaction is then ΔH=460kJ per mole of C Renewable sources 11

12 How can the carbohydrate be used?! Cellular respiration! Aerobic respiration: process taking place in a cell to get biochemical energy from fuel molecules! This is more or less the reverse reaction than what we have seen with photosynthesis! Ex: oxidation of glucose simplified equation! Combustion O + C H O 6CO + 6H O + ΔH = 2880kJ! The general denomination for photosynthesis products is biomass (+O 2 )! Biomass can then be used for combustion in various forms Note: While combustion requires temperatures of ~ 400C, respiration proceeds by catalytic enzyme reactions at ~ 20C Renewable sources 12

13 Biomass and Biofuels! Biomass is then largely composed of organic material and water! It has then the potential of releasing 460kJ per mole of C! Many other products can be extracted from biomass Renewable sources 13

14 Conclusion on biomass! Biomass provides about 12% of the world energy consumption! Main domestic use is biofuel combustion (wood )! Industrial use is fairly small still Ex: generation of electricity in the USA : 2% from biofuels! Renewable clean energy?! Works if growth must at least be equal to use In this case CO 2 emission is balanced with use through photosynthesis The energy from biomass is then carbon neutral! By replacing fossil fuel (which are not carbon neutral) by biomass we could have a medium long term solution for reducing greenhouse gas emission! However land for culture is limited! Quantity will then be limited! Competition with food production Might not be an issue for countries over-producing food (Europe, USA ) Could be a problem for other countries (ref to 2007 protests against food price increase)! Biodiesel and bio-ethanol are more expensive to produce than from fossil fuels! Could be compensated by tax reduction! Can be produced locally : reduce transport costs! Optimised combustion can reduce CO and CH 4 emission to a minimum Renewable sources 14

15 Summary for Biomass! Results from Photosynthesis! Creation of carbohydrates from H 2 O + CO 2 + Photons! Endothermic reaction ΔH=460kJ per mole of C! 2 consecutive processes 1 st : Light dependent reactions: photosynthetic reactions 2 nd : Light independent reactions: Calvin-Benson cycle! Biomass can be considered as a storage of potential energy! Can be considered as renewable! If consumption = production! Can be considered carbon neutral (with some caveats)! It is potentially a very large source of energy! But has also its disadvantages (see conclusion) Renewable sources 15

16 References! Most of the material of this lecture is coming from! Ref4: Renewable energy resources, J. Twidell and T. Weir, second edition, 2006 Renewable sources 16

Cellular Energy. 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following?

Cellular Energy. 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following? Cellular Energy 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following? A. plants, but not animals B. animals, but not plants C. bacteria, but neither animals nor plants D. all living organisms 2.

More information

* Is chemical energy potential or kinetic energy? The position of what is storing energy?

* Is chemical energy potential or kinetic energy? The position of what is storing energy? Biology 1406 Exam 2 - Metabolism Chs. 5, 6 and 7 energy - capacity to do work 5.10 kinetic energy - energy of motion : light, electrical, thermal, mechanical potential energy - energy of position or stored

More information

2. Which type of macromolecule contains high-energy bonds and is used for long-term energy storage?

2. Which type of macromolecule contains high-energy bonds and is used for long-term energy storage? Energy Transport Study Island 1. During the process of photosynthesis, plants use energy from the Sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. These products are, in turn, used by the

More information

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. Stored Energy

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. Stored Energy Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Stored Energy What is Photosynthesis? plants convert the energy of sunlight into the energy in the chemical bonds of carbohydrates sugars and starches. SUMMARY EQUATION:

More information

pathway that involves taking in heat from the environment at each step. C.

pathway that involves taking in heat from the environment at each step. C. Study Island Cell Energy Keystone Review 1. Cells obtain energy by either capturing light energy through photosynthesis or by breaking down carbohydrates through cellular respiration. In both photosynthesis

More information

Chapter 6. Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis

Chapter 6. Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis Chapter 6 Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis Including some materials from lectures by Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida Ammended by John Crocker Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.1

More information

1. f. Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.

1. f. Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide. 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: 1.

