Chemical Bonding. 6 th Year Chemistry Higher Level Sinéad Nolan

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chemical Bonding. 6 th Year Chemistry Higher Level Sinéad Nolan"

Transcription

1 6 th Year Chemistry Higher Level Sinéad Nolan Chemical Bonding No part of this publication may be copied, reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior written permission from The Dublin School of Grinds. Ref: 6/che/h/sn/Chemical Bonding

2 6-HOUR CRASH COURSES MAY & JUNE 2016 % 01.! čƫ +*+)% /ƫ0! $!.ƫ *8*ƫ 1. + ' The final push for CAO points... $!ƫ 1 (%*ƫ $++(ƫ +"ƫ.%* /ƫ %/ƫ.1**%*#ƫ ćġ$+1.ƫ. /$ƫ +1./!/ƫ 0ƫ 0$!ƫ!* ƫ +"ƫ 5ƫ * ƫ 0$!ƫ!#%**%*#ƫ +"ƫ 1*!ċƫ $!/!ƫ +1./!/ƫ #%2!ƫ /01!*0/ƫ 0$!ƫ!/0ƫ,+//% (!ƫ 2 *0 #!ƫ /ƫ 0$!5ƫ,.!,.!ƫ "+.ƫ 0$!ƫ ((ġ%),+.0 *0ƫ 0 0!ƫ 4 )%* 0%+*/ċƫ *!ƫ ( /0ƫ +1*!ƫ +"ƫ!""+.0ƫ +1( ƫ ) '!ƫ ((ƫ 0$!ƫ %""!.!*!ċ!.!ƫ%/ƫ$+3ƫ0$!/!ƫ +1./!/ƫ3%((ƫ!*!"%0ƫ5+1č They will offer students one last opportunity to avail of expert teaching before the State Examinations They will provide students with a final boost of confidence before exam day They will give students an exam strategy plan to help them maximise their grade on the day +0!: At these courses our teachers will predict what questions are most likely to appear on your exam paper. These questions will be covered in detail and our teachers will provide you with model A1 answers. čƫĺāćāƫ ƫ To book, call us on 01ġ or book online at /$ƫ +1./!s Timetable 6th Year Subject Date Time Accounting Level H Sunday 29th May 9am - 3pm Biology H Saturday 28th May 9am - 3pm Business H Sunday 29th May 2pm - 8pm Chemistry H Saturday 4th June 9am - 3pm Economics H Saturday 28th May 9am - 3pm English H Sunday 29th May 9am - 3pm English H Saturday 4th June 9am - 3pm French H Saturday 4th June 9am - 3pm Geography H Saturday 28th May 9am - 3pm Irish H Saturday 4th June 9am - 3pm Maths Paper 1 H Saturday 4th June 9am - 3pm Maths Paper 2 H Sunday 5th June 9am - 3pm Maths O Saturday 28th May 9am - 3pm Maths O Saturday 4th June 9am - 3pm Physics H Saturday 28th May 9am - 3pm Spanish H Sunday 5th June 9am - 3pm Date Time 3rd Year Subject Level Business Studies H Sunday 5th June 9am - 3pm English H Sunday 5th June 9am - 3pm French H Sunday 29th May 9am - 3pm Irish H Sunday 29th May 9am - 3pm Maths H Sunday 29th May 9am - 3pm Science H Saturday 4th June 9am - 3pm H = Higher O = Ordinary (! /!ƫ*+0!ƫ0$ 0ƫ ((ƫ +1./!/ƫ3%((ƫ0 '!ƫ,(!ƫ 0ƫ +1.ƫ!.*%*#ƫ!*0.!ƫ 0ƫ $!ƫ.%).5ƫ $++(ƫ%*ƫ 0( * /Čƫ 0%((+.# *Čƫ +ċƫ 1 (%*ċ

3 Table of Contents Chemical Bonding... 3 Ionic Bonding... 3 d-block elements and Transition elements... 7 Covalent Bonding... 8 Sigma & Pi bonding Shapes of Covalent Molecules Intramolecular bonding Past Exam Short Questions related to this topic Past Exam Short Answers related to this topic Past Exam Long Questions related to this topic Past Exam Long Answers related to this topic... School of Grinds Page 2 Sinéad Nolan

4 Chemical Bonding A compound is a substance that is made of two or more different elements combined chemically Chemical bonds are attractive forces that hold atoms together in a molecule The Octet rule states that when bonding occurs, atoms tend to reach an electron arrangement with eight electrons in the outermost shell Exceptions to the Octet rule are Transition elements and elements near Helium Two types of Intramolecular bonding: Ionic (transfer of electrons) Covalent (sharing pairs of electrons) Three types of Intermolecular bonding: Van der Waals Dipole-dipole Hydrogen bonds Ionic Bonding An ionic bond is formed when electrons are transferred between atoms An ion is a charged atom or group of atom An atom which gains an electron becomes a negatively charged ion and is called an anion An atom which loses an electron becomes a positively charged ion and is called a cation An ionic bond is the force of attraction between School of Grinds Page 3 Sinéad Nolan

5 Sodium chloride (NaCl) Sodium has 1 electron in its outer shell (recall Na is in Group I of the periodic table indicating that it has 1 electron in its outer shell), which it wants to lose in order to have a full shell Chlorine has 7 electrons in its outer shell (recall Cl is in Group VII of the periodic table indicating that it has 7 electrons in its outer shell), it needs to gain one electron in order to have a full outer shell Sodium reacts with chlorine by transferring the electron in its outer shell to chlorine. The sodium atom (because it loses an electron) becomes a positive ion (Na + ) The chlorine atom (because it gains an electron) becomes a negative ion (Cl - ) These oppositely charged ions attract each other to form the compound sodium chloride An ionic bond is formed when electrons are transferred between atoms An ion is a charged atom or group of atom An atom which gains an electron becomes a negatively charged ion and is called an anion An atom which loses an electron becomes a positively charged ion and is called a cation An ionic bond is the force of attraction between School of Grinds Page 4 Sinéad Nolan

