An Empirical Study on the Impact of Hygiene and Motivation Factors on Job Satisfaction of Bank Executives in Western Province, Sri Lanka

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "An Empirical Study on the Impact of Hygiene and Motivation Factors on Job Satisfaction of Bank Executives in Western Province, Sri Lanka"

Transcription

1 An Empirical Study on the Impact of Hygiene and Motivation Factors on Job Satisfaction of Bank Executives in Western Province, Sri Lanka Dissanayake D. R. Department of Human Resource Management University of Kelaniya Kelaniya Sri Lanka Wickremasinghe M.T.P. Union Bank of Colombo PLC Gampaha Branch Abstract In the organizational sciences, job satisfaction occupies a central role in many theories and models of individual attitudes and behaviors. The problem of job dissatisfaction exists across various spheres of industries around the world although numerous theories have been established and empirical studies conducted to address the problem. Hence, more researches and empirical studies pertaining to the concept of job satisfaction are essential in order to enhance the boundaries of existing knowledge. Although theories of job satisfaction have been extensively studied, researchers are yet to agree on the major predictors of Herzberg s two factor theory of job satisfaction, Hygiene factors and Motivation factors. Further, it seems very rare to find a good empirical study with respect to job satisfaction of bankers in Sri Lankan context. This is the research gap that will be addressed in this empirical study. This study aims at finding out the impact of Hygiene and Motivation Factors on job satisfaction of bank executives (junior and middle level) of Commercial banks in Western Province, Sri Lanka. To investigate this, a quantitative empirical study was conducted using a self-designed questionnaire on the selected convenient sample (n = 200). Then reliability (Cronbach s Alpha) of the questionnaire was determined and the questionnaire was found to be reliable. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated. The findings indicated that 85% of the variance in job satisfaction is significantly explained by hygiene and motivation factors. Further, the study reveals that except for salary, benefits, working condition, relationship with peers and growth, other hygiene and motivation factors are not significant

2 predictors of the job satisfaction. But, if individually taken, all the hygiene and motivation factors are significantly correlate with job satisfaction. It is, therefore, recommended that the banks should focus on hygiene and motivation factors very seriously when crafting and executing new strategies. This will ensure that the banks remain sustainable and continue to make a positive contribution to Sri Lankan economy. Key Words: Hygiene factors, Job satisfaction, Motivation factors 1. Introduction Work is central to most people s lives. Hence, the investigation of various aspects of one s job is very important. No research pertaining to work can be complete without considering the well being at work. Job attitudes play a vital role in assessing the well being at work. One of the most extensively researched job attitudes in the industrial and organizational psychology literature is Job Satisfaction (Highhouse & Becker, 1993). The number of articles and books investigating this concept has increased from over 3000 in 1976 (Locke, 1976), to over 5000 in 1992 (Harwood & Rice, 1992) and over in 2002 (Maher, 2002). In addition, in the organizational sciences, job satisfaction occupies a central role in many theories and models of individual attitudes and behaviors. Why does the concept of job satisfaction occupy a central role in industrial and organizational literature? Because the problem of job dissatisfaction exists across various spheres of industries around the world although numerous theories have been established and empirical studies conducted to address the problem. Job satisfaction had been a researchable concept in the past. It continues to be a researchable concept in the future as well with the ever changing social, economic, technological facets of the world and the emergence of new industries. Hence, more researches and empirical studies pertaining to the concept of job satisfaction are essential in order to enhance the boundaries of existing knowledge. Although theories of job satisfaction have been extensively studied, researchers are yet to agree on the major predictors of Herzberg s two factor theory of job satisfaction, Hygiene factors and Motivation factors. Further, it seems very rare to find a good empirical study with respect to job satisfaction of bankers in Sri Lankan context. This is the research gap that will be addressed in this empirical study Problem Statement There has been a rapid expansion in government as well as private commercial banks in Sri Lanka during the last decade. The growth of private commercial banks has added a new