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Most components of energy conversion systems evolved very early; thus, the most fundamental aspects of energy metabolism tend to be: A. quite different among a diverse group

More information

Photosynthesis Reactions. Photosynthesis Reactions

Photosynthesis Reactions. Photosynthesis Reactions Photosynthesis Reactions Photosynthesis occurs in two stages linked by ATP and NADPH NADPH is similar to NADH seen in mitochondria; it is an electron/hydrogen carrier The complete process of photosynthesis

More information

Green pigment that absorbs solar energy and is important in photosynthesis

Green pigment that absorbs solar energy and is important in photosynthesis PHOTOSYNTHESIS REVIEW SHEET FOR TEST Part A: Match the terms below with the correct description Chlorophyll Chloroplast Electromagnetic spectrum Electron transport chain Grana Light-dependant reactions

More information

Review Questions Photosynthesis

Review Questions Photosynthesis Review Questions Photosynthesis 1. Describe a metabolic pathway. In a factory, labor is divided into small individual jobs. A carmaker, for example, will have one worker install the front windshield, another

More information

Student Worksheets. Stage 4 Geography FW4G1. Name: FutureWorld 2015 FW4G1

Student Worksheets. Stage 4 Geography FW4G1. Name: FutureWorld 2015 FW4G1 Student Worksheets Stage 4 Geography FW4G1 Name: Introduction Renewable Versus Non-renewable Energy The Sun is a Primary Source of Energy Almost all the energy needed to keep life on Earth going comes

More information

Photosynthesis (Life from Light)

Photosynthesis (Life from Light) Photosynthesis Photosynthesis (Life from Light) Energy needs of life All life needs a constant input of energy o Heterotrophs (consumers) Animals, fungi, most bacteria Get their energy from other organisms

More information

Unit 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Unit 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Unit 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Advanced Concepts What is the abbreviated name of this molecule? What is its purpose? What are the three parts of this molecule? Label each part with the

More information

Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration. Hot Seat

Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration. Hot Seat Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Hot Seat Hot Seat Instructions You are competing against classmates in your row (across the classroom). The hot seat is the seat in each row closest to the outside

More information

CHAPTER 4. Section 1 Do we get energy from food?

CHAPTER 4. Section 1 Do we get energy from food? Section 1 Do we get energy from food? CHAPTER 4 Food contains energy but it has to be broken down in order to be used. That means that energy comes from food but not directly. All cells, including plant

More information

SUPPLEMENTARY TOPIC 3 ENERGY AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS

SUPPLEMENTARY TOPIC 3 ENERGY AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS SUPPLEMENTARY TOPIC 3 ENERGY AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS Rearranging atoms. In a chemical reaction, bonds between atoms in one or more molecules (reactants) break and new bonds are formed with other atoms to

More information

Cell Energy (Photosynthesis and Respiration) Notes

Cell Energy (Photosynthesis and Respiration) Notes Cell Energy (Photosynthesis and Respiration) Notes I. Energy ability to do work; forms of energy: heat, light, chemical, electrical, mechanical, kinetic, potential A. Energy for living things comes from

More information

Equation for Photosynthesis

Equation for Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Definition The process by which cells harvest light energy to make sugars (glucose). -Sugar is used to power the process of cellular respiration, which produces the ATP that cells utilize

More information

Name Date Class. energy phosphate adenine charged ATP chemical bonds work ribose

Name Date Class. energy phosphate adenine charged ATP chemical bonds work ribose Energy in a Cell Reinforcement and Study Guide Section.1 The Need for Energy In your textbook, read about cell energy. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. energy phosphate adenine

More information

Photosynthesis-Review. Pigments. Chloroplasts. Chloroplasts 5. Pigments are located in the thylakoid membranes. An Overview of Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis-Review. Pigments. Chloroplasts. Chloroplasts 5. Pigments are located in the thylakoid membranes. An Overview of Photosynthesis An Overview of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis-Review 1. Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy sugars and oxygen. 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 +

More information

Student Worksheets Energy for a Cleaner Environment

Student Worksheets Energy for a Cleaner Environment Student Worksheets Energy for a Cleaner Environment Stage 4 Science FW4S1 Name: Introduction Renewable Versus Non-renewable Energy The Sun is a Primary Source of Energy Almost all the energy needed to