6 Magnesium fluoride (MgF2) Magnesium has 2 electrons in its outer shell (recall Mg is in Group II of the periodic table indicating that it has 2 electron in its outer shell), which it wants to lose in order to have a full shell Fluorine has 7 electrons in its outer shell (recall F is in Group VII of the periodic table indicating that it has 7 electrons in its outer shell), it needs to gain one electron in order to have a full outer shell Magnesium reacts with fluorine by transferring the electrons in its outer shell to fluorine. The magnesium atom (because it loses two electrons) becomes a positive ion (Mg 2+ ) The fluorine atom (because it gains an electron) becomes a negative ion (F - ) These oppositely charged ions attract each other to form the compound magnesium fluoride Structure of sodium chloride consists of regular 3-D arrangement of sodium and chloride ions called a crystal lattice. The diagram on the left shows the repeating unit that makes up the crystal lattice, known as the unit School of Grinds Page 5 Sinéad Nolan

7 Uses of sodium chloride Salt tablets to replace salt lost due to sweating Food preservative Manufacture of soap, leather, sodium metal, chlorine gas, detergents, toothpaste, caustic soda and washing soda Use dot and cross diagrams to show the formation of bonds in magnesium chloride LC School of Grinds Page 6 Sinéad Nolan

8 d-block elements and Transition elements A transition metal is one that forms at least one ion with a partially filled d-sublevel Properties of transition metals include Variable valency (e.g. Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ ) Form coloured compounds Have catalytic properties Scandium and zinc are not considered to be transition metal as their ions do not have partially filled d-sublevel Sc 3+ : Zn 2+ School of Grinds Page 7 Sinéad Nolan

9 Covalent Bonding An covalent bond is formed when a pair(s) of electrons are shared between atoms Hydrogen Gas (H2) Both hydrogen atoms have 1 electron in their outer shell and thus need 1 electron to have a full outer shell Each hydrogen shares its electron with the other hydrogen such that the two electrons orbit around both nuclei Each hydrogen atoms now has two electrons in its outer shell, its own electron and the one loaned to it from its partner Describe using dot and cross diagrams the bonding in a water molecule. LC (b) School of Grinds Page 8 Sinéad Nolan

10 Use clear dot and cross diagrams to show the bonding in hydrogen sulphide. LC (b) Use a dot and cross diagram to show the bonding in an ammonia, NH3, molecule. LCH (b) School of Grinds Page 9 Sinéad Nolan

11 Show, using dot and cross diagrams, the bond formation in a oxygen molecule. Show, using dot and cross diagrams, the bond formation in a nitrogen molecule. LCH School of Grinds Page 10 Sinéad Nolan

12 Sigma & Pi bonding A sigma bond is formed due to head-on overlap of 2 s atomic orbitals, 2 p atomic orbitals or 1 s and 1 p atomic orbitals. A pi bond is formed due to sideways/lateral overlap of 2 p atomic orbitals There is less overlap between orbitals in a pi bond, therefore it is weaker than a sigma bond. A single bond consists of 1 sigma bond A double bond consists of 1 sigma bond and 1 pi bond A triple bond consists of 1 sigma bond and 2 pi bond Characteristics of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Ionic: Contain a network of ions in the crystal Covalent: Contain individual molecules Usually hard and brittle Usually soft High melting and boiling points Usually have low melting and boiling points Usually solid at room temperature Usually liquid or gases at room temperature Conduct electricity when dissolved in water or molten Do not conduct electricity (no ions School of Grinds Page 11 Sinéad Nolan

13 Shapes of Covalent Molecules Ionic Compounds consist of giant crystal lattices Covalent Molecules consist of separate molecules The shapes of these molecules is governed by Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory. The two main points of this are o o o The shape of a molecule depends on the number of pairs of electrons in the valence shell of the central atom. Electron pairs repel each other and arrange themselves to be as far apart from each other as possible The repulsion between two lone pairs is greater than the repulsion between a lone pair and a bond pair which is in turn greater than the repulsion between two bond pairs, i.e. l.p./l.p. > l.p./b.p. > b.p./b.p. 4 bonding pairs around the central atom (AB4) Tetrahedral Bond Angle = o E.g. CH4 3 bonding pairs around the central atom (AB3) Trigonal planar Bond Angle = 120 o E.g. BF3 2 bonding pairs around the central atom (AB2) Linear Bond Angle = 180 o E.g. School of Grinds Page 12 Sinéad Nolan

14 3 bps and 1 lp around the central atom (AB3) Pyramidal Bond Angle = 107 o E.g. NH3 2 bps and 2 lp around the central atom (AB2) V-Shaped Bond Angle = o E.g. H2O Describe using dot and cross diagrams the bonding in the water molecule. What is the shape of the water molecule? Which of the following angles, 104, 107, 109, 120 or 180 would you expect to be closest to the bond angle in the water molecule? Explain your answer. LC School of Grinds Page 13 Sinéad Nolan

15 Account for the difference in the shapes of the ammonia (NH3) and boron trifluoride (BF3) molecules. LC (b) What are the possible shapes for molecules of general formula AB2? LC School of Grinds Page 14 Sinéad Nolan

16 Recall electronegativity - relative (measure of) attraction / number expressing (giving) attraction // for shared electrons / for electrons in a covalent bond Electronegativity can be used to: Predict polarity of covalent bonds Predict which compounds are ionic and which are covalent Non-polar Covalent Equal sharing of a pair of electrons (0 < EN < 0.4) H H Polar Covalent Unequal sharing of a pair of electrons (0.4 < EN < 1.7) + - H Cl N.B. the greater the electronegativity difference the more polar the bond Also note, some molecules have polar bonds and are also non-polar molecules, whilst some molecules have polar bonds and are polar School of Grinds Page 15 Sinéad Nolan

17 CCl4 is non-polar In CCl4 the bonds are polar, however, the molecule isn't polar - in the sense that it doesn't have an end (or a side) which is slightly negative and one which is slightly positive. The whole of the outside of the molecule is somewhat negative, but there is no overall separation of charge from top to bottom, or from left to right. CHCl3 is polar. The hydrogen at the top of the molecule is less electronegative than carbon and so is slightly positive. This means that the molecule now has a slightly positive "top" and a slightly negative "bottom", and so is overall a polar molecule. The diagram on the left shows a thin stream of water flowing from a burette. What would you observe if a charged rod was brought close to the thin stream of water? Explain your answer. LC (c) NB: boiling points of substances are determined by Mr and by the strength of the intermolecular bonds. The higher the Mr and the stronger the intermolecular forces the higher the boiling School of Grinds Page 16 Sinéad Nolan

