1 Chapter 3 Properties of A Pure Substance Pure substance: A pure substance is one that has a homogeneous and invariable chemical composition. Air is a mixture of several gases, but it is considered to be a pure substance. Nitrogen and gaseous air are pure substances. A mixture of liquid and gaseous water is a pure substance, but a mixture of liquid and gaseous air is not. 1
2 PHASE-CHANGE PROCESSES OF PURE SUBSTANCES Compressed liquid (subcooled liquid): A substance that it is not about to vaporize. Saturated liquid: A liquid that is about to vaporize. At 1 atm and 20 C, water exists in the liquid phase (compressed liquid). At 1 atm pressure and 100 C, water exists as a liquid that is ready to vaporize (saturated liquid). 2
3 Saturated vapor: A vapor that is about to condense. Saturated liquid vapor mixture: The state at which the liquid and vapor phases coexist in equilibrium. Superheated vapor: A vapor that is not about to condense (i.e., not a saturated vapor). As more heat is transferred, part of the saturated liquid vaporizes (saturated liquid vapor mixture). At 1 atm pressure, the temperature remains constant at 100 C until the last drop of liquid is vaporized (saturated vapor). As more heat is transferred, the temperature of the vapor starts to rise (superheated vapor). 3
4 Saturation Temperature and Saturation Pressure The temperature at which water starts boiling depends on the pressure; therefore, if the pressure is fixed, so is the boiling temperature. Saturation temperature T sat : The temperature at which a pure substance changes phase at a given pressure. Saturation pressure P sat : The pressure at which a pure substance changes phase at a given temperature. The liquid vapor saturation curve of a pure substance (numerical values are for water). 4
5 saturated liquid the latent heat saturated vapor T-v diagram for the heating process of water at constant pressure. 5
7 The critical-point data for more substances are given in Aksel s Table 2.1.
9 Sublimation: Passing from the solid phase directly into the vapor phase. Phase Diagram At low pressures (below the triple-point value), solids evaporate without melting first (sublimation). P-T diagram of pure substances. 9
10 Independent Properties of a Pure Substance The state is fixed by any two independent, intensive properties In a saturation state, pressure and temperature are not independent properties.
11 Tables of Thermodynamic Properties the saturated-solid and saturated-liquid region superheated vapor compressedsolid region According to the Table of Mr. ÖZTÜRK, Superheated vapor and compressed liquid is given in Table between 29 and 37. The saturated-liquid and saturated-vapor region is listed according to the saturated temperature in Table between 24 and 26 and according to the saturated pressure in Table2.5.2 on pages 27 and 28. The saturated-solid and saturated-vapor region is listed according to temperature in Table on page 38
12 Saturated Temperature Saturation pressure at the given saturation temperature Specific Volume of Saturated Liquid*1000 Specific Volume of Saturated Vapor Saturated Pressure Saturation temperature at the given saturation pressure Specific Volume of Saturated Liquid*1000 Specific Volume of Saturated Vapor Saturated Liquid and Saturated Vapor States Table Saturation properties of water under temperature. Table Saturation properties of water under pressure. A partial list of Table A partial list of Table Quality is between 0 and 1 for saturated liquid vapor mixture region or two phase region or wet region 0: satureted liquid, 1: satureted vapor. 12
13 Using of Table Using of Table What are the saturated pressure, specific volume of liquid and vapor at 90 C saturated temperature? What are the saturated temperature, specific volume of liquid and vapor at 100 kpa saturated pressure? specific volume of liquid, V s =V f = *10-3 (m 3 /kg) specific volume of vapor, V b =V g =2.361 (m 3 /kg) specific volume of liquid, V s =V f =1.0434* 10-3 (m 3 /kg) specific volume of vapor, V b =V g =1.694 (m 3 /kg) 13
14 Saturated Liquid Vapor Mixture Temperature and pressure are dependent properties for a mixture so we need a second independent property to define the state for Saturated Liquid Vapor Mixture region.
