Tutorial: An Overview of Wireless Security

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1 Tutorial: An Overview of Wireless Security Jung-Min Jerry Park Dept. of Electrical & Computer Engineering Virginia Tech CESCA Research Day March 2013 Some of the material presented here are from Lawrie Brown s lecture slides and Network Forensics: Tracking hackers through cyberspace by Davidoff and Ham.

2 Agenda 2 IEEE i Common attacks against wireless networks Security issues in cognitive radio networks and spectrum sharing

3 IEEE i

4 Motivation for IEEE i 4 Wireless traffic can be monitored by any radio in range, not physically connected Original spec had security features Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) algorithm But this contained major weaknesses A serious problem occurs in RC4 s use in WEP i task group developed capabilities to address WLAN security issues Wi-Fi Alliance declared Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) as a Wi-Fi standard

5 5 Motivation for IEEE i WPA is Stop-gap measure designed to deal w/ keying weaknesses of WEP Designed to work w/ legacy h/w Uses the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) Tools available to crack WPA pre-shared keys WPA2 is Required next generation hardware Uses AES-CCMP (for confidentiality and integrity) Currently considered secure (if implemented correctly) Implements the mandatory elements of i Final IEEE i standard is referred to as Robust Security Network (RSN)

6 802.11i RSN Services and Protocols 6 Services and protocols of RSN Cryptographic algorithms of RSN

7 An Packet Capture Displayed in Wireshark 7 WPA2 packet: Indicates that the packet uses AES-CCMP

8 802.11i Phases of Operation 8 STA: Wireless station AP: Access point AS: Authentication server End station: Entity on a wired network

9 802.11i Discovery and Authentication Phases 9 Discovery phase consists of three exchanges: Network & security capability discovery Open system authentication Association Authentication phase consists of 3 phases: Connect to AS EAP exchange Delivery of the master session key (MSK) from AS to STA via AP

10 IEEE 802.1X Access Control Approach i uses Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) defined in 802.1X EAP was designed to provide access control functions for LANs 802.1X uses the concepts of controlled and uncontrolled ports

11 802.11i Key Management Phase 11 STA <--> AP i key hierarchies Multicast: STA <--> n STAs

12 802.11i Key Management Phase 12 Pairwise key distribution Group key distribution

13 i Protected Data Transfer Phase i defines two schemes for protecting data Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP) Software changes only to older WEP implementations Adds 64-bit Michael message integrity code (MIC) Encrypts MPDU plus MIC value using RC4 Counter Cipher Mode-CBC MAC Protocol (CCMP) Intended for newer devices that have the required h/w Uses the cipher block chaining message authentication code (CBC-MAC) for integrity Uses the counter block cipher mode of operation Same 128 bit AES key is used for both integrity & confidentiality

14 Sidebar: AES 14 On Oct. 2, 2000, NIST selected Rijndael as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Description Rijndael is a block cipher with a variable block size and variable key size Key size and the block size can be independently specified to 128, 192 or 256 bits Rijndael was designed to have the following characteristics Resistance against all known attacks Speed and code compactness on a wide range of platforms Design simplicity Vincent Rijmen

15 Sidebar: AES 15

16 Cipher Block Chaining Mode 16

17 Counter Mode 17

18 Common Attacks against Wireless Networks

19 Sniffing Attacks 19 Sniffing: An attacker eavesdrops on wireless traffic Easy to do and the risk of detection is low According to FCC rules, theoretically the distance from which an eavesdropper can eavesdrop traffic TX ed from an AP is ~200 feet However directional antennae can dramatically increase the effective range

20 Rogue APs 20 Rogue APs: Unauthorized wireless devices that extend the local network Can be used to covertly extend the range of an internal network Facilitate access from far outside the physical bounds of a given target network Act as a pivot point for attacks

21 Evil Twin Attack 21 Evil Twin attack: An attacker sets up a AP w/ the same SSID as a legitimate WLAN Usually carried out to conduct a man-in-the-middle attack If there is more than one AP w/ the same SSID, then the client will associate w/ the AP providing the strongest signal It is possible to switch an interface on a laptop into infrastructure mode (ex: using iwconfig command in Linux)

22 Evil Twin Attack 22 This ruse allows a sufficiently strong broadcaster to become a man-in-the-middle between the unwitting client and every other system that it communicates with Once the attacker has connected to the Evil Twin, the attacker can intercept traffic, replace data, harvest credentials, etc.