18 Ionic Donation and acceptance of electrons, ion formation, electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions ( EN > 1.7 & metal and non-metal) Na + Cl Use electronegativity values to predict the types of bonding (i) in water, (ii) in methane, (iii) in magnesium chloride. LC School of Grinds Page 17 Sinéad Nolan

19 Intramolecular bonding attractive (repulsive) forces between molecules Name Cause Occur between Strength Diagram Van der Waals Temporary dipoles Non-polar molecules Weakest Lowest bps Dipole-dipole Permanent dipoles Polar molecules Stronger Specifc type of dipole- Hydrogen bonds dipole as a result of hydrogen being bonded to small electronegative H2O, HF & NH3 Strongest Highest bps elements, O, F & School of Grinds Page 18 Sinéad Nolan

20 Use your knowledge of intermolecular forces to explain why methane has a very low boiling point (b.p. = 164 ºC). The relative molecular mass of methane is only slightly lower than that of water but the boiling point of water is much higher (b.p. = 100 ºC). Suggest a reason for this. LC (f) Hydrogen sulfide has a boiling point of K and water has a boiling point of 373 K. Account for the difference in the boiling points of these substances. Would you expect hydrogen sulfide to be soluble in water? Explain your answer. LC School of Grinds Page 19 Sinéad Nolan

21 What type of intermolecular forces would you expect to find in nitrogen gas? Explain your answer. LC (a) The boiling points of hydrogen and oxygen are 20.0 K and 90.2 K respectively. Account for the higher boiling point of oxygen. LC School of Grinds Page 20 Sinéad Nolan

22 Consider the following hydrides of some of the elements from the second and third periods of the periodic table: H2O NH3 PH3 HCl State how the bonding in PH3 differs from the bonding in the other three hydrides. What is the reason for this difference in bonding? From these four hydrides, identify the hydride or hydrides in which hydrogen bonding occurs between the molecules. Give one property that is affected by the presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the hydride or hydrides you have School of Grinds Page 21 Sinéad Nolan

23 State the shape of the PH3 molecule and explain using electron-pair repulsion theory how this shape arises. Boron trichloride (BCl3) is a colourless gas. Would you expect (i) the B Cl bonds, (ii) the BCl3 molecules, to be polar or non-polar? Justify your answers. LC 2012 School of Grinds Page 22 Sinéad Nolan

24 Past Exam Short Questions related to this topic LC 2015 Question 4 (d) LC 2014 Question 4 (e) LC 2013 Question 4 School of Grinds Page 23 Sinéad Nolan

25 LC 2012 Question 4 (d) LC 2011 Question 4 (c) LC 2010 Question 4 School of Grinds Page 24 Sinéad Nolan

26 LC 2010 Question 4 (g) LC 2007 Question 4 (c) LC 2005 Question 4 School of Grinds Page 25 Sinéad Nolan

27 LC 2004 Question 4 (b) LC 2004 Question 4 School of Grinds Page 26 Sinéad Nolan

28 Past Exam Short Answers related to this topic LC 2015 Question 4 (d) Solution LC 2014 Question 4 (e) Solution LC 2013 Question 4 (d) Solution LC 2012 Question 4 (d) Solution LC 2011 Question 4 (c) Solution LC 2010 Question 4 (c) Solution LC 2010 Question 4 (g) School of Grinds Page 27 Sinéad Nolan

29 LC 2007 Question 4 (c) Solution LC 2005 Question 4 (b) Solution LC 2004 Question 4 (b) Solution LC 2004 Question 4 (c) School of Grinds Page 28 Sinéad Nolan

30 Past Exam Long Questions related to this topic LC 2014 Question 11 School of Grinds Page 29 Sinéad Nolan

31 LC 2013 Question 10 School of Grinds Page 30 Sinéad Nolan

32 LC 2012 Question 5 (d) & School of Grinds Page 31 Sinéad Nolan

33 LC 2011 Question 11 School of Grinds Page 32 Sinéad Nolan

34 LC 2010 Question 10 School of Grinds Page 33 Sinéad Nolan

35 LC 2009 Question 11 School of Grinds Page 34 Sinéad Nolan

36 LC 2008 Question 5 (c) School of Grinds Page 35 Sinéad Nolan

37 LC 2007 Question 5 (b) & School of Grinds Page 36 Sinéad Nolan

38 LC 2005 Question 5 School of Grinds Page 37 Sinéad Nolan

39 LC 2004 Question 5 School of Grinds Page 38 Sinéad Nolan

40 LC 2003 Question 5 (b) & School of Grinds Page 39 Sinéad Nolan

41 Past Exam Long Answers related to this topic LC 2014 Question 11 (a) Solution LC 2013 Question 10 (a) School of Grinds Page 40 Sinéad Nolan

42 LC 2012 Question 5 (d) & (e) Solution LC 2011 Question 11 (b) School of Grinds Page 41 Sinéad Nolan

43 LC 2010 Question 10 (a) Solution LC 2009 Question 11 (b) School of Grinds Page 42 Sinéad Nolan

44 LC 2008 Question 5 (c) (g) School of Grinds Page 43 Sinéad Nolan

45 LC 2007 Question 5 (b) & (c) Solution LC 2005 Question 5 (c) School of Grinds Page 44 Sinéad Nolan

46 LC 2004 Question 5 (a) Solution LC 2003 Question 5 (b) & (c) School of Grinds Page 45 Sinéad Nolan

47 OUR EXPERT TEACHERS Sinéad Nolan 6th Year Chemistry Higher Level Sinéad is the Head of the Chemistry Department at The Dublin School of Grinds. With over 10 years experience, Sinéad is unrivalled at preparing students for the State Examinations, evidenced by tutoring a number of students to full marks (400/400 = 100%) in their Leaving Certificate Examination. According to the most recent Leaving Certificate results, 94% of Sinéad s students received an A- grade or B-grade in their State Examinations, double the national average of 47%. In essence, Sinéad delivers CAO points.

Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms

Chapter 11. Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter 11 Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms 1 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties 11.1 Periodic Trends in atomic properties design of periodic table is based on observing properties

More information

CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16. Covalent Bonding

CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16. Covalent Bonding CHAPTER NOTES CHAPTER 16 Covalent Bonding Goals : To gain an understanding of : NOTES: 1. Valence electron and electron dot notation. 2. Stable electron configurations. 3. Covalent bonding. 4. Polarity

More information

A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is called a(n)

A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is called a(n) Chemistry I ATOMIC BONDING PRACTICE QUIZ Mr. Scott Select the best answer. 1) A mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together is

More information

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW

CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW Answer the following questions. CHEMISTRY BONDING REVIEW 1. What are the three kinds of bonds which can form between atoms? The three types of Bonds are Covalent, Ionic and Metallic. Name Date Block 2.