3 dimension in the banking industry in the country. Licensed commercial banks play a major role in the financial market in Sri Lanka. Furthermore, after the completion of the war in North and East of the island, the demand for financial services particularly in North and East provinces has increased. The importance and the demand for the licensed commercial banks have rapidly increased recently because of that reason and due to the debacles faced by unlicensed financial institutions in the country. Hence, the public trust and confidence have increased towards the licensed commercial banks. A trend has emerged in the banking industry during the past few years that some of the executives from junior and middle levels resign from their respective posts in the local banks and embark to Gulf countries for employment. The researcher himself is able to provide evidence pertaining to same since he is employed in banking sector for seven years. Further, a pilot survey carried out by the researcher which included 35 junior and middle level bank executives shows that a significant number of bank executives express their willingness to go abroad or change their banking careers if they will get opportunities. Upon inquiry, the respondents who express willingness to either go abroad or change their banking careers said that they are not satisfied about the current job. Recruiting and retaining human talent is a key issue for Sri Lankan banks ( Fitch observes that there is rather high staff turnover at the middle / junior level management and clerical levels within the banking system due to dissatisfaction of the job. This affects the creation of a trained pool of staff to meet current requirements and future management succession needs. Although Fitch does not consider this a critical issue at present, unless addressed appropriately, Sri Lankan banking industry will have to face a human talent shortage in the next decade or so as per Fitch. From the above observations, it is evident that there is a problem among bank executives with respect to their job satisfaction. In other words, there are evidences that quite a significant number of bank executives are not satisfied with their occupation Objectives of the Study The primary objective of the present research study can be furnished as follows. To find out the impact of Hygiene and Motivation Factors on job satisfaction of permanent junior and middle level executives of commercial banks in Western Province, Sri Lanka.

4 While achieving the primary objective, the following specific objectives (Secondary objectives) need to be achieved simultaneously. To gather information and evaluate the present level of job satisfaction among bank executives. To find out whether there exists a significant difference in job satisfaction level of the executives of Government and Private commercial banks To examine whether there exists a significant difference of job satisfaction among the bank executives working in the three districts of Western Province. To recommend ways and means to improve job satisfaction of the bank executives 2. Literature Review 2.1. Definitions of Job Satisfaction The concept of job satisfaction has been defined in many ways. Job satisfaction is a positive feeling about one s job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics (Robbins & Judge, 2007). Job satisfaction is defined by Arnold and Feldman (1986) as the amount of overall positive affect (or feelings) that individuals have towards their jobs.locke (1976) describes job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experiences. According to Robbins (1996), Job satisfaction is the difference between the amount of rewards employees receive and the amount they believe they should receive. Again Mobey and Lockey (1970) opined Job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are function of the perceived relationship between what one expects and obtains from one s job and how much importance or value one attributes to it. There has been disagreements among researchers about whether Job satisfaction has multiple dimensions. Researchers like Porter (1961) defines Job satisfaction as a one-dimensional contract; that is, one is generally satisfied or dissatisfied with one s job. In contrast, Smith, Kendall and Hulin (1969) argue that Job satisfaction is multidimensional; that is one may be more or less satisfied with one s supervisor, pay or workplace etc. Spector (1997) defines job satisfaction as the extent to which employees like their job and its components. He says there are two approaches in the study of job satisfaction: the global approach and the facet approach. The global approach considers job satisfaction as a single, overall feeling towards the job, whilst the facet approach focuses on different factors of job satisfaction such as pay and the work environment. Fraser (1983) states that job satisfaction is not a unitary factor. He