23 WEP Cracking 23 WEP cracking: An attacker attempts to recover WEP encryption key WEP encrypts the payload of data frames using a preshared key (PSK) PSK is never exposed on the network, and is shared in some out-of-band way between stations RC4 (stream cipher) is the encryption algorithm Each station encrypts the payload w/ the PSK and a randomly selected initialization vector (IV), thus causing the encryption key to change for every frame Encryption key (64 bits) = IV (24 bits) + PSK (40 bits) Stations supply the IV in plaintext

24 WEP Cracking 24 Each station adds a plaintext 24-bit IV to each frame Given enough traffic, the randomized IV values are bound to repeat at some point Because of the birthday paradox, it is likely that after only a few thousand packets, two will share the same IV

25 WEP Cracking 25 Attackers can leverage related-key attack based on knowledge of some of the bits of the key Using published tools, attackers can force the generation of enough IVs to crack a WEP key in minutes For more details: Fluhrer, Mantin, and Shamir, Weaknesses in the Key Scheduling Algorithm of RC4, Workshop in Selected Areas of Cryptography, Stubblefield, Loannidis, and Rubin, Using the Fluhrer, Mantin, and Shamir Attack to Break WEP, AT&T Labs Technical Report TD-4ZCPZZ, 2001.

26 Sidebar: Stream Ciphers 26

27 Sidebar: Stream Ciphers 27 Process the message bit by bit (as a stream) Have a pseudo random key stream Key stream XORed with plaintext bit by bit Randomness of stream key completely destroys statistical properties in message C i = M i XOR StreamKey i But must never reuse stream key Otherwise adversary can recover messages

28 Sidebar: General Structure of RC4 28

29 Sidebar: RC4 Pseudocode 29 /* Initialization */ for i = 0 to 255 do S[i] = i; T[i] = K[i mod keylen]); /* Initial Permutation of S */ j = 0; for i = 0 to 255 do j = (j + S[i] + T[i]) mod 256; swap (S[i], S[j]); /* Stream generation */ i = j = 0; for each message byte M i i = (i + 1) mod 256; j = (j + S[i]) mod 256; swap(s[i], S[j]); t = (S[i] + S[j]) mod 256; C i = M i XOR S[t]; Very simple and elegant algorithm!

30 Sidebar: Birthday Paradox 30 What is the birthday paradox? Birthday paradox states that in a group of 23 (or more) randomly chosen people, there is more than 50% probability that some pair of them will have the same birthday. How big does the group have to be in order for this probability to be greater than 99%? A birthday attack is a type of cryptographic attack which exploits the mathematics behind the birthday paradox, making use of a space-time tradeoff

31 Sidebar: Birthday Paradox 31

32 Security in Cognitive Radio Networks & Spectrum Sharing For details, refer to: J. Park, K. Bian, and R. Chen, "Cognitive Radio Network Security," in Cognitive Radio Communications and Networks: Principles and Practice, A. Wyglinski, M. Nekovee, and T. Hou (Eds.), Elsevier, Dec

33 Taxonomy of CR Security Threats 33

34 Rogue Transmissions: A Threat to Spectrum Sharing 34 One of the critical challenges in realizing spectrum sharing is enforcing spectrum access rules and regulations Especially critical when Federal gov t/dod systems coexist with civilian systems Ex) FCC s recent NPRM on spectrum sharing in 3.5 GHz bands Primary threat in spectrum sharing: rogue transmitters Harmful interference caused by malicious users or malfunctioning devices Two approaches for countering rogue transmitters Preventive (i.e., a priori) enforcement Ex) Mechanisms for spectrum access control (e.g., policy reasoner, policy enforcer), tamper resistance techniques Punitive (i.e., a posteriori) enforcement Ex) Transmitter identification, cryptographic proofs of spectrum rule conformance

35 35 Thank you Questions? For more details, please visit

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