More information

Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s)

Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) BONDING MIDTERM REVIEW 7546-1 - Page 1 1) Which substance contains positive ions immersed in a sea of mobile electrons? A) O2(s) B) Cu(s) C) CuO(s) D) SiO2(s) 2) The bond between hydrogen and oxygen in

More information

CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding

CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding CHAPTER 6 Chemical Bonding SECTION 1 Introduction to Chemical Bonding OBJECTIVES 1. Define Chemical bond. 2. Explain why most atoms form chemical bonds. 3. Describe ionic and covalent bonding.. 4. Explain

More information

Test 8: Review Questions

Test 8: Review Questions Name: Thursday, February 14, 2008 Test 8: Review Questions 1. Based on bond type, which compound has the highest melting point? 1. CH OH 3. CaCl 3 2 2. C H 4. CCl 6 14 4 2. Which compound contains ionic

More information

Bonding Practice Problems

Bonding Practice Problems NAME 1. When compared to H 2 S, H 2 O has a higher 8. Given the Lewis electron-dot diagram: boiling point because H 2 O contains stronger metallic bonds covalent bonds ionic bonds hydrogen bonds 2. Which

More information

Solid Type of solid Type of particle

Solid Type of solid Type of particle QUESTION (2015:3) Complete the table below by stating the type of solid, the type of particle, and the attractive forces between the particles in each solid. Solid Type of solid Type of particle Cu(s)

More information

Lesmahagow High School CfE Higher Chemistry. Chemical Changes & Structure Structure and Bonding

Lesmahagow High School CfE Higher Chemistry. Chemical Changes & Structure Structure and Bonding Lesmahagow High School CfE Higher Chemistry Chemical Changes & Structure Structure and Bonding Page 1 of 26 No. Learning Outcome Understanding? 1 2 The bonding types of the first twenty elements; metallic

More information

Packet 4: Bonding. Play song: (One of Mrs. Stampfel s favorite songs)

Packet 4: Bonding. Play song:  (One of Mrs. Stampfel s favorite songs) Most atoms are not Packet 4: Bonding Atoms will, or share electrons in order to achieve a stable. Octet means that the atom has in its level. If an atom achieves a stable octet it will have the same electron

More information

Type of Chemical Bonds

Type of Chemical Bonds Type of Chemical Bonds Covalent bond Polar Covalent bond Ionic bond Hydrogen bond Metallic bond Van der Waals bonds. Covalent Bonds Covalent bond: bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared

More information

POLAR COVALENT BONDS Ionic compounds form repeating. Covalent compounds form distinct. Consider adding to NaCl(s) vs. H 2 O(s):

POLAR COVALENT BONDS Ionic compounds form repeating. Covalent compounds form distinct. Consider adding to NaCl(s) vs. H 2 O(s): POLAR COVALENT BONDS Ionic compounds form repeating. Covalent compounds form distinct. Consider adding to NaCl(s) vs. H 2 O(s): Sometimes when atoms of two different elements form a bond by sharing an

More information

2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties:

2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties: Electronegativity and polarity Polar and non-polar bonds: 1) Non-Polar bonds: 2C Intermolecular forces, structure and properties: A covalent bond shares an electron pair: In a hydrogen molecule, the electrons

More information

Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds. Intermolecular Forces

Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds. Intermolecular Forces Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Intermolecular Forces Physical Properties & Bond Types Physical properties of substances are affected by the attractive forces between particles Greater attraction

More information

Chapter 7. Comparing Ionic and Covalent Bonds. Ionic Bonds. Types of Bonds. Quick Review of Bond Types. Covalent Bonds

Chapter 7. Comparing Ionic and Covalent Bonds. Ionic Bonds. Types of Bonds. Quick Review of Bond Types. Covalent Bonds Comparing Ionic and Covalent Bonds Chapter 7 Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure Intermolecular forces (much weaker than bonds) must be broken Ionic bonds must be broken 1 Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds

More information

CHAPTER 12: CHEMICAL BONDING

CHAPTER 12: CHEMICAL BONDING CHAPTER 12: CHEMICAL BONDING Active Learning Questions: 3-9, 11-19, 21-22 End-of-Chapter Problems: 1-36, 41-59, 60(a,b), 61(b,d), 62(a,b), 64-77, 79-89, 92-101, 106-109, 112, 115-119 An American chemist

More information

Theme 3: Bonding and Molecular Structure. (Chapter 8)

Theme 3: Bonding and Molecular Structure. (Chapter 8) Theme 3: Bonding and Molecular Structure. (Chapter 8) End of Chapter questions: 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, 18, 23, 27, 28, 32, 33, 39, 43, 46, 67, 77 Chemical reaction valence electrons of atoms rearranged (lost,

More information

Name: Intermolecular Forces Practice Exam Date:

Name: Intermolecular Forces Practice Exam Date: Name: Intermolecular Forces Practice Exam Date: 1. At STP, fluorine is a gas and bromine is a liquid because, compared to fluorine, bromine has 1) stronger covalent bonds 2) stronger intermolecular forces

More information

Bonding Web Practice. Trupia

Bonding Web Practice. Trupia 1. If the electronegativity difference between the elements in compound NaX is 2.1, what is element X? bromine fluorine chlorine oxygen 2. Which bond has the greatest degree of ionic character? H Cl Cl

More information

A pure covalent bond is an equal sharing of shared electron pair(s) in a bond. A polar covalent bond is an unequal sharing.

A pure covalent bond is an equal sharing of shared electron pair(s) in a bond. A polar covalent bond is an unequal sharing. CHAPTER EIGHT BNDING: GENERAL CNCEPT or Review 1. Electronegativity is the ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself. Electronegativity is a bonding term. Electron affinity is the

More information

Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds

Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds Chapter 4: Structure and Properties of Ionic and Covalent Compounds 4.1 Chemical Bonding o Chemical Bond - the force of attraction between any two atoms in a compound. o Interactions involving valence

More information

Copyright 2014 Edmentum - All rights reserved. Chemistry Chemical bonding, molecular structure and Gases Blizzard Bag 2014-2015

Copyright 2014 Edmentum - All rights reserved. Chemistry Chemical bonding, molecular structure and Gases Blizzard Bag 2014-2015 Copyright 2014 Edmentum - All rights reserved. Chemistry Chemical bonding, molecular structure and Gases Blizzard Bag 2014-2015 1. Which of the following is a unit of pressure? A. newton-meters per second

More information

CHAPTER 6 REVIEW. Chemical Bonding. Answer the following questions in the space provided.