5 says it is possible that an individual could be satisfied with one factor of the job, such as work, but be dissatisfied with another factor, like pay. According to Mitchell and Lasan, (1987), it is generally recognized in the organizational behaviour field that job satisfaction is the most important and frequently studied attitude. Luthan (1998) posited that there are three important dimensions to job satisfaction: Job satisfaction is an emotional response to a job situation. As such it cannot be seen. It can only be inferred. Job satisfaction is often determined by how well outcome meets or exceeds expectations. For instance, if organization participants feel that they are working much harder than others in the department but are receiving fewer rewards they will probably have a negative attitudes towards the work, the boss and coworkers. On the other hand, if they feel they are being treated very well and are being paid equitably, they are likely to have positive attitudes towards the job. Job satisfaction represents several related attitudes which are most important characteristics of a job about which people have effective response. These to Luthans are: the work itself, pay, promotion opportunities, supervision and coworkers. Job satisfaction is so important that its absence often leads to lethargy and reduced organizational commitment (Moser, 1997). Lack of job satisfaction is a predictor of quitting a job (Jamal, 1997). Sometimes workers may quit from public to private sector and vice versa. At other times the movement is from one profession to another. Explaining its nature some researchers (e.g. Flanegan, Johnson and Berret, 1996; Kadushin, and Kulys, 1995) tend to agree that job satisfaction is essentially controlled by factors external to the worker. From this viewpoint, satisfaction on a job might be motivated by the nature of the job, its pervasive social climate and extent to which workers needs are met, working conditions that are similar to local and international standards (Osagbemi, 2000), and extent to which they resemble work conditions of other professions in the locality. Other inclusions are the availability of power and status, pay satisfaction, promotion opportunities, and task clarity (Bolarin, 1993). Other researchers (e.g. MacDonald, 1996; O'Toole, 1980) argue in favour of the control of job satisfaction by factors intrinsic to the workers. Their arguments are based on the idea that workers deliberately decide to find satisfaction in their jobs and perceive them as worthwhile.

6 Demographic factors too have influenced Job satisfaction as showed in some research works. Kalleberg and Loscocco (1983) showed that in USA, older workers are more satisfied than younger workers. Rahman and Sarcar (1990) found that among professional women occupational stress was higher for unmarried ones. Most of the studies identified the relationship between job-related factors and Job satisfaction. Khaleque and Rahman (1987) conducted a study on Job satisfaction of Bangladeshi industrial workers regarding influence of some job facets including job content, coworkers, supervision, wage, promotion, work environment and communication. They concluded that job facets can be source of satisfaction as well as dissatisfaction Herzberg s Two Factor Theory In 1959, Hertzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman published their findings in which they concluded that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction must be separated into two different continua. This belief was a departure from the traditional approach that viewed job satisfaction and dissatisfaction as being on opposite ends of the same continuum. The findings supported their belief that job satisfaction was basically determined by one set of factors, and job dissatisfaction basically by a different set of factors. The two-factor theory is based on a study of accountants and engineers. They were asked to identify those situations that lead to satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The results showed that job satisfaction was associated with positive intrinsic sources that related to the content of the job such as achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility, and advancement which Herzberg termed motivators. On the other hand, job dissatisfaction stemmed from negative extrinsic sources relating to the context of the job such as company policy and administration, supervision, salary, recognition, and relationship with supervisor & peers which he labelled as hygiene factors On the basis of these findings, Herzberg et al., (1959) proposed that paying attention to motivator factors will increase job satisfaction, but will not affect job dissatisfaction. Alternatively, paying attention to hygiene factors will decrease job dissatisfaction but will not increase job satisfaction Some researchers have found support for the theory (i.e., Schmidt, 1976), whilst others have contradicted the theory (e.g., Brenner, Carmack & Weinstein, 1971; Hill, 1986). Critics of Herzberg s theory argue that the results he obtained are artificial and criticize his

7 methodology in collecting the data. It is common for people to attribute positive events to internal reasons and negative events to external forces (Vecchio, 2000). In addition, Herzberg s research was conducted among supervisors and middle management. Therefore its applicability to other areas of work or to workers of a different culture, is questionable (Fraser, 1989). However, this study has been replicated across other populations and included different occupation levels. The results of these studies still support Herzberg s theory (Herzberg, 1990). Thus, it can be concluded that Herzberg s theory is applicable to other cultures and other occupations. Despite the criticism, this theory has had a major influence on the field of management and is said to be one of the most widely known theories of motivation in managerial circles. According to Vecchio (2000) Herzberg s theory also influenced job redesign and Robbins (2001) states that the popularity of vertically expanding jobs to allow workers more responsibility can be attributed to Herzberg s research. The two-factor theory was notable for proposing that job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are separate continua, and that the factors which affect job satisfaction are different to the factors which affect job dissatisfaction. Regardless of criticisms, Herzberg s theory has been widely read and its popularity is maintained over the past 30 years for measuring job satisfaction. From the literature review it was established that work-related factors such as pay, relationship with supervisor, opportunity for growth, responsibility, etc could influence job satisfaction either positively or negatively. All the work related factors were found to correlate with the Job Satisfaction theories Conceptual Model The model or the construct used in this empirical study is Herzberg s Two Factor Theory Figure 2.1: Conceptual Model Independent Variables Hygiene Factors Salary Fringe Benefits Working condition Company Policy Relationship with Superior Relationship with Peer Motivation Factors Possibility of Growth Achievements Recognition Work itself Responsibility Job Satisfaction (Dependent Variable)