15 As an example, let us calculate the specific volume of saturated steam at 200 C having a quality of 70 %. specific volume of liquid, V s =V f =1.1565*10-3 (m 3 /s) specific volume of vapor, V b =V g = (m 3 /s) V fg = (m 3 /s) V= (m 3 /s) or v v xv v x( v v ) f fg f g f v x * ( x10 ) m / kg You can find the other properties in the table with a given quality by using same way. y v, u, h, or s.
16 Superheated Vapor In the region to the right of the saturated vapor line and at temperatures above the critical point temperature, a substance exists as superheated vapor. In this region, temperature and pressure are independent properties. Compared to saturated vapor, superheated vapor is characterized by Table also gives the properties of the compressed liquid in addition to superheated vapor. Above the line, the properties are given for the compressed liquid or subcooled region A partial listing of Table Below the line, the properties are given for the superheated region
17 Compressed Liquid The compressed liquid properties depend on temperature much more strongly than they do on pressure. Therefore, a compressed liquid may be approximated as a saturated liquid at the given temperature. Compressed liquid is characterized by To demonstrate the use, the specific volume is m 3 /kg at saturated-liquid water at 100 C and Mpa. Suppose the pressure is increased to 10 MPa while the temperature is held constant at 100 C by the necessary transfer of heat. Table gives this specific volume as m 3 /kg. This is only a slight decrease since water is slightly compressible, and only a small error would be made if one assumed that the volume of a compressed liquid is equal to the specific volume of the saturated liquid at the same temperature. 17
18 Saturated solid and saturated vapor Table of the steam tables gives the properties of saturated solid and saturated vapor that are in equilibrium. The first column gives the temperature, and the second column gives the corresponding saturation pressure. As would be expected, all these pressures are less than the triple-point pressure. The next two columns give the specific volume of the saturated solid and saturated vapor. saturated solid and saturated vapor
19 Other Property Tables Property tables also includes thermodynamic tables for several other substances; refrigerant fluids ammonia, R-12, and R-134a and the cryogenic fluids nitrogen and methane.
20 Determine the phase for each of the following water states using tables and indicate the relative position in the P-v, T-v, and P-T diagrams. a) 120 C, 500 kpa b) 120 C, 0.5 m 3 /kg Enter Table with 120 C. The saturation pressure is kpa, so we have a compressed liquid, point a in Figure 500 kpa>198 kpa That is above the saturation line for 120 C. We could also have entered Table with 500 kpa and found the saturation temperature as C, so we would say it is subcooled liquid. 120 C< C 198
21 Enter Table with 120 C and notice that given specific volume between saturated liquid and vapor v f = < v < v g = m 3 /kg so the state is a two phase mixture of liquid and vapor, point b in Figure. The state is to the left of the saturated vapor state and to the right of the saturated liquid state both seen in the T-v diagram. 198
22 Determine the phase for each of the following states using the property tables and indicate the relative position in the P-v, T-v and P-T diagrams. a.ammonia 30 C, 1000 kpa b.r kpa, 0.15 m 3 /kg a. Enter Table with 30 C. The saturation pressure is kpa. As we have lower P than saturated pressure ( kpa) at a given temperature, it is a superheated vapor state. b. Enter Table with 200 kpa and notice v = 0.15 >v g = m 3 /kg so from the P-v diagram the state is superheated vapor. We can find the state in Table between 160 and 170 C.
23 Determine the temperature and quality (if defined) for water at a pressure of 400 kpa and at each of these specific volumes: a. 0.4 m 3 /kg b. 0.7 m 3 /kg a. By comparison with the values in Figure, the state at which v is 0.4 m 3 /kg is seen to be in the liquid-vapor two-phase region, at which T = C, and the quality x is found from Eq. as x( ) x Note that if we did not have Table (as would be the case with the other substances listed tables), we could have interpolated in Table between the 142 C and 144 C entries to get the v f and v g values for 400 kpa ( C). b.by comparison with the values in Figure, the state at which v is 0.7 m 3 /kg is seen to be in the superheated vapor region, in which quality is undefined, and the temperature for which, is found from Table
24 In this case, T is found by linear interpolation between the 400 kpa specificvolume values at 320 C and 340 C, as shown in Fig This is an approximation for T, since the actual relation along the 400 kpa constantpressure line is not exactly linear. From the figure we have slope T solving this gives T = C.
