1 Chapter 3 Properties of A Pure Substance Pure substance: A pure substance is one that has a homogeneous and invariable chemical composition. Air is a mixture of several gases, but it is considered to be a pure substance. Nitrogen and gaseous air are pure substances. A mixture of liquid and gaseous water is a pure substance, but a mixture of liquid and gaseous air is not. 1
2 PHASE-CHANGE PROCESSES OF PURE SUBSTANCES Compressed liquid (subcooled liquid): A substance that it is not about to vaporize. Saturated liquid: A liquid that is about to vaporize. At 1 atm and 20 C, water exists in the liquid phase (compressed liquid). At 1 atm pressure and 100 C, water exists as a liquid that is ready to vaporize (saturated liquid). 2
3 Saturated vapor: A vapor that is about to condense. Saturated liquid vapor mixture: The state at which the liquid and vapor phases coexist in equilibrium. Superheated vapor: A vapor that is not about to condense (i.e., not a saturated vapor). As more heat is transferred, part of the saturated liquid vaporizes (saturated liquid vapor mixture). At 1 atm pressure, the temperature remains constant at 100 C until the last drop of liquid is vaporized (saturated vapor). As more heat is transferred, the temperature of the vapor starts to rise (superheated vapor). 3
4 Saturation Temperature and Saturation Pressure The temperature at which water starts boiling depends on the pressure; therefore, if the pressure is fixed, so is the boiling temperature. Saturation temperature T sat : The temperature at which a pure substance changes phase at a given pressure. Saturation pressure P sat : The pressure at which a pure substance changes phase at a given temperature. The liquid vapor saturation curve of a pure substance (numerical values are for water). 4
5 saturated liquid the latent heat saturated vapor T-v diagram for the heating process of water at constant pressure. 5
7 The critical-point data for more substances are given in Aksel s Table 2.1.
9 Sublimation: Passing from the solid phase directly into the vapor phase. Phase Diagram At low pressures (below the triple-point value), solids evaporate without melting first (sublimation). P-T diagram of pure substances. 9
10 Independent Properties of a Pure Substance The state is fixed by any two independent, intensive properties In a saturation state, pressure and temperature are not independent properties.
11 Tables of Thermodynamic Properties the saturated-solid and saturated-liquid region superheated vapor compressedsolid region According to the Table of Mr. ÖZTÜRK, Superheated vapor and compressed liquid is given in Table between 29 and 37. The saturated-liquid and saturated-vapor region is listed according to the saturated temperature in Table between 24 and 26 and according to the saturated pressure in Table2.5.2 on pages 27 and 28. The saturated-solid and saturated-vapor region is listed according to temperature in Table on page 38
12 Saturated Temperature Saturation pressure at the given saturation temperature Specific Volume of Saturated Liquid*1000 Specific Volume of Saturated Vapor Saturated Pressure Saturation temperature at the given saturation pressure Specific Volume of Saturated Liquid*1000 Specific Volume of Saturated Vapor Saturated Liquid and Saturated Vapor States Table Saturation properties of water under temperature. Table Saturation properties of water under pressure. A partial list of Table A partial list of Table Quality is between 0 and 1 for saturated liquid vapor mixture region or two phase region or wet region 0: satureted liquid, 1: satureted vapor. 12
13 Using of Table Using of Table What are the saturated pressure, specific volume of liquid and vapor at 90 C saturated temperature? What are the saturated temperature, specific volume of liquid and vapor at 100 kpa saturated pressure? specific volume of liquid, V s =V f = *10-3 (m 3 /kg) specific volume of vapor, V b =V g =2.361 (m 3 /kg) specific volume of liquid, V s =V f =1.0434* 10-3 (m 3 /kg) specific volume of vapor, V b =V g =1.694 (m 3 /kg) 13
14 Saturated Liquid Vapor Mixture Temperature and pressure are dependent properties for a mixture so we need a second independent property to define the state for Saturated Liquid Vapor Mixture region.
15 As an example, let us calculate the specific volume of saturated steam at 200 C having a quality of 70 %. specific volume of liquid, V s =V f =1.1565*10-3 (m 3 /s) specific volume of vapor, V b =V g = (m 3 /s) V fg = (m 3 /s) V= (m 3 /s) or v v xv v x( v v ) f fg f g f v x * ( x10 ) m / kg You can find the other properties in the table with a given quality by using same way. y v, u, h, or s.