8 Source: Herzberg s Two Factor Theory 2.4. Hypotheses In order to achieve the objectives of this research study, the following hypotheses will be tested. Hypothesis 1 There exists a positive relationship between each hygiene factor and job satisfaction of bank executives. Hypothesis 2 There exists a positive relationship between each motivation factor and job satisfaction of bank executives. Hypothesis 3 Hygiene and Motivation Factors significantly explain the variance in job satisfaction of bank executives Hypothesis 4 There exists a significant difference in job satisfaction between public and private bank executives Hypothesis 5 Job satisfaction of bank executives will vary depending on the district they are employed. 3. Research Methodology Both descriptive and inferential statistical methods are used in this empirical study in order to analyze the collected data. Descriptive statistical methods are used to summarize and describe the collected data while inferential statistical methods are employed to test the research hypotheses Population The population for this research study is composed with permanent junior and middle level bank executives of commercial banks situated in Western Province, Sri Lanka Sample and Sampling Method The total population of this research is not known to the researcher and trying to find out the same is not pragmatic. Hence, giving each bank executive an equal opportunity to participate in the research is not possible. Therefore, probability sampling is not a suitable sampling method for this research. Accordingly, a non probability sampling method has to be used in

9 this research. It is a recognized fact that carefully controlled non probability sampling often seems to give acceptable results. Thus the use of non probability sampling method is the appropriate sampling method for this research. Therefore, widely used convenient sampling method is applied in this research. The researcher selects 200 permanent bank executives (From junior and middle level) which includes 100 from government banks and 100 from private banks as sample size for the research 3.3. Data Both primary and secondary data are used for this investigation Data Collection Method The study will be based on data collected from both primary and secondary sources. The method that will be used to collect primary data is the self designed questionnaire. From this method, the researcher is able to find quantitative as well as qualitative data. The questionnaire designed by the researcher for the present empirical study consists of two sections. Section A contains the personal characteristics of the respondents such as gender, age, race, tenure, etc. The questions of Section A are included to get a general idea about the sample, which is useful in analyzing the results, concluding and giving recommendations. Accordingly, there are seven questions in the questionnaire to gather demographical data. Section B of the questionnaire consists of 32 items measured on a 5-point Likert scale, with scale responses varying between Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree. Of the 32 questions in Section B, there are six questions relating to job satisfaction and twenty six questions relating to hygiene and motivation factors. Further, three open ended questions are included at the end of the questionnaire to obtain the views of the respondents regarding their jobs. Two Hundred questionnaires were distributed among the bank executives and out of them one hundred and seventy seven participants submitted the filled questionnaire. The response rate for the questionnaire is 88.5%. The secondary data for the research are gathered from the sources such as research papers, journals, magazines etc Analytical Method The data gathered through the questionnaire method are analyzed using the following descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. Mean, Variance and Standard Deviation are calculated in order to get an idea of demographical factors of the sample