25 A closed vessel contains 0.1 m 3 of saturated liquid and 0.9 m 3 of saturated vapor R-134a in equilibrium at 30 C. Determine the percent vapor on a mass basis. Values of the saturation properties for R-134a are found from Table The mass-volume relations then give V m v m 0.1/ kg liq liq f liq V m v m 0.9/ kg vap vap g vap m = kg = x m vap m That is, the vessel contains 90 % vapor by volume but only 23.4 % vapor by mass.
26 A rigid vessel contains saturated ammonia vapor at 20 C. Heat is transferred to the system until the temperature reaches 40 C. What is the final pressure? Since the volume and mass does not change during this process, the specific volume also remains constant. From the ammonia tables, Table 2.8.1, we have V 1 = V 2 = m 3 /kg v g at 20 C Since v g ( m 3 /kg) at 40 C is less than m 3 /kg, it is evident that in the final state the ammonia is superheated vapor. By interpolating between the 800 and 1000 kpa columns of Table 2.8.2, we find that P = kpa v g = at 800 kpa and T = 40 C v g = at 1000 kpa and T = 40 C v g = at??? kpa and T = 40 C
27 Determine the missing property of P-v-T and x if applicable for the following states a. Nitrogen: C, 400 kpa b. Nitrogen: 100 K, m 3 /kg For nitrogen the properties are listed in Table 2.9 with temperature in Kelvin. a. Enter in Table with T = = 220 K, which is higher than the critical T in the last entry. Then proceed to the superheated vapor tables. We would also have realized this by looking at the critical properties in Table 2.1. From Table in the subsection for 400 kpa (T sat = K) & 220 K v = m 3 /kg b. Enter in Table with T = 100 K and comparing v, we see that we have a two-phase state with a pressure as the saturation pressure, shown as b in Figure P = P sat = 779 kpa and the quality is x
28 Determine the pressure for water at 200 C with v = 0.4 m 3 /kg. Start in Table with 200 C and note that v > v g = m 3 /kg so we have superheated vapor. Proceed to Table at any subsection with 200 C; say we start at 200 kpa. There the v = , which is too large so the pressure must be higher. For 400 kpa, v = , and for 600 kpa, v = At 200 C and 200 kpa v g = m 3 /kg At 200 C and 400 kpa v g = m 3 /kg At 200 C and 600 kpa v g = m 3 /kg v = 0.4 m 3 /kg. A linear interpolation, Figure, between the two pressures is done to get P at the desired v. P = = kpa
29 The P-v-T surfaces present a great deal of information at once, but in a thermodynamic analysis it is more convenient to work with two-dimensional diagrams, such as the P-v and T-v diagrams. P-v-T surface of a substance that expands on freezing (like water). P-v-T surface of a substance that contracts on freezing.
30 The P V T Behavior of Low and Moderate Density Gases Equation of state: Any equation that relates the pressure, temperature, and specific volume of a substance. The simplest and best-known equation of state for substances in the gas phase is the ideal-gas equation of state. This equation predicts the P-v-T behavior of a gas quite accurately within some properly selected region. R: gas constant M: molar mass (kg/kmol) R u : universal gas constant Different substances have different gas constants.
31 Various expressions of ideal gas equation P = absolute pressure in MPa, or kpa v = molar specific volume in m 3 /kmol T = absolute temperature in K R u = kj/(kmol K)
32 Ideal gas equation at two states for a fixed mass (Control Mass or Closed System) Useful Ideal Gas Relation: The Combined Gas Law By writing the ideal gas equation twice for a fixed mass and simplifying, the properties of an ideal gas at two different states are related by m m 1 2 or and eliminating gas constant PV R T PV T PV R T PV T 2 2 2
33 COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR A MEASURE OF DEVIATION FROM IDEAL-GAS BEHAVIOR Compressibility factor Z A factor that accounts for the deviation of real gases from ideal-gas behavior at a given temperature and pressure. The compressibility factor is unity for ideal gases. 33