More information

Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Questions/ Main Ideas 8 1 Energy and Life Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Chemical Energy and ATP Energy is the ability to do work. Nearly every activity in modern society depends on one kind of energy or

More information

CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY. Section A: The Principles of Energy Harvest

CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY. Section A: The Principles of Energy Harvest Section A: The Principles of Energy Harvest 1. Cellular respiration and fermentation are catabolic, energy-yielding pathways 2. Cells recycle the ATP they use for work 3. Redox reactions release energy

More information

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION reflect Wind turbines shown in the photo on the right are large structures with blades that move in response to air movement. When the wind blows, the blades rotate. This motion generates energy that is

More information

1. Enzymes. Biochemical Reactions. Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism. 1. Enzymes. 2. ATP Production. 3. Autotrophic Processes

1. Enzymes. Biochemical Reactions. Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism. 1. Enzymes. 2. ATP Production. 3. Autotrophic Processes Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism 1. Enzymes 2. ATP Production 3. Autotrophic Processes 1. Enzymes Biochemical Reactions All living cells depend on biochemical reactions to maintain homeostasis. All of the

More information

Photosynthesis Notes

Photosynthesis Notes Photosynthesis Notes Energy and Living Things: All living organisms must have energy to survive. Organisms get this energy from food. Organisms either make their own food or consume other organisms to

More information

Starter. Write down 6 things you know about energy

Starter. Write down 6 things you know about energy Monday 13th June COPY BAT: - Explain that ATP provides the immediate source of energy for biological processes. - Describe the synthesis of ATP from ADP and phosphate and its role as the immediate source

More information

MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE

MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1 MCQ - ENERGY and CLIMATE 1. The volume of a given mass of water at a temperature of T 1 is V 1. The volume increases to V 2 at temperature T 2. The coefficient of volume expansion of water may be calculated

More information

Energy and Photosynthesis. Pre-AP Biology HHS

Energy and Photosynthesis. Pre-AP Biology HHS Energy and Photosynthesis Pre-AP Biology HHS Energy in Living Things Two Groups of Living Organisms in the Way they meet their Energy needs: Autotrophs: plants and other living things that build organic

More information

Lecture 7 Outline (Ch. 10)

Lecture 7 Outline (Ch. 10) Lecture 7 Outline (Ch. 10) I. Photosynthesis overview A. Purpose B. Location II. The light vs. the dark reaction III. Chloroplasts pigments A. Light absorption B. Types IV. Light reactions A. Photosystems

More information

-Loss of energy -Loss of hydrogen from carbons. -Gain of energy -Gain of hydrogen to carbons

-Loss of energy -Loss of hydrogen from carbons. -Gain of energy -Gain of hydrogen to carbons Cellular Respiration- Equation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 +6H20 and energy -The energy is released from the chemical bonds in the complex organic molecules -The catabolic process of releasing energy from food

More information

Sustainable Energy Sources By: Sue Peterson

Sustainable Energy Sources By: Sue Peterson www.k5learning.com Objective sight words (consumption, terrain, integral, orbit, originated, contemporary, remote); concepts (sustainable, renewable, photovoltaics, gasification) Vocabulary consumption

More information

Photosynthesis. Nearly all of the usable energy on this planet came, at one time or another, from the sun by the process of photosynthesis

Photosynthesis. Nearly all of the usable energy on this planet came, at one time or another, from the sun by the process of photosynthesis Photosynthesis Nearly all of the usable energy on this planet came, at one time or another, from the sun by the process of photosynthesis Photosynthesis In the process of photosynthesis, plants convert

More information

Cell Energetics Practice

Cell Energetics Practice Cell Energetics Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The ultimate source of energy for almost all living organisms is: a. heat. b.