10 Correlation Coefficient method is used to measure the strength of association between the two variables. In this case, correlation coefficient is used to find out which job satisfaction factor has more effect in employee s job satisfaction. T test is used to check whether there exists significant difference of job satisfaction between the employees of government and private banks Multiple Regression Method is employed to check whether hygiene and motivation factors will significantly explain the variance in job satisfaction ANOVA method is carried out to check whether there exists a significant difference of job satisfaction among the bank executives working in Colombo, Gampaha and Kalutara Districts. SPSS (version 15.0) computer statistical package is used to analyze the collected data. 4. Results and Discussion 4.1. Nature of the sample The sample is almost equally represented by the respondents from government banks (50.8%) and private banks (49.2%). Majority of the employees in the sample (58.8%) belongs to junior level management. Middle level management represents 41.2% of the total sample. 46.9% of the elements of the sample have served between 1 to 5 years in their respective banks. Further, 49.2% of the elements of the sample have worked more than 6 years for their employer. Thus, it is apparent that the sample under investigation consists of relatively new comers and experience personnel in the respective commercial banks. Majority of the respondents of the sample (37.3%) are from Colombo District. In addition, 33.9% and 28.8% of the respondents are from Gampaha and Kalutara Districts respectively. It is apparent that most of the respondents fall in the age category between years (45.2%). Another 27.1% are between age category. Hence, the sample consists of relatively middle aged employees. For this research, 71.2% of the sample are male and 28.8% are female. There is a strong possibility that female category is under represented as a result of selection bias due to the fact of using convenience sampling method in the research. It is evident that the majority of the respondents (89.8%) are married. This result is possible since the majority of the sample are middle aged individuals.

11 4.2. Measures of Central Tendencies and dispersion Table 4.1: Measures of Central Tendencies and dispersion Descriptive Statistics N Minimu m Maximu m Mean Std. Deviation Variance Job Satisfaction Salary Benefits Working Condition Company Policy Relationship with Superior Growth Achievements Recognition Work Itself Relationship with Peer Responsibility 177 Valid N (listwise) Source: Survey Data The measuring instrument used to calculate hygiene & motivation factors as well as the level of job satisfaction are scaled from 1 to 5. The value 3 means Neither Agree nor Disagree while value 4 means Agree. Hence, if value three (3) is obtained as any of the subsequent measurement, it means that level is neither good nor bad, or in other words it s in average level. Similarly, if a value of four (4) is obtained, it means a good level. Similarly value one (1) and five (5) mean very bad level and very good level respectively. In case of a value between three (3) and four (4) is obtained, it can be considered as fairly good level. From Table 4.1, it is evident that the mean scores for all factors are between three (3) and (4). This implies that majority of respondents have a fairly good level of satisfaction with respect to their jobs as well as hygiene & motivation factors. The minimum, maximum and standard deviation show that scores range from Not Satisfied at all to Extremely Satisfied. The variance for the variables except Fringe Benefits, Working Condition, Relationship with

12 superior and Possibility of Growth are not high indicating that most of the respondents are very close to the mean with respect to the rest of the variables. 4.3 Hypothesis Testing For the purpose of testing the stated research hypotheses, Pearson s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient is calculated and a multiple regression analysis, T-test and ANOVA test are performed. With the aid of these statistical techniques, conclusions are drawn with regard to the sample and decisions are made with respect to the research hypotheses Hypothesis 1 Hypothesis 1 can be stated in null and alternative hypotheses as follows. Null Hypothesis: There does not exist a positive relationship between each hygiene factor and job satisfaction of bank executives. Alternative Hypothesis: There exists a positive relationship between each hygiene factor and job satisfaction of bank executives. In order to determine whether there exists significant relationships between each hygiene & motivation factors and job satisfaction, Pearson s Product Moment Correlation is computed. Job Satisfaction Salary Benefits Working Condition Company Policy Table 4.2: Correlations between hygiene factors and job satisfaction Job Satisfaction Salary Benefits Working Condition Company Policy Superior Peer Pearson Correlation 1.818(**).662(**).709(**).803(**).511(**).663(**) Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation.818(**) 1.876(**).707(**).819(**).415(**).602(**) Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation.662(**).876(**) 1.773(**).782(**).450(**).395(**) Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation.709(**).707(**).773(**) 1.839(**).680(**).521(**) Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation.803(**).819(**).782(**).839(**) 1.569(**).564(**) Sig. (2-tailed) N Superior Pearson.511(**).415(**).450(**).680(**).569(**) 1.522(**)