35 Reduced pressure Reduced temperature Pseudo-reduced specific volume Comparison of Z factors for various gases.
36 Ideal Gas Assumption Region of Z~1 A B A) if the pressure is very low (that is, P «P c ), the ideal-gas model can be assumed with good accuracy, regardless of the temperature B) at high temperatures (that is, greater than about T 2T c ) pressures as high as four or five times P 4 5P c
37 OTHER EQUATIONS OF STATE Many such equations have been proposed and used to correlate the observed behavior of gases. As an example, the class of relatively simple equation known as cubic equations of state Equation of state accurately represents the P-v-T behavior for a particular gas over the entire superheated vapor region As an example, the class of relatively simple equation known as cubic equations of state RT a P v b v cbv db 2 2
3.4 An external water tap has the ale actiated by a long spindle so the closing mechanism is located well inside the wall. Why is that? By haing the spindle inside the wall the coldest location with water
Spring 2003 Page 1 of 6 2-30 Steam Tables Given: Property table for H 2 O Find: Complete the table. T ( C) P (kpa) h (kj/kg) x phase description a) 120.23 200 2046.03 0.7 saturated mixture b) 140 361.3
Chemistry 13: States of Matter Name: Period: Date: Chemistry Content Standard: Gases and Their Properties The kinetic molecular theory describes the motion of atoms and molecules and explains the properties
Lesson 5 Review of fundamental principles Thermodynamics : Part II Version ME, IIT Kharagpur .The specific objectives are to:. State principles of evaluating thermodynamic properties of pure substances
PHASE DIAGRAM WORKSHEET #2 Name Period Date At standard temperature and pressure, bromine (Br 2 ) is a red liquid. Bromine sublimes when the temperature is 25 0 C and the pressure is 101.3 kpa. The phase
FUNDAMENTALS OF ENGINEERING THERMODYNAMICS System: Quantity of matter (constant mass) or region in space (constant volume) chosen for study. Closed system: Can exchange energy but not mass; mass is constant
Thermodynamics Chapter 13 Phase Diagrams NC State University Pressure (atm) Definition of a phase diagram A phase diagram is a representation of the states of matter, solid, liquid, or gas as a function
Describe the strength of attractive forces between particles. Describe the amount of space between particles. Can the particles in this state be compressed? Do the particles in this state have a definite
CHEM 120 Online Chapter 7 Date: 1. Which of the following statements is not a part of kinetic molecular theory? A) Matter is composed of particles that are in constant motion. B) Particle velocity increases
EQUATIONS OF STATE FOR GASES Questions A gas enters a reactor at a rate of 255 SCMH. What does that mean? An orifice meter mounted in a process gas line indicates a flow rate of 24 ft 3 /min. The gas temperature
CHAPTER 3 PROPERTIES OF NATURAL GASES The behavior of natural gas, whether pure methane or a mixture of volatile hydrocarbons and the nonhydrocarbons nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen sulfide, must
Name Period Gas Laws Kinetic energy is the energy of motion of molecules. Gas state of matter made up of tiny particles (atoms or molecules). Each atom or molecule is very far from other atoms or molecules.