16 Superheated Vapor In the region to the right of the saturated vapor line and at temperatures above the critical point temperature, a substance exists as superheated vapor. In this region, temperature and pressure are independent properties. Compared to saturated vapor, superheated vapor is characterized by Table also gives the properties of the compressed liquid in addition to superheated vapor. Above the line, the properties are given for the compressed liquid or subcooled region A partial listing of Table Below the line, the properties are given for the superheated region
17 Compressed Liquid The compressed liquid properties depend on temperature much more strongly than they do on pressure. Therefore, a compressed liquid may be approximated as a saturated liquid at the given temperature. Compressed liquid is characterized by To demonstrate the use, the specific volume is m 3 /kg at saturated-liquid water at 100 C and Mpa. Suppose the pressure is increased to 10 MPa while the temperature is held constant at 100 C by the necessary transfer of heat. Table gives this specific volume as m 3 /kg. This is only a slight decrease since water is slightly compressible, and only a small error would be made if one assumed that the volume of a compressed liquid is equal to the specific volume of the saturated liquid at the same temperature. 17
18 Saturated solid and saturated vapor Table of the steam tables gives the properties of saturated solid and saturated vapor that are in equilibrium. The first column gives the temperature, and the second column gives the corresponding saturation pressure. As would be expected, all these pressures are less than the triple-point pressure. The next two columns give the specific volume of the saturated solid and saturated vapor. saturated solid and saturated vapor
19 Other Property Tables Property tables also includes thermodynamic tables for several other substances; refrigerant fluids ammonia, R-12, and R-134a and the cryogenic fluids nitrogen and methane.
20 Determine the phase for each of the following water states using tables and indicate the relative position in the P-v, T-v, and P-T diagrams. a) 120 C, 500 kpa b) 120 C, 0.5 m 3 /kg Enter Table with 120 C. The saturation pressure is kpa, so we have a compressed liquid, point a in Figure 500 kpa>198 kpa That is above the saturation line for 120 C. We could also have entered Table with 500 kpa and found the saturation temperature as C, so we would say it is subcooled liquid. 120 C< C 198
21 Enter Table with 120 C and notice that given specific volume between saturated liquid and vapor v f = < v < v g = m 3 /kg so the state is a two phase mixture of liquid and vapor, point b in Figure. The state is to the left of the saturated vapor state and to the right of the saturated liquid state both seen in the T-v diagram. 198
22 Determine the phase for each of the following states using the property tables and indicate the relative position in the P-v, T-v and P-T diagrams. a.ammonia 30 C, 1000 kpa b.r kpa, 0.15 m 3 /kg a. Enter Table with 30 C. The saturation pressure is kpa. As we have lower P than saturated pressure ( kpa) at a given temperature, it is a superheated vapor state. b. Enter Table with 200 kpa and notice v = 0.15 >v g = m 3 /kg so from the P-v diagram the state is superheated vapor. We can find the state in Table between 160 and 170 C.
23 Determine the temperature and quality (if defined) for water at a pressure of 400 kpa and at each of these specific volumes: a. 0.4 m 3 /kg b. 0.7 m 3 /kg a. By comparison with the values in Figure, the state at which v is 0.4 m 3 /kg is seen to be in the liquid-vapor two-phase region, at which T = C, and the quality x is found from Eq. as x( ) x Note that if we did not have Table (as would be the case with the other substances listed tables), we could have interpolated in Table between the 142 C and 144 C entries to get the v f and v g values for 400 kpa ( C). b.by comparison with the values in Figure, the state at which v is 0.7 m 3 /kg is seen to be in the superheated vapor region, in which quality is undefined, and the temperature for which, is found from Table
24 In this case, T is found by linear interpolation between the 400 kpa specificvolume values at 320 C and 340 C, as shown in Fig This is an approximation for T, since the actual relation along the 400 kpa constantpressure line is not exactly linear. From the figure we have slope T solving this gives T = C.
25 A closed vessel contains 0.1 m 3 of saturated liquid and 0.9 m 3 of saturated vapor R-134a in equilibrium at 30 C. Determine the percent vapor on a mass basis. Values of the saturation properties for R-134a are found from Table The mass-volume relations then give V m v m 0.1/ kg liq liq f liq V m v m 0.9/ kg vap vap g vap m = kg = x m vap m That is, the vessel contains 90 % vapor by volume but only 23.4 % vapor by mass.