13 Peer Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation.663(**).602(**).395(**).521(**).564(**).522(**) 1 Sig. (2-tailed) N ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Source: Survey Data The result of Pearson s correlation coefficient is obtained for the sample and represented in table 4.2. All the hygiene factors have a statistically significant positive relationship with job satisfaction at 99% level of significance. Hence, the null hypothesis is rejected and hypothesis 1 is substantiated. This implies that there exists a positive relationship between each hygiene factor and job satisfaction of bank executives Hypothesis 2 Hypothesis 2 can be stated in null and alternative hypotheses as follows. Null Hypothesis: There does not exist a positive relationship between each motivation factor and job satisfaction of bank executives. Alternative Hypothesis: There exists a positive relationship between each motivation factor and job satisfaction of bank executives. Job Satisfaction Table 4.3: Correlations between motivation factors and job satisfaction Pearson Correlation Job Satisfaction Growth Achievements Recognition Work Itself Responsibility 1.362(**).326(**).704(**).334(**).429(**) Sig. (2-tailed) N Growth Pearson Correlation.362(**) 1.219(**).802(**).620(**).806(**) Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation.326(**).219(**) 1.272(**) Sig. (2-tailed) N Recognition Pearson Correlation.704(**).802(**).272(**) 1.619(**).758(**) Sig. (2-tailed) N Work Itself Pearson Correlation.334(**).620(**) (**) 1.627(**) Achievements Responsibility Sig. (2-tailed) N Pearson Correlation.429(**).806(**) (**).627(**) 1 Sig. (2-tailed)

14 N ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Source: Survey Data The results of Pearson s correlation coefficients is obtained for the sample and represented in table 4.3. All the motivation factors have a statistically significant positive relationship with job satisfaction at 99% level of significance. Hence, the null hypothesis is rejected and hypothesis 2 is substantiated. This means that there exists a positive relationship between each motivation factor and job satisfaction of bank executives Hypothesis 3 Hypothesis 3 can be stated in null and alternative hypotheses as follows. Null Hypothesis: Hygiene and Motivation Factors do not significantly explain the variance in job satisfaction of bank executives Alternative Hypothesis: Hygiene and Motivation Factors significantly explain the variance in job satisfaction of bank executives For the purpose of determining the extent to which the hygiene and motivation factors explain the variance in job satisfaction of bank executives, multiple regression analysis is performed. Model summary of the results of the multiple regression analysis, is presented in table 4.4. Table 4.4: Results of Multiple Regression Table 4.4a: Model Summary Std. Error Mode l R R Square Adjusted R Square of the Estimate 1.921(a) a Predictors: (Constant), Peer, Achievements, Work Itself, Benefits, Superior, Growth, Responsibility, Company Policy, Working Condition, Salary, Recognition Mode l 1 Regressio n Sum of Squares Table 4.4b: ANOVA(b) Mean df Square F Sig (a) Residual Total

15 a Predictors: (Constant), Peer, Achievements, Work Itself, Benefits, Superior, Growth, Responsibility, Company Policy, Working Condition, Salary, Recognition b Dependent Variable: Job Satisfaction Table 4.4c: Coefficients(a) Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized Coefficients t Sig. Mode l B Std. Error Beta B Std. Error 1 (Constant) Salary Benefits Working Condition Company Policy Superior Growth Achievements Recognition Work Itself Responsibility Peer a Dependent Variable: Job Satisfaction Source: Survey Data Table 4.4a indicates R, R Square, Adjusted R Square and Standard error of the estimate. Further, it lists the independent variables that are entered into the regression model. R(.921) is the correlation of the independent variables with the dependent variable after all the inter correlations are taken into account. In the Model summary table, R Square (0.848) is the explained variance in job satisfaction by the independent variables. The ANOVA table shows that the F value of is significant at level of significance. Hence, the null hypothesis is rejected and hypothesis 3 is substantiated. The result indicates that 84.8% of the variance of job satisfaction of bank executives has been significantly explained by hygiene and motivation factors. The next table (Table 4.4c) titled Coefficients helps to see which among the independent variables influences most the variance of job satisfaction of bank executives. By looking at the Beta under Standardized Coefficients, it is concluded that salary, benefits, working condition, relationship with peers and growth are significant at level of significance.