1.- One mole of Nitrogen (N2) has been compressed at T0=273 K to the volume V0=1liter. The gas goes through the free expansion process (Q = 0, W = 0), in which the pressure drops down to the atmospheric
Chapter 6 Energy Equation for a Control Volume Conservation of Mass and the Control Volume Closed systems: The mass of the system remain constant during a process. Control volumes: Mass can cross the boundaries,
Chem 8 Homework Set #5 solutions October 10, 2001 From Atkins: 5.2, 5.9, 5.12, 5.1, 5.15, 5.17, 5.21 5.2) The density of rhombic sulfur is 2.070 g cm - and that of monoclinic sulfur is 1.957 g cm -. Can
Energy Balances on Closed Systems A system is closed if mass does not cross the system boundary during the period of time covered by energy balance. Energy balance for a closed system written between two
K4. Triple Point of Nitrogen I. OBJECTIVE OF THE EXPERIMENT We will study the temperature-pressure diagram of nitrogen, in particular the triple point. II. BAKGROUND THOERY States of matter Matter is made
Thermodynamics Basics: Enthalpy, Entropy, Mollier Diagram and Steam Tables Course No: M08-005 Credit: 8 PDH S. Bobby Rauf, P.E., CEM, MBA Continuing Education and Development, Inc. 9 Greyridge Farm Court
Thermodynamics: Examples for chapter 6. 1. The boiling point of hexane at 1 atm is 68.7 C. What is the boiling point at 1 bar? The vapor pressure of hexane at 49.6 C is 53.32 kpa. Assume that the vapor
Page 1 Unit 3: States of Matter Practice Exam Multiple Choice. Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Two gases with unequal masses are injected into opposite
Self Study Physical Science Refresher Table of Contents 1. Three phases of matter: Solids, Liquids and Gases 2. The effect of heat and pressure on the phases of matter a) expanding and contracting 3. Changing
Exam 4 Practice Problems 1 1. Which of the following statements is false? a. Condensed states have much higher densities than gases. b. Molecules are very far apart in gases and closer together in liquids
A drop forms when liquid is forced out of a small tube. The shape of the drop is determined by a balance of pressure, gravity, and surface tension forces. 2 Objectives Have a working knowledge of the basic
CHAPTER 10 REVIEW States of Matter SECTION 1 SHORT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. Identify whether the descriptions below describe an ideal gas or a real gas. ideal gas
Sample Exercise 15.1 Writing Equilibrium-Constant Expressions Write the equilibrium expression for K c for the following reactions: Solution Analyze: We are given three equations and are asked to write
Thermodynamics of Mixing Dependence of Gibbs energy on mixture composition is G = n A µ A + n B µ B and at constant T and p, systems tend towards a lower Gibbs energy The simplest example of mixing: What
Thermodynamics and Kinetics Lecture 14 Properties of Mixtures Raoult s Law Henry s Law Activity NC State University Measures of concentration There are three measures of concentration: molar concentration
Introduction In this experiment, you will use thin-film evaporator (TFE) to separate a mixture of water and ethylene glycol (EG). In a TFE a mixture of two fluids runs down a heated inner wall of a cylindrical
Colligative Properties A colligative property is a property of a solution that depends on the concentration of solute particles, but not on their chemical identity. We will study 4 colligative properties
Chapter 13: States of Matter The Nature of Gases The Nature of Gases kinetic molecular theory (KMT), gas pressure (pascal, atmosphere, mm Hg), kinetic energy The Nature of Liquids vaporization, evaporation,
Basic PVT (Fluid behaviour as a function of Pressure, Volume and Temperature) Statoil module Field development Magnus Nordsveen Content Phase envelops Hydrates Characterisations of fluids Equation of states
Fundamentals of THERMAL-FLUID SCIENCES THIRD EDITION YUNUS A. CENGEL ROBERT H. TURNER Department of Mechanical JOHN M. CIMBALA Me Graw Hill Higher Education Boston Burr Ridge, IL Dubuque, IA Madison, Wl
Vapor Pressure Diagrams and Boiling Diagrams We are now ready to begin talking about phase diagrams involving two components. Our first few phase diagrams will involve only the liquid and gas (or vapor)
This article has been compiled to understand the process of Solvent Recovery process generally carried out at low temperatures and vacuum. In many chemical processes solute is to be concentrated to high
The Gas, Liquid, and Solid Phase When are interparticle forces important? Ron Robertson Kinetic Theory A. Principles Matter is composed of particles in constant, random, motion Particles collide elastically
Chemical Equilibrium What are the concentrations of reactants and products at equilibrium? How do changes in pressure, volume, temperature, concentration and the use of catalysts affect the equilibrium
Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics Every science has its own unique vocabulary associated with it. recise definition of basic concepts forms a sound foundation for development of a science and prevents possible
1 Lesson 27 Psychrometry Version 1 ME, IIT Kharagpur 1 2 The specific objectives of this lecture are to: 1. Define psychrometry and the composition of moist air (Section 27.1) 2. Discuss the methods used
Chemistry, The Central Science, 11th edition Theodore L. Brown; H. Eugene LeMay, Jr.; and Bruce E. Bursten Chapter 10 Gases A Gas Has neither a definite volume nor shape. Uniformly fills any container.