More information

Topic 3: Nutrition, Photosynthesis, and Respiration

Topic 3: Nutrition, Photosynthesis, and Respiration 1. Base your answer to the following question on the chemical reaction represented below and on your knowledge of biology. If this reaction takes place in an organism that requires sunlight to produce

More information

Summary of Metabolism. Mechanism of Enzyme Action

Summary of Metabolism. Mechanism of Enzyme Action Summary of Metabolism Mechanism of Enzyme Action 1. The substrate contacts the active site 2. The enzyme-substrate complex is formed. 3. The substrate molecule is altered (atoms are rearranged, or the

More information

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. Az Agrármérnöki MSc szak tananyagfejlesztése TÁMOP-4.1.2-08/1/A-2009-0010

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY. Az Agrármérnöki MSc szak tananyagfejlesztése TÁMOP-4.1.2-08/1/A-2009-0010 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY Az Agrármérnöki MSc szak tananyagfejlesztése TÁMOP-4.1.2-08/1/A-2009-0010 The light reactions of the photosynthesis Photosynthesis inhibiting herbicides Overview 1. Photosynthesis, general

More information

ATP The Free Energy Carrier

ATP The Free Energy Carrier Why? ATP The Free Carrier How does the ATP molecule capture, store, and release energy? A sporting goods store might accept a $100 bill for the purchase of a bicycle, but the corner store will not take

More information

Photosynthesis P P P. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs (page 201) Chemical Energy and ATP (pages 202 203) Chapter 8. Name Class Date

Photosynthesis P P P. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs (page 201) Chemical Energy and ATP (pages 202 203) Chapter 8. Name Class Date Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Section 8 1 Energy and Life (pages 201 203) This section explains where plants get the energy they need to produce food. It also describes the role of the chemical compound ATP

More information

Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism

Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism 1. Discuss energy conversions and the 1 st and 2 nd law of thermodynamics. Be sure to use the terms work, potential energy, kinetic energy, and entropy. 2. What are Joules

More information

2. PHOTOSYNTHESIS. The general equation describing photosynthesis is light + 6 H 2 O + 6 CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2

2. PHOTOSYNTHESIS. The general equation describing photosynthesis is light + 6 H 2 O + 6 CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 2. PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis is the process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy whereby carbon dioxide and water are converted into organic molecules. The process occurs in most algae,

More information

Photosynthesis Practice. 2. Chlorophyll a and b absorb _B -_V and _R wavelengths of light best.

Photosynthesis Practice. 2. Chlorophyll a and b absorb _B -_V and _R wavelengths of light best. Photosynthesis Practice Fill in the blanks. Name Date Period 1. Molecules that collect light energy are called _P. 2. Chlorophyll a and b absorb _B -_V and _R wavelengths of light best. 3. _C is the main

More information

Sustainable Living Student Worksheets

Sustainable Living Student Worksheets Sustainable Living Student Worksheets Stage 4 Design & Technology FW4DT1 Name: Introduction Renewable Versus Non-renewable Energy The Sun is a Primary Source of Energy Almost all the energy needed to keep

More information

Bioenergetics Module A Anchor 3

Bioenergetics Module A Anchor 3 Bioenergetics Module A Anchor 3 Key Concepts: - ATP can easily release and store energy by breaking and re-forming the bonds between its phosphate groups. This characteristic of ATP makes it exceptionally

More information

Chapter 5. Chapter 5. Objectives Analyze the flow of energy through living systems. (5.1) New Vocabulary. Vocabulary Review. Chapter 5.

Chapter 5. Chapter 5. Objectives Analyze the flow of energy through living systems. (5.1) New Vocabulary. Vocabulary Review. Chapter 5. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Section 1 and Section 2 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Why It s Important Every cell in your body needs energy to function. This energy is acquired through

More information

What powers a cell? ATP is like cash for the cell. Your cells need ATP to do anything. Energy needed to make ATP originally comes from the sun.

What powers a cell? ATP is like cash for the cell. Your cells need ATP to do anything. Energy needed to make ATP originally comes from the sun. What powers a cell? ATP is like cash for the cell. Your cells need ATP to do anything. Energy needed to make ATP originally comes from the sun. Our guiding question The energy source for nearly all ecosystems

More information

Cellular Energy: ATP & Enzymes. What is it? Where do organism s get it? How do they use it?