16 From Table 4.4c, it can be seen that when the other variables are controlled, only salary, benefits, working conditions, relationship with peers and growth show significant correlation with job satisfaction. Tables 4.2 and 4.3 depict that all hygiene and motivation factors are significantly correlated with job satisfaction when those factors are considered individually. This is a contradiction. But, this could happen because in multiple regression, the variance that the first independent variable shares with the dependent variable could overlap with the variance that is shared between the second independent variable and the dependent variable. Consequently, the first independent variable is no longer uniquely predictive and thus would not show up as being significant in the multiple regression. Hence as per this research results, except for salary, benefits, working condition, relationship with peers and growth, other hygiene and motivation factors are not significant predictors of job satisfaction Hypothesis 4 Hypothesis 4 can be stated in null and alternative hypotheses as follows. Null Hypothesis: There is no significant difference in job satisfaction between government and private bank executives. Alternative Hypothesis: There exists a significant difference in job satisfaction between government and private bank executives. Job Satisfaction Table 4.5 : Results of t- Test Table 4.5a: Group Statistics Std. Error Mean Bank Category N Mean Std. Deviation Government Banks Private Banks Source: Survey data Table 4.5b: Independent Samples Test (t - test for equality of Means) t df Sig. (2 tailed) Job Satisfaction Source: Survey data The t-test will indicate whether there exists a significant difference in job satisfaction between the executives of government and private banks.

17 As per the results of the t-test, the difference in the means of and with standard deviation and for executives of government and private banks respectively on job satisfaction is significant at level of significance. Hence, the null hypothesis is rejected and hypothesis 4 is substantiated. This implies that there exists a significant difference in job satisfaction between government and private bank executives Hypothesis 5 Hypothesis 5 can be stated in null and alternative hypotheses as follows. Null Hypothesis: Job satisfaction of the bank executives will not vary depending on the district they are employed. Alternative Hypothesis: Job satisfaction of the bank executives will vary depending on the district they are employed. Job Satisfaction Sum of Squares Table 4.6: Result of ANOVA Test ANOVA Mean Square F Sig. df Between Groups Within Groups Total Source: Survey data Since there are more than two groups (Executives from three districts) and job satisfaction is measured in interval scale, ANOVA is appropriate to test hypothesis 5. The results of the ANOVA test pertaining to hypothesis 5 are shown in table 4.6. In the above case, the F value (1.120) is not significant. This implies that there is no evidence to reject the null hypothesis. Hence, hypothesis 5 is not substantiated. Therefore, there isn t enough evidence to conclude that the job satisfaction of bank executives will vary depending on the district they work. 5. Conclusions 5.1. Conclusions The main objective of this research was to find out the impact of hygiene and motivation factors on job satisfaction of bank executives in Western Province, Sri Lanka. The research

18 hypotheses number one and two indicate that the correlation coefficients between job satisfaction and each hygiene & motivation factor are significant at 0.01 level of significance. Furthermore, hypothesis three states that 84.8% of the variance in job satisfaction is significantly explained by hygiene and motivation factors. This implies that all other factors which may affect the job satisfaction have a less effect than that of hygiene and motivation factors. Furthermore, except for salary, benefits, working condition, relationship with peers and growth, other hygiene and motivation factors are not significant predictors of the job satisfaction. Therefore, it can be concluded that the main objective of this study has been achieved satisfactorily. Evaluating the present level of job satisfaction among bank executives is one of the secondary objectives in this empirical study. Research findings imply that the majority of the respondents have a fairly good level of satisfaction with respect to their jobs as well as hygiene & motivation factors. Hence, it is apparent that the said objective has been achieved satisfactorily. To find out whether there exists a significant difference in job satisfaction level of the executives of Government and Private commercial banks was another secondary objective of this research study. The results indicate that there exists a significant difference in job satisfaction between the executives of government and private banks. Next objective was to examine whether there exists a significant difference of job satisfaction among the bank executives working in the three districts of Western Province. The results of the data analysis indicate that there does not exist a significant difference in job satisfaction among the bank executives working in Colombo, Gampaha and Kalutara Districts. By analysing the objectives and findings of the study, it is apparent that all the objectives of this research study have been achieved satisfactorily. 5.2 Recommendations Based on the findings of the empirical study, the following recommendations are made. Organization should develop good working conditions. This facilitates employees to do their work effectively. Organization should develop good relationship among employees by organizing events such as trips, family events, fun games at work, etc. through which, Job satisfaction of employees is enhanced.

