2 What s a comin up? Covalent bond model Lewis structures for molecular compounds Multiple bonds Coordinate covalent bonds Guidelines for drawing correct Lewis structures Bonding in polyatomic ions Molecular geometry and VSEPR theory Electronegativity and polar covalent bonds Bond and molecular polarity Naming binary molecular compounds
3 The covalent bond model Covalent bonds result from the sharing of electrons between atoms. These electron pairs (bonds) act like a glue to hold atoms together. Covalent bonds result between hydrogen atoms when the 1s orbitals of two atoms overlap in Lewis notation
4 Lewis structures for molecular compounds Usually, we represent shared electron pairs with lines (1 line = 1 covalent bond) When counting electrons around an atom in Lewis structures, each covalent bond counts as 2 electrons
5 Lewis structures for molecular compounds Electrons that aren t involved in bonds are called non-bonding electrons (labeled in red in the above diagrams)
6 Lewis structures for molecular compounds Lewis structures are not meant to convey anything about shape
7 Single, double, and triple covalent bonds In single bonds, atoms share a pair of electrons; the electron pair that is shared exists in the space between the two atoms nuclei. In certain cases, atoms must share more than just a pair of electrons to explain the bonding between them. For example, in O 2, sharing just one pair leaves each oxygen atom with only 7 electrons around it but sharing another pair gives each of them 8 electrons. Oxygen is a group 6A element This is called a double covalent bond
8 Single, double, and triple covalent bonds Another example is N 2 (nitrogen). In this case, two N atoms need to share three pairs of electrons for each N atom to gain an octet. A triple bond
9 Valence electrons and the number of covalent bonds formed To predict how many bonds an atom will form to obtain an octet, consider the number of valence electrons it possesses. Oxygen: group 6A; needs to form two bonds to get octet Nitrogen: group 5A; needs to form three bonds to get octet These are typical bonding schemes around O, N, and C Carbon: group 4A; needs to form four bonds to get octet
11 Coordinate covalent bonds In some cases, atoms may donate both electrons that are used to form a bond. Examples: Notice: C and O are not involved in typical bonding schemes CO N 2 O
12 Systematic rules for drawing Lewis structures Step 1: Find the sum of valence electrons of all atoms in the polyatomic ion or molecule. Step 2: Draw the atoms in the order in which they occur*, connecting them with single bonds. Bonds cost 2 electrons each. Step 3: Add electrons around the non-central (outside) atoms until they each have an octet.** Step 4: If any electrons remain left over at this point, use them to complete the octet on the central atom. *See page 115 to predict which atom is central in a formula. Neither hydrogen nor fluorine is ever a central atom. If C is present, it usually is the central atom, and in binary compounds (e.g. NH 3 ), the single-atom element is usually the central atom. ** Remember, hydrogen atoms can accommodate only 2 electrons (i.e. not an octet).
13 Systematic rules for drawing Lewis structures Step 5: If there are not enough electrons on the central atom for an octet, make multiple bonds between the central atom and another atom to give it an octet. Step 6: Double-check the total number of electrons in the Lewis structure at this point to be sure that there are no more present than the total number you counted in Step 1. Examples: SO 2, HCN, CO 2
15 Bonding in polyatomic ions and ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions The rules for drawing Lewis structures for polyatomic ions are similar to the six steps we just covered. Ions carry charges, so the total number of electrons calculated in Step 1 must be adjusted to account for the ion s charge. Positive charged ions: deduct one electron from the total number counted for each positive charge. Negatively charged ions: add one electron to the total number for each negative charge. In the end, surround the Lewis structure with square brackets and indicate charge as for Lewis structures for ionic compounds Examples: SO 4 2-, NH 4+, CO 3 2-
16 VSEPR theory Molecular shape Looking at a Lewis structure, one might expect that all molecules are flat; Lewis structures convey no information (by themselves) about the shape of molecules. VSEPR theory (Valence Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion) is used to predict molecular shape, and is based on the repulsion that exists between charges of the same sign. Shape of a molecule is normally given with respect to the central atom.
17 VSEPR theory Consider the electron pairs that are found around the central atom in a molecule of HCN central atom is C On one side of the central carbon atom is a C-H single bond, and on the other, a C-N triple bond. Thus, there are two VSEPR electron groups around the carbon. These groups consist of electrons, and are thus repulsive toward each other. The groups prefer to be as far apart from each other as possible, yielding a linear arrangement. VSEPR electron groups = single bond, double bond, triple bond, or a non-bonding pair of electrons (all are negatively charged). Each counts as 1 electron group.