26 A rigid vessel contains saturated ammonia vapor at 20 C. Heat is transferred to the system until the temperature reaches 40 C. What is the final pressure? Since the volume and mass does not change during this process, the specific volume also remains constant. From the ammonia tables, Table 2.8.1, we have V 1 = V 2 = m 3 /kg v g at 20 C Since v g ( m 3 /kg) at 40 C is less than m 3 /kg, it is evident that in the final state the ammonia is superheated vapor. By interpolating between the 800 and 1000 kpa columns of Table 2.8.2, we find that P = kpa v g = at 800 kpa and T = 40 C v g = at 1000 kpa and T = 40 C v g = at??? kpa and T = 40 C
27 Determine the missing property of P-v-T and x if applicable for the following states a. Nitrogen: C, 400 kpa b. Nitrogen: 100 K, m 3 /kg For nitrogen the properties are listed in Table 2.9 with temperature in Kelvin. a. Enter in Table with T = = 220 K, which is higher than the critical T in the last entry. Then proceed to the superheated vapor tables. We would also have realized this by looking at the critical properties in Table 2.1. From Table in the subsection for 400 kpa (T sat = K) & 220 K v = m 3 /kg b. Enter in Table with T = 100 K and comparing v, we see that we have a two-phase state with a pressure as the saturation pressure, shown as b in Figure P = P sat = 779 kpa and the quality is x
28 Determine the pressure for water at 200 C with v = 0.4 m 3 /kg. Start in Table with 200 C and note that v > v g = m 3 /kg so we have superheated vapor. Proceed to Table at any subsection with 200 C; say we start at 200 kpa. There the v = , which is too large so the pressure must be higher. For 400 kpa, v = , and for 600 kpa, v = At 200 C and 200 kpa v g = m 3 /kg At 200 C and 400 kpa v g = m 3 /kg At 200 C and 600 kpa v g = m 3 /kg v = 0.4 m 3 /kg. A linear interpolation, Figure, between the two pressures is done to get P at the desired v. P = = kpa
29 The P-v-T surfaces present a great deal of information at once, but in a thermodynamic analysis it is more convenient to work with two-dimensional diagrams, such as the P-v and T-v diagrams. P-v-T surface of a substance that expands on freezing (like water). P-v-T surface of a substance that contracts on freezing.
30 The P V T Behavior of Low and Moderate Density Gases Equation of state: Any equation that relates the pressure, temperature, and specific volume of a substance. The simplest and best-known equation of state for substances in the gas phase is the ideal-gas equation of state. This equation predicts the P-v-T behavior of a gas quite accurately within some properly selected region. R: gas constant M: molar mass (kg/kmol) R u : universal gas constant Different substances have different gas constants.
31 Various expressions of ideal gas equation P = absolute pressure in MPa, or kpa v = molar specific volume in m 3 /kmol T = absolute temperature in K R u = kj/(kmol K)
32 Ideal gas equation at two states for a fixed mass (Control Mass or Closed System) Useful Ideal Gas Relation: The Combined Gas Law By writing the ideal gas equation twice for a fixed mass and simplifying, the properties of an ideal gas at two different states are related by m m 1 2 or and eliminating gas constant PV R T PV T PV R T PV T 2 2 2
33 COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR A MEASURE OF DEVIATION FROM IDEAL-GAS BEHAVIOR Compressibility factor Z A factor that accounts for the deviation of real gases from ideal-gas behavior at a given temperature and pressure. The compressibility factor is unity for ideal gases. 33
35 Reduced pressure Reduced temperature Pseudo-reduced specific volume Comparison of Z factors for various gases.
36 Ideal Gas Assumption Region of Z~1 A B A) if the pressure is very low (that is, P «P c ), the ideal-gas model can be assumed with good accuracy, regardless of the temperature B) at high temperatures (that is, greater than about T 2T c ) pressures as high as four or five times P 4 5P c
37 OTHER EQUATIONS OF STATE Many such equations have been proposed and used to correlate the observed behavior of gases. As an example, the class of relatively simple equation known as cubic equations of state Equation of state accurately represents the P-v-T behavior for a particular gas over the entire superheated vapor region As an example, the class of relatively simple equation known as cubic equations of state RT a P v b v cbv db 2 2
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