CHAPTER 6 REVIEW. Chemical Bonding. Answer the following questions in the space provided. Name Date lass APTER 6 REVIEW hemical Bonding SETIN 1 SRT ANSWER Answer the following questions in the space provided. 1. a A chemical bond between atoms results from the attraction between the valence

More information

3/5/2014. iclicker Participation Question: A. MgS < AlP < NaCl B. MgS < NaCl < AlP C. NaCl < AlP < MgS D. NaCl < MgS < AlP

3/5/2014. iclicker Participation Question: A. MgS < AlP < NaCl B. MgS < NaCl < AlP C. NaCl < AlP < MgS D. NaCl < MgS < AlP Today: Ionic Bonding vs. Covalent Bonding Strengths of Covalent Bonds: Bond Energy Diagrams Bond Polarities: Nonpolar Covalent vs. Polar Covalent vs. Ionic Electronegativity Differences Dipole Moments

More information

Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key

Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key Lewis Dot Structure Answer Key 1) Nitrogen is the central atom in each of the following species: N2 N2 - N2 + Nitrogen can also form electron deficient compounds with a single unpaired electron on the

More information

In the box below, draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for the compound formed from magnesium and oxygen. [Include any charges or partial charges.

In the box below, draw the Lewis electron-dot structure for the compound formed from magnesium and oxygen. [Include any charges or partial charges. Name: 1) Which molecule is nonpolar and has a symmetrical shape? A) NH3 B) H2O C) HCl D) CH4 7222-1 - Page 1 2) When ammonium chloride crystals are dissolved in water, the temperature of the water decreases.

More information

Self Assessment_Ochem I

Self Assessment_Ochem I UTID: 2013 Objective Test Section Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. There is only one correct answer; please carefully bubble your choice on the scantron sheet.

More information

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts

AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 8 Notes - Bonding: General Concepts 8.1 Types of Chemical Bonds A. Ionic Bonding 1. Electrons are transferred 2. Metals react with nonmetals 3. Ions paired have lower energy

More information

Question 4.2: Write Lewis dot symbols for atoms of the following elements: Mg, Na, B, O, N, Br.

Question 4.2: Write Lewis dot symbols for atoms of the following elements: Mg, Na, B, O, N, Br. Question 4.1: Explain the formation of a chemical bond. A chemical bond is defined as an attractive force that holds the constituents (atoms, ions etc.) together in a chemical species. Various theories

More information

AS Chemistry Revision Notes Unit 1 Atomic Structure, Bonding And Periodicity

AS Chemistry Revision Notes Unit 1 Atomic Structure, Bonding And Periodicity AS Chemistry Revision Notes Unit Atomic Structure, Bonding And Periodicity Atomic Structure. All atoms have a mass number, A (the number of nucleons), and a proton number, Z (the number of protons). 2.

More information

Chemistry 1050 Chapter 13 LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS 1. Exercises: 25, 27, 33, 39, 41, 43, 51, 53, 57, 61, 63, 67, 69, 71(a), 73, 75, 79

Chemistry 1050 Chapter 13 LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS 1. Exercises: 25, 27, 33, 39, 41, 43, 51, 53, 57, 61, 63, 67, 69, 71(a), 73, 75, 79 Chemistry 1050 Chapter 13 LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS 1 Text: Petrucci, Harwood, Herring 8 th Edition Suggest text problems Review questions: 1, 5!11, 13!17, 19!23 Exercises: 25, 27, 33, 39, 41, 43, 51, 53, 57,

More information

Unit 3: Quantum Theory, Periodicity and Chemical Bonding. Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II Molecular Geometry & Intermolecular Forces

Unit 3: Quantum Theory, Periodicity and Chemical Bonding. Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II Molecular Geometry & Intermolecular Forces onour Chemistry Unit 3: Quantum Theory, Periodicity and Chemical Bonding Chapter 10: Chemical Bonding II Molecular Geometry & Intermolecular orces 10.1: Molecular Geometry Molecular Structure: - the three-dimensional

More information

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10. CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.102 10.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IONS Ion-ion Interactions and Lattice Energy

More information

Chapter 5 Chemical Compounds. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop

Chapter 5 Chemical Compounds. An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter 5 Chemical Compounds An Introduction to Chemistry by Mark Bishop Chapter Map Elements, Compounds, and Mixtures Element: A substance that cannot be chemically converted into simpler substances;

More information

Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Ionic and Covalent Bonds Ionic and Covalent Bonds Ionic Bonds Transfer of Electrons When metals bond with nonmetals, electrons are from the metal to the nonmetal The becomes a cation and the becomes an anion. The between the cation

More information

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding Why do TiCl 4 and TiCl 3 have different colors?... different chemical properties?... different physical states? Chemical Bonding and Properties Difference in

More information

comparing ionic and covalent bonding.notebook October 16, 2014 Bond strength IMF strength Oct 6 10:43 AM Oct 14 10:06 PM

comparing ionic and covalent bonding.notebook October 16, 2014 Bond strength IMF strength Oct 6 10:43 AM Oct 14 10:06 PM Bond strength IMF strength Oct 6 10:43 AM Oct 14 10:06 PM 1 Oct 14 10:07 PM Oct 14 10:07 PM 2 Oct 14 10:10 PM Oct 14 10:11 PM 3 comparing ionic and covalent bonding.notebook October 16, 2014 Hardness Ionic

More information

H 2O gas: molecules are very far apart

H 2O gas: molecules are very far apart Non-Covalent Molecular Forces 2/27/06 3/1/06 How does this reaction occur: H 2 O (liquid) H 2 O (gas)? Add energy H 2O gas: molecules are very far apart H 2O liquid: bonding between molecules Use heat

More information

Assessment Schedule 2015 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of bonding, structure, properties and energy changes (91164)