Cellular Energy: ATP & Enzymes. What is it? Where do organism s get it? How do they use it? Cellular Energy: ATP & Enzymes What is it? Where do organism s get it? How do they use it? Where does Energy come from? Ultimately, from the sun. It is transferred between organisms in the earth s lithosphere,

More information

Photosynthesis Part I: Overview & The Light-Dependent Reactions

Photosynthesis Part I: Overview & The Light-Dependent Reactions Photosynthesis Part I: Overview & The Light-Dependent Reactions Photosynthesis: The BIG Picture Photosynthesis is the process by which PHOTOAUTOTROPHS convert the energy in SUNLIGHT into the energy stored

More information

8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis Slide 1 of 51

8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis Slide 1 of 51 8-3 The of Photosynthesis 1 of 51 Inside a Chloroplast Inside a Chloroplast In plants, photosynthesis takes place inside chloroplasts. Plant Chloroplast Plant cells 2 of 51 Inside a Chloroplast Chloroplasts

More information

SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman

SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman An Introduction to Metabolism Most biochemical processes occur as biochemical pathways, each individual reaction of which is catalyzed

More information

+ΔH gained enthalpy as reaction proceeded -ΔS means we have decreased entropy -ΔH means we have lost enthalpy(heat) (exergonic)

+ΔH gained enthalpy as reaction proceeded -ΔS means we have decreased entropy -ΔH means we have lost enthalpy(heat) (exergonic) CHAPTER ENERGY AND LIVING CELLS Life Requires Free Energy ( Bozeman biology) G= Free energy is the available(useable) energy to do work in the system Q. So during an exothermic reaction does the G go up

More information

Intro to Metabolism Campbell Chapter 8

Intro to Metabolism Campbell Chapter 8 Intro to Metabolism Campbell Chapter 8 http://ag.ansc.purdue.edu/sheep/ansc442/semprojs/2003/spiderlamb/eatsheep.gif http://www.gifs.net Section 8.1 An organism s metabolism transforms matter and energy,

More information

Energy, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

Energy, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Energy, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Name: Period: Date: I. ATP: Energy In A Molecule All is broken down by the body into small molecules through digestion o By the time food reaches your, it

More information

Biology 20 Cellular Respiration Review NG Know the process of Cellular Respiration (use this picture if it helps):

Biology 20 Cellular Respiration Review NG Know the process of Cellular Respiration (use this picture if it helps): Biology 20 Cellular Respiration Review NG Know the process of Cellular Respiration (use this picture if it helps): 1) How many ATP molecules are produced for each glucose molecule used in fermentation?

More information

Photosynthesis January 23 Feb 1, 2013 WARM-UP JAN 23/24. Mr. Stephens, IB Biology III 1

Photosynthesis January 23 Feb 1, 2013 WARM-UP JAN 23/24. Mr. Stephens, IB Biology III 1 WARM-UP JAN 23/24 Mr. Stephens, IB Biology III 1 Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration What is the connection between Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration? Energy Production Inorganic Molecules Specialized

More information

Name Class Date. Describe the role of ATP in cellular activities. Explain where plants get the energy they need to produce food.

Name Class Date. Describe the role of ATP in cellular activities. Explain where plants get the energy they need to produce food. 8.1 Energy and Life Lesson Objectives Describe the role of ATP in cellular activities. Explain where plants get the energy they need to produce food. Lesson Summary Chemical Energy and ATP Energy is the

More information

1. Nuclear - In YOUR OWN WORDS (not your partner s words) explain how this energy source works.

1. Nuclear - In YOUR OWN WORDS (not your partner s words) explain how this energy source works. ENERGY RESOURCES ACTIVITY Integrated Science 4 Name: Date: Period: Directions: In groups, you will be going from station to station answering questions about differing energy resource. Each individual

More information

Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1

Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1 Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1 1. Which statement best describes one of the events taking place in the chemical reaction? A. Energy is being stored as a result of aerobic respiration. B. Fermentation

More information

AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration

AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the term used for the metabolic pathway in which

More information

Jan Baptisa van Helmont (1648)

Jan Baptisa van Helmont (1648) Instructions To help you navigate these slides, you should set your viewer to display thumbnails of these slides. On many viewers, this can be done by pressing the F4 key. The slides should be viewed in

More information

CHAPTER 6: PHOTOSYNTHESIS CAPTURING & CONVERTING ENERGY

CHAPTER 6: PHOTOSYNTHESIS CAPTURING & CONVERTING ENERGY CHAPTER 6: PHOTOSYNTHESIS CAPTURING & CONVERTING ENERGY 2 PROCESSES OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis is actually 2 processes: light reactions - convert solar energy (sunlight) to chemical energy (ATP &