Name: Thursday, December 13, 2007 Test 5 Review questions 1. As ice cools from 273 K to 263 K, the average kinetic energy of its molecules will 1. decrease 2. increase 3. remain the same 2. The graph below
The Equipartition Theorem Degrees of freedom are associated with the kinetic energy of translations, rotation, vibration and the potential energy of vibrations. A result from classical statistical mechanics
Course PHYSICS260 Assignment 5 Consider ten grams of nitrogen gas at an initial pressure of 6.0 atm and at room temperature. It undergoes an isobaric expansion resulting in a quadrupling of its volume.
13 STATES OF MATTER SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389) This section introduces the kinetic theory and describes how it applies to gases. It defines gas pressure and explains how temperature
Chapter 11 Refrigeration Cycles The vapor compression refrigeration cycle is a common method for transferring heat from a low temperature space to a high temperature space. The figures below show the objectives
Gases and Kinetic-Molecular heory: Chapter Chapter Outline Comparison of Solids, Liquids, and Gases Composition of the Atmosphere and Some Common Properties of Gases Pressure Boyle s Law: he Volume-Pressure
6.33 In a jet engine a flow of air at 000 K, 00 kpa and 30 m/s enters a nozzle, as shown in Fig. P6.33, where the air exits at 850 K, 90 kpa. What is the exit velocity assuming no heat loss? C.V. nozzle.
Lecture 14, Water, Humidity, Pressure and Trace Gases, Part 1 Physical and chemical properties of water Gas Laws Chemical Potential of Water Rainfall/Drought Atmospheric Gas Composition constitue nt percent
Name Matter Questions Date: 1. Which substance has a definite shape and a definite volume at STP? 1) NaCl(aq) 2) Cl2(g) 3) CCl4( ) 4) AlCl3(s) 2. Which two particle diagrams represent mixtures of diatornic
Assessment Chapter Test A Chapter: States of Matter In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1. The kinetic-molecular
Test 1 General Chemistry CH116 Summer, 2012 University of Massachusetts, Boston Name ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 1) Sodium hydride reacts with excess
Type: Single Date: Objective: Latent Heat Homework: READ 12.8, Do CONCEPT Q. # (14) Do PROBLEMS (40, 52, 81) Ch. 12 AP Physics B Date: Mr. Mirro Heat and Phase Change When bodies are heated or cooled their
1. The average kinetic energy of water molecules increases when 1) H 2 O(s) changes to H 2 O( ) at 0ºC 3) H 2 O( ) at 10ºC changes to H 2 O( ) at 20ºC 2) H 2 O( ) changes to H 2 O(s) at 0ºC 4) H 2 O( )
Chapter 18 Temperature, Heat, and the First Law of Thermodynamics Problems: 8, 11, 13, 17, 21, 27, 29, 37, 39, 41, 47, 51, 57 Thermodynamics study and application of thermal energy temperature quantity
CHATER 3. The atmosphere is a homogeneous mixture (a solution) of gases.. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. have volumes that depend on their conditions,
The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam Plzeň, Czech Republic September 011 Revised Release on the Pressure along the Melting and Sublimation Curves of Ordinary Water Substance
Chapter 7 : Simple Mixtures Using the concept of chemical potential to describe the physical properties of a mixture. Outline 1)Partial Molar Quantities 2)Thermodynamics of Mixing 3)Chemical Potentials
COMBUSTION In order to operate a heat engine we need a hot source together with a cold sink Occasionally these occur together in nature eg:- geothermal sites or solar powered engines, but usually the heat
Process Description Energy Balances and Numerical Methods Design Project Production of Acrylic Acid Figure 1 is a preliminary process flow diagram (PFD) for the acrylic acid production process. The raw
Kinetic Energy and (Kelvin) Temperature Temperature is a Kinetic Energy and (Kelvin) Temperature(2) The Kelvin temperature scale is called the Absolute Zero - Zero degrees on the 1. Highly 2. Low 3. Fills
CHEM 15 HOUR EXAM III 28-OCT-99 NAME (please print) 1. a. given: Ni (s) + 4 CO (g) = Ni(CO) 4 (g) H Rxn = -163 k/mole determine H f for Ni(CO) 4 (g) b. given: Cr (s) + 6 CO (g) = Cr(CO) 6 (g) H Rxn = -26