Assessment Schedule 2015 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of bonding, structure, properties and energy changes (91164) NCEA Level 2 Chemistry (91164) 2015 page 1 of 7 Assessment Schedule 2015 Chemistry: Demonstrate understanding of bonding, structure, properties and energy changes (91164) Evidence Statement Q Evidence

More information

Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS

Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Problems to try at end of chapter: Answers in Appendix I: 1,3,5,7b,9b,15,17,23,25,29,31,33,45,49,51,53,61 13.1 Properties of Liquids 1. Liquids take the shape of their container,

More information

Exercises Topic 2: Molecules

Exercises Topic 2: Molecules hemistry for Biomedical Engineering. Exercises Topic 2 Authors: ors: Juan Baselga & María González Exercises Topic 2: Molecules 1. Using hybridization concepts and VSEPR model describe the molecular geometry

More information

A REVIEW OF GENERAL CHEMISTRY: ELECTRONS, BONDS AND MOLECULAR PROPERTIES

A REVIEW OF GENERAL CHEMISTRY: ELECTRONS, BONDS AND MOLECULAR PROPERTIES A REVIEW OF GENERAL CEMISTRY: ELECTRONS, BONDS AND MOLECULAR PROPERTIES A STUDENT SOULD BE ABLE TO: 1. Draw Lewis (electron dot and line) structural formulas for simple compounds and ions from molecular

More information

5. Structure, Geometry, and Polarity of Molecules

5. Structure, Geometry, and Polarity of Molecules 5. Structure, Geometry, and Polarity of Molecules What you will accomplish in this experiment This experiment will give you an opportunity to draw Lewis structures of covalent compounds, then use those

More information

Chemistry B2A Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding

Chemistry B2A Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding Chemistry B2A Chapter 12 Chemical Bonding Octet rule-duet role: when undergoing chemical reaction, atoms of group 1A-7A elements tend to gain, lose, or share sufficient electrons to achieve an electron

More information

Lewis Dot Notation Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Polar Covalent Bonds Lewis Dot Notation Revisited Resonance

Lewis Dot Notation Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Polar Covalent Bonds Lewis Dot Notation Revisited Resonance Lewis Dot Notation Ionic Bonds Covalent Bonds Polar Covalent Bonds Lewis Dot Notation Revisited Resonance Lewis Dot notation is a way of describing the outer shell (also called the valence shell) of an

More information

Q1. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be made by the reaction of hydrogen (H 2) with chlorine (Cl 2).

Q1. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be made by the reaction of hydrogen (H 2) with chlorine (Cl 2). Q. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be made by the reaction of hydrogen (H 2) with chlorine (Cl 2). (a) The diagrams represent molecules of hydrogen and chlorine. Draw a similar diagram to represent a molecule

More information

Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life

Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life Chapter 2 The Chemical Context of Life Multiple-Choice Questions 1) About 25 of the 92 natural elements are known to be essential to life. Which four of these 25 elements make up approximately 96% of living

More information

Chapter 8 Concepts of Chemical Bonding

Chapter 8 Concepts of Chemical Bonding Chapter 8 Concepts of Chemical Bonding Chemical Bonds Three types: Ionic Electrostatic attraction between ions Covalent Sharing of electrons Metallic Metal atoms bonded to several other atoms Ionic Bonding

More information

Test Bank - Chapter 4 Multiple Choice

Test Bank - Chapter 4 Multiple Choice Test Bank - Chapter 4 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 4. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

More information

Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life

Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life Chapter 2: The Chemical Context of Life Name Period This chapter covers the basics that you may have learned in your chemistry class. Whether your teacher goes over this chapter, or assigns it for you

More information

Molecular Geometry and VSEPR We gratefully acknowledge Portland Community College for the use of this experiment.

Molecular Geometry and VSEPR We gratefully acknowledge Portland Community College for the use of this experiment. Molecular and VSEPR We gratefully acknowledge Portland ommunity ollege for the use of this experiment. Objectives To construct molecular models for covalently bonded atoms in molecules and polyatomic ions

More information

Bonding in Elements and Compounds. Covalent

Bonding in Elements and Compounds. Covalent Bonding in Elements and Compounds Structure of solids, liquids and gases Types of bonding between atoms and molecules Ionic Covalent Metallic Many compounds between metals & nonmetals (salts), e.g. Na,

More information

Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures

Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures Introduction Laboratory 11: Molecular Compounds and Lewis Structures Molecular compounds are formed by sharing electrons between non-metal atoms. A useful theory for understanding the formation of molecular

More information

Exam 2 Chemistry 65 Summer 2015. Score:

Exam 2 Chemistry 65 Summer 2015. Score: Name: Exam 2 Chemistry 65 Summer 2015 Score: Instructions: Clearly circle the one best answer 1. Valence electrons are electrons located A) in the outermost energy level of an atom. B) in the nucleus of

More information

Chemical bonds between atoms involve electrons.

Chemical bonds between atoms involve electrons. Chapter 6, Section 2 Key Concept: Chemical bonds hold compounds together. BEFORE, you learned Elements combine to form compounds Electrons are located in a cloud around the nucleus Atoms can lose or gain

More information

Chem 112 Intermolecular Forces Chang From the book (10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20,84,92,94,102,104, 108, 112, 114, 118 and 134)

Chem 112 Intermolecular Forces Chang From the book (10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20,84,92,94,102,104, 108, 112, 114, 118 and 134) Chem 112 Intermolecular Forces Chang From the book (10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20,84,92,94,102,104, 108, 112, 114, 118 and 134) 1. Helium atoms do not combine to form He 2 molecules, What is the strongest attractive

More information

Chapter 18: How Atoms Bond and Molecules Attract. 18.1: Electron-Dot Structures Help Us to Understand Bonding

Chapter 18: How Atoms Bond and Molecules Attract. 18.1: Electron-Dot Structures Help Us to Understand Bonding Chapter 18: How Atoms Bond and Molecules Attract Name: 18.1: Electron-Dot Structures Help Us to Understand Bonding What are the 3 types of bonds we will be learning about? When 2 atoms meet, which part

More information

Lab Manual Supplement

Lab Manual Supplement Objectives 1. Learn about the structures of covalent compounds and polyatomic ions. 2. Draw Lewis structures based on valence electrons and the octet rule. 3. Construct 3-dimensional models of molecules

More information

Chenistry C2 question booklet part 1

Chenistry C2 question booklet part 1 Chenistry C2 question booklet part 94 minutes 94 marks Page of 34 Q. The diagram represents a carbon atom. (a) Use words from the box to answer the questions. electron neutron nucleus proton (i) What is

More information

Section Activity #1: Fill out the following table for biology s most common elements assuming that each atom is neutrally charged.