More information

Sustainable Design Student Worksheets Stage 4/5 Design & Technology FW45DT2. Name: FutureWorld 2015 FW45DT2

Sustainable Design Student Worksheets Stage 4/5 Design & Technology FW45DT2. Name: FutureWorld 2015 FW45DT2 Sustainable Design Student Worksheets Stage 4/5 Design & Technology FW45DT2 Name: Introduction Renewable Versus Non-renewable Energy The Sun is a Primary Source of Energy Almost all the energy needed to

More information

Biology I. Chapter 8/9

Biology I. Chapter 8/9 Biology I Chapter 8/9 NOTEBOOK #1 Interest Grabber Suppose you earned extra money by having a part-time job. At first, you might be tempted to spend all of the money, but then you decide to open a bank

More information

Free Energy and Enzymes (Chapter 6) Outline. 1. The "extra" electrons have been stripped from other atoms in the cell.

Free Energy and Enzymes (Chapter 6) Outline. 1. The extra electrons have been stripped from other atoms in the cell. Free Energy and Enzymes (Chapter 6) Outline Growing Old With Molecular Mayhem A. Free radicals are molecules with extra electrons. 1. The "extra" electrons have been stripped from other atoms in the cell.

More information

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Two Forms of Energy

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Two Forms of Energy Module 2D - Energy and Metabolism Objective # 19 All living organisms require energy for survival. In this module we will examine some general principles about chemical reactions and energy usage within

More information

Energy Processing Metabolism and ATP

Energy Processing Metabolism and ATP Energy Processing Metabolism and ATP Classwork 1. What is metabolism? 2. What role do enzymes play in metabolic pathways? 3. How are catabolic pathways related to energy production? 4. Anabolic steroids

More information

Which of the following can be determined based on this model? The atmosphere is the only reservoir on Earth that can store carbon in any form. A.

Which of the following can be determined based on this model? The atmosphere is the only reservoir on Earth that can store carbon in any form. A. Earth s Cycles 1. Models are often used to explain scientific knowledge or experimental results. A model of the carbon cycle is shown below. Which of the following can be determined based on this model?

More information

REVIEW UNIT 3: METABOLISM (RESPIRATION & PHOTOSYNTHESIS) SAMPLE QUESTIONS

REVIEW UNIT 3: METABOLISM (RESPIRATION & PHOTOSYNTHESIS) SAMPLE QUESTIONS Period Date REVIEW UNIT 3: METABOLISM (RESPIRATION & PHOTOSYNTHESIS) SAMPLE QUESTIONS A. Sample Multiple Choice Questions Complete the multiple choice questions to review this unit. 1. The carbon that

More information

Evolution of Metabolism. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7 & 8

Evolution of Metabolism. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7 & 8 How ells Harvest Energy hapter 7 & 8 Evolution of Metabolism A hypothetical timeline for the evolution of metabolism - all in prokaryotic cells!: 1. ability to store chemical energy in ATP 2. evolution

More information

Chapter 4. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Worksheets. 63 www.ck12.org

Chapter 4. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Worksheets. 63 www.ck12.org Chapter 4 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Worksheets (Opening image copyright by Derek Ramsey, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:monarch_butterfly_ Danaus_plexippus_Feeding_Down_3008px.jpg, and

More information

Chapter 8 An Introduction to Metabolism

Chapter 8 An Introduction to Metabolism Chapter 8 An Introduction to Metabolism Sep 7 9:07 PM 1 Metabolism=all of the chemical reactions within an organism metabolic pathways are chemical reactions that change molecules in a series of steps

More information

Modeling Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Lab

Modeling Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Lab Name: HR: Modeling Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Lab Introduction: Photosynthesis is the process by which green plants capture energy from sunlight and use it to make food molecules like glucose.