Thermodynamics Heat & Work The First Law of Thermodynamics Lana Sheridan De Anza College April 20, 2016 Last time applying the ideal gas equation thermal energy heat capacity phase changes Overview latent
Distillation Distillation is an important commercial process that is used in the purification of a large variety of materials. However, before we begin a discussion of distillation, it would probably be
Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling Bởi: OpenStaxCollege Dew drops like these, on a banana leaf photographed just after sunrise, form when the air temperature drops to or below the dew point. At the dew
CHEMISTRY STANDARDS BASED RUBRIC ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING Essential Standard: STUDENTS WILL UNDERSTAND THAT THE PROPERTIES OF MATTER AND THEIR INTERACTIONS ARE A CONSEQUENCE OF THE STRUCTURE OF MATTER,
QUESTIONS THERMODYNAMICS PRACTICE PROBLEMS FOR NON-TECHNICAL MAJORS Thermodynamic Properties 1. If an object has a weight of 10 lbf on the moon, what would the same object weigh on Jupiter? ft ft -ft g
Refrigeration cycle Objectives - Know basic of refrigeration - Able to analyze the efficiency of refrigeration system - contents Ideal Vapor-Compression Refrigeration Cycle Actual Vapor-Compression Refrigeration
Final Exam CHM 3410, Dr. Mebel, Fall 2005 1. At -31.2 C, pure propane and n-butane have vapor pressures of 1200 and 200 Torr, respectively. (a) Calculate the mole fraction of propane in the liquid mixture
hermodynamics: Examples for chapter 4. 1. One mole of nitrogen gas is allowed to expand from 0.5 to 10 L reversible and isothermal process at 300 K. Calculate the change in molar entropy using a the ideal
Boyle s Law Charles Law Guy-Lassac's Law Combined Gas Law For a given mass of gas at constant temperature, the volume of a gas varies inversely with pressure PV = k The volume of a fixed mass of gas is
Gas Law Problems Abbreviations Conversions atm - atmosphere K = C + 273 mmhg - millimeters of mercury 1 cm 3 (cubic centimeter) = 1 ml (milliliter) torr - another name for mmhg 1 dm 3 (cubic decimeter)
Chapter 15 Chemical Equilibrium Learning goals and key skills: Understand what is meant by chemical equilibrium and how it relates to reaction rates Write the equilibrium-constant expression for any reaction
Chapter 15: Chemical Equilibrium Key topics: Equilibrium Constant Calculating Equilibrium Concentrations The Concept of Equilibrium Consider the reaction A k 1 k 1 B At equilibrium there is no net change
Chapter 1 - Chemical Equilibrium Intro A. Chemical Equilibrium 1. The state where the concentrations of all reactants and products remain constant with time. All reactions carried out in a closed vessel
Chem 420/523 Chemical hermodynamics Homework Assignment # 6 1. * Solid monoclinic sulfur (S α ) spontaneously converts to solid rhombic sulfur (S β ) at 298.15 K and 0.101 MPa pressure. For the conversion
CHEMISTRY Matter and Change 13 Table Of Contents Chapter 13: Gases Section 13.1 Section 13.2 Section 13.3 The Gas Laws The Ideal Gas Law Gas Stoichiometry State the relationships among pressure, temperature,
Colligative Properties Vapour pressure Boiling point Freezing point Osmotic pressure Learning objectives Describe meaning of colligative property Use Raoult s law to determine vapor pressure of solutions
17 THERMOCHEMISTRY SECTION 17.1 THE FLOW OF ENERGY HEAT AND WORK (pages 505 510) This section explains the relationship between energy and heat, and distinguishes between heat capacity and specific heat.
THERMODYNAMICS & FLUIDS (Thermodynamics level 1\Thermo & Fluids Module -Thermo Book 2-Contents-December 07.doc) UFMEQU-20-1 THERMODYNAMICS NOTES - BOOK 2 OF 2 Students must read through these notes and
1 P age Module 5: Combustion Technology Lecture 34: Calculation of calorific value of fuels 2 P age Keywords : Gross calorific value, Net calorific value, enthalpy change, bomb calorimeter 5.3 Calculation
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.