Section Activity #1: Fill out the following table for biology s most common elements assuming that each atom is neutrally charged. LS1a Fall 2014 Section Week #1 I. Valence Electrons and Bonding The number of valence (outer shell) electrons in an atom determines how many bonds it can form. Knowing the number of valence electrons present

More information

Chapter 12 Review 1: Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure

Chapter 12 Review 1: Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure Chapter 12 Review 1: Covalent Bonds and Molecular Structure 1) How are ionic bonds and covalent bonds different, and what types of elements combine to form each? Ionic bonds result from the transfer of

More information

Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy

Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy Science of Kriyayoga IST 111-01, Spring 2005 Matter, Elements, Compounds, Chemical Bonds and Energy In our discussion so far, we have discussed human nervous system and cell biology, in addition to the

More information

S block elements p block elements and chemical bonding -1

S block elements p block elements and chemical bonding -1 S block elements p block elements and chemical bonding -1 1.Group I elements do not occur free (native state) in the nature because a. They are unstable b. Their compounds with other elements are highly

More information

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions

7.4. Using the Bohr Theory KNOW? Using the Bohr Theory to Describe Atoms and Ions 7.4 Using the Bohr Theory LEARNING TIP Models such as Figures 1 to 4, on pages 218 and 219, help you visualize scientific explanations. As you examine Figures 1 to 4, look back and forth between the diagrams

More information

EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules

EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules INTRODUCTION Lewis dot structures are our first tier in drawing molecules and representing bonds between the atoms. The method was first published

More information

SOME TOUGH COLLEGE PROBLEMS! .. : 4. How many electrons should be shown in the Lewis dot structure for carbon monoxide? N O O

SOME TOUGH COLLEGE PROBLEMS! .. : 4. How many electrons should be shown in the Lewis dot structure for carbon monoxide? N O O SME TUGH CLLEGE PRBLEMS! LEWIS DT STRUCTURES 1. An acceptable Lewis dot structure for 2 is (A) (B) (C) 2. Which molecule contains one unshared pair of valence electrons? (A) H 2 (B) H 3 (C) CH 4 acl 3.

More information

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases John E. McMurry http://www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds; Acids and Bases Javier E. Horta, M.D., Ph.D. University of Massachusetts Lowell Polar Covalent Bonds: Electronegativity

More information

Principal energy levels are divided into sublevels following a distinctive pattern, shown in Table 5.1 below.

Principal energy levels are divided into sublevels following a distinctive pattern, shown in Table 5.1 below. 56 Chapter 5: Electron Configuration, Lewis Dot Structure, and Molecular Shape Electron configuration. The outermost electrons surrounding an atom (the valence electrons) are responsible for the number

More information

Chapter 9-10 practice test

Chapter 9-10 practice test Class: Date: Chapter 9-10 practice test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which one of the following is most likely to be an ionic compound?

More information

Chapter 6 Assessment. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 6 Assessment. Name: Class: Date: ID: A. Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: ID: A Chapter 6 Assessment Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. When an atom loses an electron, it forms a(n) a. anion. c.

More information

3.4 Covalent Bonds and Lewis Structures

3.4 Covalent Bonds and Lewis Structures 3.4 Covalent Bonds and Lewis Structures The Lewis Model of Chemical Bonding In 1916 G. N. Lewis proposed that atoms combine in order to achieve a more stable electron configuration. Maximum stability results

More information

Covalent Bonding And Molecular Geometry

Covalent Bonding And Molecular Geometry ovalent Bonding And Molecular Geometry Questions: 1.ow can the valence electrons of an atom be represented? 2.ow do atoms achieve an octet? 3.ow are electrons shared in a molecule? 4.ow can the geometries

More information

Unit 8: Drawing Molecules

Unit 8: Drawing Molecules Unit 8: Drawing Molecules bjectives Topic 1: Lewis Dot Diagrams & Ionic Bonding 1. Draw a Lewis dot diagram of any representative element. 2. Draw a Lewis dot diagram of any ionic compound. A Lewis structure

More information

Chemical Bonds: A Preview Chapter 9 Section 1.1 Forces called chemical bonds hold atoms together in molecules and keep ions in place in solid ionic

Chemical Bonds: A Preview Chapter 9 Section 1.1 Forces called chemical bonds hold atoms together in molecules and keep ions in place in solid ionic Chemical Bonds: A Preview Chapter 9 Section 1.1 Forces called chemical bonds hold atoms together in molecules and keep ions in place in solid ionic compounds. Chemical bonds are electrostatic forces; they

More information

ch9 and 10 practice test

ch9 and 10 practice test 1. Which of the following covalent bonds is the most polar (highest percent ionic character)? A. Al I B. Si I C. Al Cl D. Si Cl E. Si P 2. What is the hybridization of the central atom in ClO 3? A. sp

More information

Electronegativity and Polarity MAIN Idea A chemical bond s character is related to each atom s

Electronegativity and Polarity MAIN Idea A chemical bond s character is related to each atom s Section 8.5 Objectives Describe how electronegativity is used to determine bond type. Compare and contrast polar and nonpolar covalent bonds and polar and nonpolar molecules. Generalize about the characteristics

More information

Name Class Date. What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose electrons? What kinds of solids are formed from ionic bonds?