More information

VII. NARRATION FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS: TRANSFORMING LIGHT TO LIFE

VII. NARRATION FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS: TRANSFORMING LIGHT TO LIFE 7. Why do leaves turn color in the fall? 8. How are photosystems I and II different? How are they related? 9. What is the source of energy for dark reactions? 10. Describe the C3 cycle. 11. What is the

More information

Chapter 6: Energy Flow in the Life of a Cell. What is Energy? Answer: The Capacity to do Work. Types of Energy:

Chapter 6: Energy Flow in the Life of a Cell. What is Energy? Answer: The Capacity to do Work. Types of Energy: Chapter 6: Energy Flow in the Life of a Cell What is Energy? Answer: The Capacity to do Work Types of Energy: 1) Kinetic Energy = Energy of movement Light (movement of photons) Heat (movement of particles)

More information

Chloroplasts and Mitochondria

Chloroplasts and Mitochondria Name: KEY Period: Chloroplasts and Mitochondria Plant cells and some Algae contain an organelle called the chloroplast. The chloroplast allows plants to harvest energy from sunlight to carry on a process

More information

Do-Now. 1.) Get out notebook.

Do-Now. 1.) Get out notebook. Do-Now 1.) Get out notebook. 2.) Answer the following questions on the first clean sheet in your notebook. 1.) What are renewable resources? 2.) What are nonrenewable resources? Alternative Sources of

More information

Photosynthesis 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2. An anabolic, endergonic, carbon dioxide (CO 2

Photosynthesis 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2. An anabolic, endergonic, carbon dioxide (CO 2 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis An anabolic, endergonic, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) requiring process that uses light energy (photons) and water (H 2 O) to produce organic macromolecules (glucose). photons SUN

More information

Ch. 4 ATP & Photosynthesis

Ch. 4 ATP & Photosynthesis Name: Biology G Vocabulary Section 4.1 Ch. 4 ATP & Photosynthesis Period: ADP Adenosine Diphosphate ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Chemosynthesis Vocabulary Section 4.2 Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Thylakoid

More information

Photosynthesis: Harvesting Light Energy

Photosynthesis: Harvesting Light Energy Photosynthesis: Harvesting Light Energy Importance of Photosynthesis A. Ultimate source of energy for all life on Earth 1. All producers are photosynthesizers 2. All consumers and decomposers are dependent

More information

Buddhist Chi Hong Chi Lam Memorial College A.L. Bio. Notes (by Denise Wong) Energetics... Page 18. Respiration

Buddhist Chi Hong Chi Lam Memorial College A.L. Bio. Notes (by Denise Wong) Energetics... Page 18. Respiration Energetics... Page 18 Respiration Syllabus : The importance of respiration in converting chemical energy in food to chemical energy in ATP. The sites of respiration the sites of the various biochemical

More information

Photosynthesis. Name. Light reactions Calvin cycle Oxidation Reduction Electronegativity Photosystem Electron carrier NADP+ Concentration gradient

Photosynthesis. Name. Light reactions Calvin cycle Oxidation Reduction Electronegativity Photosystem Electron carrier NADP+ Concentration gradient Vocabulary Terms Photoautotroph Chemoautotroph Electromagnetic spectrum Wavelength Chloroplast Thylakoid Stroma Chlorophyll Absorption spectrum Photosynthesis Light reactions Calvin cycle Oxidation Reduction

More information

GCE A Level. Biology. Energy and respiration. сᴏᴏʟιᴏ

GCE A Level. Biology. Energy and respiration. сᴏᴏʟιᴏ GCE A Level Biology Energy and respiration сᴏᴏʟιᴏ 2013-2014 Q 1(a) Describe how ATP is synthesized by oxidative phosphorylation. [June 2012 # 1] Reduced NAD and reduced FAD are passed to the electron transport

More information

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control

More information

Homework. Due in Lab Week 2. Homework #4 (pages 9, 10 & 11) Biomolecules PreLab #2 (handout up front and on Instructor Website)

Homework. Due in Lab Week 2. Homework #4 (pages 9, 10 & 11) Biomolecules PreLab #2 (handout up front and on Instructor Website) Homework Due in Lab Week 2 Homework #4 (pages 9, 10 & 11) Biomolecules PreLab #2 (handout up front and on Instructor Website) Biological Molecules Enzymes Enzymes One of the most important groups of proteins

More information

ATP & Photosynthesis Honors Biology

ATP & Photosynthesis Honors Biology ATP & Photosynthesis Honors Biology ATP All cells need for life. Some things we use energy for are: Moving Thinking Sleeping Breathing Growing Reproducing ENERGY Labeled Sketch: The principal chemical

More information

Biology for Science Majors

Biology for Science Majors Biology for Science Majors Lab 10 AP BIOLOGY Concepts covered Respirometers Metabolism Glycolysis Respiration Anaerobic vs. aerobic respiration Fermentation Lab 5: Cellular Respiration ATP is the energy

More information

Like The Guy From Krypton Photosynthesis: Energy from Sunlight What Is Photosynthesis?