18 The number of VSEPR electron groups on the central atom is what determines the structure s geometry. As these groups are repelled by each other, and move as far apart as they can, they drag with them the outer atoms. Two VSEPR electron groups on the central atom yields a linear arrangement of these electron groups. Three VSEPR electron groups yields a trigonal planar arrangement of electron groups. Four VSEPR electron groups on the central atom yields a tetrahedral arrangement of electron groups. VSEPR theory Electron Domain Geometries
19 VSEPR theory All of these Lewis structures have four electron domains on the central atom they have tetrahedral electron domain geometries In many cases, at least one of the VSEPR electron groups on the central atom is a nonbonding pair. The shape of the molecule is determined by the arrangement of atoms around the central atom. angular EDG trigonal pyramidal tetrahedral Molecular geometry = shape of molecule Electron domain geometry = shape created by electron domains around central atom
20 VSEPR theory
22 Molecular geometry in molecules with more than one central atom For molecules that contain more than one central atom, a local molecular shape can be described (describing the geometry around a central atom). linear angular angular linear angular linear
23 C1 O2 C2 Acetic acid (the acid present in vinegar) What is the local molecular geometry around C1? tetrahedral C2? trigonal planar O2? angular (bent)
24 Electronegativity Atoms that are involved in covalent bonds share electron with other atoms to obtain octet of electrons around themselves. When two identical atoms share electrons to form bonds, the electrons in the bond(s) are shared equally between the two atoms (e.g. H 2, O 2, N 2, and between the two carbon atoms of C 2 H 2.
25 Electronegativity In many covalent bonds, the electron pair (or pairs, in multiple bonds) are not equally shared, as different elements have differing abilities to attract electrons in bonds toward themselves. The electronegativity of an element reflects how strongly an atom of that element can pull bonding electrons toward itself. This bond is called a polar covalent bond Chlorine is more electronegative than hydrogen, so the electrons in the H-Cl bond spend more time near Cl than H This bond is a non-polar covalent bond
26 Consistent with the idea that elements on the left-hand side of the periodic table lose electrons in forming ionic compounds, while those on the right-hand side gain electrons Electronegativity Sidebar: in a Lewis structure, the central atom is the least electronegative atom (except if the least electronegative atom is hydrogen) remember N 2 O on slide 10 Electronegativity increases left-to-right across a period and bottom-to-top in a group.
27 Bond polarity Polar covalent bonds have an unsymmetrical distribution of electrons between the two atoms involved in the bond. The electrons in these bonds spend more time on one side of the bond (the side with the more electronegative atom) than the other. This creates a bonding picture that looks a bit like an ionic bond; however, no electron transfer has happened here (electrons are still shared, just unequally). homonuclear heteronuclear Non-polar covalent bond Polar covalent bond The bigger the difference in the electronegativity of the two atoms in the covalent bond, the more polar the bond.
28 Bond polarity Polar bonds are somewhere in-between nonpolar covalent bonds and ionic bonds Non-polar covalent Ionic bonds Equal sharing of electrons in bonds partial charges d+ d- Complete transfer of electron(s) from one atom to the other (no sharing) Polar covalent bonds Unequal sharing of bonding electrons; endows one end of bond with partial negative charge and the other with a partial positive charge
29 Bond polarity Because the bonding electrons between H and Cl spend more time on the Cl end, that end of the bond carries a partial negative charge (and the other end a partial positive charge) d+ d- This can also be represented with a crossed arrow In this notation, the arrow points toward side of the bond that carries the partial negative charge and the + sign is on the side that carries the partial positive charge.
30 Bond polarity In some cases, bonds that have very low polarity are considered to be non-polar. Use the following guideline to determine whether a bond is non-polar, polar, or ionic: If the two atoms involved in a bond have an electronegativity difference of 0.4 or less, the bond is considered to be non-polar covalent. If the electronegativity difference for the two atoms of a bond is between 0.4 and 1.5, it is considered to be a polar covalent bond. Bonds that have an electronegativity difference of greater than 2.0 are ionic. If the electronegativity difference for a bond lies in the range, it is considered to be ionic if it involves a metal and nonmetal. It is considered to be polar covalent if two non-metals are involved H-H C-H H-Cl H-F Na-Cl non-polar covalent non-polar covalent polar covalent polar covalent ionic
31 Molecular polarity Entire molecules can have unequal distributions of electronic charge. In these cases, the molecule is said to be polar. An easy-to-see case for this is in a H-F molecule. The bond is polar and there is only one bond in the molecule. Thus the entire molecule is polar. Molecules may be polar as a result of a combination of their molecular geometry the presence of polar bonds in the molecule
32 Molecular polarity non-polar covalent polar covalent d+ d- partial charges d- d+ d- Just because a molecule possesses polar bonds does not mean the molecule as a whole will be polar.
33 Molecular polarity Unlike CO 2 (triatomic, linear, and symmetric), H 2 O is not linear (angular), and so the direction of its polar bonds describes an H 2 O molecule that has a partial negative charge on the oxygen side, and a partial positive charge on the hydrogen side. For HCN, it is easier to see why the molecule is polar
34 Molecular polarity For more complicated molecules (e.g. CH 4, CH 3 Cl), the symmetry of the molecule needs to be considered to predict whether the molecule is polar or not.
35 Naming binary molecular compounds Binary molecular compounds contain only two nonmetallic elements. In naming binary molecular compounds, the non-metal of lower electronegativity is presented first, followed by the non-metal having the higher electronegativity. The nonmetal s name is suffixed as it was for binary ionic compounds ( -ide ). HF: hydrogen fluoride For compounds with more than one atom of an element, prefixes are used to indicate the numbers of these atoms*: N 2 O 4 : dinitrogen tetroxide NO 2 : nitrogen dioxide Exception: if the first element is hydrogen, then the prefix is not used. Example, H 2 S is just hydrogen sulfide
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