Name Class Date. What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose electrons? What kinds of solids are formed from ionic bonds? CHAPTER 1 2 Ionic Bonds SECTION Chemical Bonding BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is ionic bonding? What happens to atoms that gain or lose

More information

Ionic and Metallic Bonding

Ionic and Metallic Bonding Ionic and Metallic Bonding BNDING AND INTERACTINS 71 Ions For students using the Foundation edition, assign problems 1, 3 5, 7 12, 14, 15, 18 20 Essential Understanding Ions form when atoms gain or lose

More information

Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies

Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies Sample Exercise 8.1 Magnitudes of Lattice Energies Without consulting Table 8.2, arrange the ionic compounds NaF, CsI, and CaO in order of increasing lattice energy. Analyze From the formulas for three

More information

CHEMISTRY 1710 - Practice Exam #5 - SPRING 2014 (KATZ)

CHEMISTRY 1710 - Practice Exam #5 - SPRING 2014 (KATZ) CHEMISTRY 1710 - Practice Exam #5 - SPRING 2014 (KATZ) Name: Score: This is a multiple choice exam. Choose the BEST answer from the choices which are given and write the letter for your choice in the space

More information

Atomic Theory and Bonding

Atomic Theory and Bonding Atomic Theory and Bonding Textbook pages 168 183 Section 4.1 Summary Before You Read What do you already know about Bohr diagrams? Record your answer in the lines below. What are atoms? An atom is the

More information

7) How many electrons are in the second energy level for an atom of N? A) 5 B) 6 C) 4 D) 8

7) How many electrons are in the second energy level for an atom of N? A) 5 B) 6 C) 4 D) 8 HOMEWORK CHEM 107 Chapter 3 Compounds Putting Particles Together 3.1 Multiple-Choice 1) How many electrons are in the highest energy level of sulfur? A) 2 B) 4 C) 6 D) 8 2) An atom of phosphorous has how

More information

4.5 Physical Properties: Solubility

4.5 Physical Properties: Solubility 4.5 Physical Properties: Solubility When a solid, liquid or gaseous solute is placed in a solvent and it seems to disappear, mix or become part of the solvent, we say that it dissolved. The solute is said

More information

2.1. The Formation of Ionic and Covalent Bonds. Clues in Naturally Occurring Compounds SECTION. Key Terms

2.1. The Formation of Ionic and Covalent Bonds. Clues in Naturally Occurring Compounds SECTION. Key Terms SETI 2.1 The Formation of Ionic and ovalent Bonds Key Terms octet rule ionic bond ionic compound covalent bond molecular compound single bond double bond triple bond bonding pair lone pair Lewis structure

More information

The Lewis structure is a model that gives a description of where the atoms, charges, bonds, and lone pairs of electrons, may be found.

The Lewis structure is a model that gives a description of where the atoms, charges, bonds, and lone pairs of electrons, may be found. CEM110 Week 12 Notes (Chemical Bonding) Page 1 of 8 To help understand molecules (or radicals or ions), VSEPR shapes, and properties (such as polarity and bond length), we will draw the Lewis (or electron

More information

Molecular Models in Biology

Molecular Models in Biology Molecular Models in Biology Objectives: After this lab a student will be able to: 1) Understand the properties of atoms that give rise to bonds. 2) Understand how and why atoms form ions. 3) Model covalent,

More information

Chapter 11: Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms

Chapter 11: Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Chapter 11: Chemical Bonds: The Formation of Compounds from Atoms Name: Many of the concepts in this chapter come from the idea that elements are always trying to obtain 8 valence electrons because this

More information

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of the Chemical Bonding

Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of the Chemical Bonding Chapter 8 Basic Concepts of the Chemical Bonding 1. There are paired and unpaired electrons in the Lewis symbol for a phosphorus atom. (a). 4, 2 (b). 2, 4 (c). 4, 3 (d). 2, 3 Explanation: Read the question

More information

UNIT TEST Atomic & Molecular Structure. Name: Date:

UNIT TEST Atomic & Molecular Structure. Name: Date: SCH4U UNIT TEST Atomic & Molecular Structure Name: _ Date: Part A - Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Who postulated that electrons

More information

INTERMOLECULAR FORCES

INTERMOLECULAR FORCES INTERMOLECULAR FORCES Intermolecular forces- forces of attraction and repulsion between molecules that hold molecules, ions, and atoms together. Intramolecular - forces of chemical bonds within a molecule

More information

COVALENT BOND VS IONIC BOND

COVALENT BOND VS IONIC BOND COVALENT BOND VS IONIC BOND You have seen how elements are similar to us and as you know them closely you will find some more similarities to our behaviour. You must have experienced the law of attraction

More information

TRENDS IN ATOMIC PROPERTIES: THE PERIODIC TABLE

TRENDS IN ATOMIC PROPERTIES: THE PERIODIC TABLE TRENDS IN ATOMIC PROPERTIES: THE PERIODIC TABLE Electron configurations determine organization of the periodic table Next properties of elements and their periodic behavior Elemental properties determined

More information

Get Your Forces Right!

Get Your Forces Right! First, what is a covalent bond? Get Your Forces Right! Covalent Bond Definition: The sharing of a pair of electrons through orbital overlap. Some examples: Methane, CH4 Cyclohexane, C6H12 Covalent bonds

More information

Candidate Style Answer

Candidate Style Answer Candidate Style Answer Chemistry A Unit F321 Atoms, Bonds and Groups High banded response This Support Material booklet is designed to accompany the OCR GCE Chemistry A Specimen Paper F321 for teaching

More information

INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking

INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking Sixth Edition by Charles H. Corwin Chapter 13 Liquids and Solids by Christopher Hamaker 1 Chapter 13 Properties of Liquids Unlike gases, liquids do

More information

Sharing of Electrons. Covalent Bonding Chapter 8. Ch. 8 Vocabulary OBJECTIVES. Exothermic Reaction Structural Formula (Ch. 8.3) Polar Covalent Bond

Sharing of Electrons. Covalent Bonding Chapter 8. Ch. 8 Vocabulary OBJECTIVES. Exothermic Reaction Structural Formula (Ch. 8.3) Polar Covalent Bond Ch. 8 Vocabulary 2 Covalent Bonding Chapter 8 Covalent bond Molecule Lewis Structure Sigma bond Pi bond Bond Dissociation Energy Endothermic Reaction Exothermic Reaction Structural Formula (Ch. 8.3) Polar

More information

Bonding & Molecular Shape Ron Robertson

Bonding & Molecular Shape Ron Robertson Bonding & Molecular Shape Ron Robertson r2 n:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\00bondingtrans.doc The Nature of Bonding Types 1. Ionic 2. Covalent 3. Metallic 4. Coordinate covalent Driving

More information

Bonds. Bond Length. Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy. Chapter 8. Bonding: General Concepts

Bonds. Bond Length. Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy. Chapter 8. Bonding: General Concepts Bonds hapter 8 Bonding: General oncepts Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy Bond Length It is the energy required to break a bond. The distance where

More information

Chapter 2 mastery check

Chapter 2 mastery check 1. Each element has its own characteristic atom in which a. the atomic mass is constant. b. the atomic number is constant. c. the mass number is constant. d. two of the above are correct. e. all of the

More information