Like The Guy From Krypton Photosynthesis: Energy from Sunlight What Is Photosynthesis? Like The Guy From Krypton Photosynthesis: Energy from Sunlight What Is Photosynthesis? Photosynthesis: synthesis from light The broad outline: Plants take in CO 2 and release water and O 2 Light is required

More information

Generating Current Electricity: Complete the following summary table for each way that electrical energy is generated. Pros:

Generating Current Electricity: Complete the following summary table for each way that electrical energy is generated. Pros: P a g e 1 Generating Current Electricity: Complete the following summary table for each way that electrical energy is generated. Generating Electrical Energy Using Moving Water: Hydro-Electric Generation

More information

Chapter 10: Photosynthesis

Chapter 10: Photosynthesis Name Period Chapter 10: Photosynthesis This chapter is as challenging as the one you just finished on cellular respiration. However, conceptually it will be a little easier because the concepts learned

More information

4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP. KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy.

4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP. KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy. 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy. 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Molecules in food store chemical energy in their bonds. Starch molecule Glucose molecule The chemical

More information

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs.

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs. 1. An autotroph is an organism that a. extracts energy from organic sources b. converts energy from sunlight into chemical energy c. relies on the energy produced by other organisms as an energy source

More information

Introductory Chemistry, 3 rd Edition Nivaldo Tro. Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community College Wellesley Hills, Maqqwertd ygoijpk[l

Introductory Chemistry, 3 rd Edition Nivaldo Tro. Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community College Wellesley Hills, Maqqwertd ygoijpk[l Introductory Chemistry, 3 rd Edition Nivaldo Tro Quantities in Car an octane and oxygen molecules and carbon dioxide and water Chemical Reactions Roy Kennedy Massachusetts Bay Community College Wellesley

More information

Biology. Slide 1of 51. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Biology. Slide 1of 51. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology 1of 51 8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis 2of 51 Inside a Chloroplast Inside a Chloroplast In plants, photosynthesis takes place inside chloroplasts. Plant Chloroplast Plant cells 3of 51 Inside

More information

ANALYZING ENERGY. Time and Student Grouping Energy Source Analysis and Consequence Wheel: One class period. Grade Levels: 6-12

ANALYZING ENERGY. Time and Student Grouping Energy Source Analysis and Consequence Wheel: One class period. Grade Levels: 6-12 ANALYZING ENERGY Lesson Concepts: Students will analyze the advantages and disadvantages of nine different energy sources. They will use their knowledge to predict what would happen if the world did not

More information

> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Photosynthesis- is the process that converts light energy into chemical energy. This chemical energy is usually a carbohydrate. Only photoautrotrops can do photosynthesis. Heterotrophs must obtain their

More information

Metabolism Practice Test KEY

Metabolism Practice Test KEY Biology 12 Metabolism Practice Test KEY Name: Section 1: What is an enzyme? 1. Which of the following statements is true about enzymes? a) 3D shape can vary and still be active b) they may catalyze only

More information

Biology Slide 1 of 51

Biology Slide 1 of 51 Biology 1 of 51 8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis 2 of 51 Inside a Chloroplast 1. In plants, photosynthesis takes place inside chloroplasts. Plant Chloroplast Plant cells 3 of 51 Inside a Chloroplast

More information

Chapter 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Chapter 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION HARVESTING FREE ENERGY Photosynthesis takes free energy and puts it into carbohydrates/sugars Carbohydrates can be stored for later use; light can not and neither can ATP

More information

12.5: Generating Current Electricity pg. 518

12.5: Generating Current Electricity pg. 518 12.5: Generating Current Electricity pg. 518 Key Concepts: 1. Electrical energy is produced by energy transformations. 2. Electrical energy is produced from renewable and non-renewable resources. 4. Electrical

More information