19 Organization should help the employees for their career development and growth. Open door communication policy should be followed. Salary and fringe benefits should be reviewed at regular intervals. More attention should be given to performance linked pay structure. More consideration should be given for overall development of employees welfare facilities Employee satisfaction surveys should be carried out periodically. 5.3 Further Research This study tries to identify the impact of hygiene and motivation factors on Job satisfaction of bank executives in Western Province, Sri Lanka. As it is impossible to find out a similar study in Sri Lanka neither changes nor trends could be identified with regard to the job satisfaction of bank executives. Therefore, it is recommended that this study be repeated in the future to allow for comparative analysis studies. As this investigation was limited to Western Province, it is suggested that this be replicated to other provinces in Sri Lanka as well as for the entire country. Furthermore, empirical studies can be conducted for other sectors in the financial industry enabling to make a comparative analysis among each industries. As per the results of this study, there exists a significant difference in job satisfaction between government and private bank executives. Hence, it is suggested to conduct empirical studies to find out the reasons for this disparity. References Arnold, H.J., & Feldman, D.C. (1986). Organizational Behavior. New York:McGraw-Hill. Bolarin, T.A. (1993). Late payment of teachers' salary as it affects the quality of education in Lagos state primary schools: A socio-psychological perspective. Journal of National Association of Education Teachers, Brenner, V.C., Carmack, C.W., & Weinstein, M.G. (1971). An empirical test of the motivation-hygiene theory. Journal of Accounting Research, Flanegan, T.J., Johnson, W.W., & Berret, K. (1996). Job satisfaction among correction executives: A contemporary portrait of warders of state prisons of adults. Prison Journal,

20 Fraser, T.M. (1983). Human Stress, Work and Job Satisfaction. Geneva. International Labour Office. Harwood, M.K., & Rice, R.W. (1992). An examination of the referent selection processes underlying job satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., & Snyderman, B.B. (1959). The Motivation to Work. New York: Wiley. Herzberg, F. (1990). One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees?. Harvard Business Review, Boston: Harvard Business School Publishing Division. Highhouse, S., & Becker, A.S. (1993). Facet measures and global job satisfaction. Journal of Business and Psychology, Hill, M.D. (1986). A theoretical analysis of faculty job satisfaction/dissatisfaction. Educational Research Quarterly, Jamal, M. (1997). Job stress, satisfaction and mental health: An empirical examination of self employed and non-self employed Canadians. Journal of Small Bussiness Management, Kadushin, G., and Kullys, R. (1995). Job satisfaction among social work discharge planners. Health and Social Work, Khaleque, A. & Rahman, M.A (1987). Perceived important of job facets and overall job satisfaction of Industrial workers. Human Relations, Vol 40. Kalleberg, A.L., & Lossocco, K.A. (1983). Aging, Values and Rewards: Explaining Age Differences in Job Satisfaction. American Sociological Review, Locke, E.A. (1976). Nature and causes of job satisfaction. Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Chicago, IL: Rand McNally. Luthans, F. (1998). Organisational Behaviour. 8th edition. Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill. MacDonald, R. (1996). Labours of love: Voluntary working in a depressed economy. Journal of Social Policy, Maher, E. (2002). Overcoming controllable and uncontrollable work difficulties: Change environment or self. Deakin University, Mitchell, T.R., & Lason, J.R. (1987). People in organization. 3rd edition, New York: McGraw-Hill. Mobey, & Locke, E.A. (1970). Job satisfaction and performance, A theoretical analysis. Organizational Behaviour and Human Performance, Moser, K. (1997). Commitment in organizations Psychologies (pp ).

21 Oshagbemi, T. (2000). How satisfied are academics with their primary tasks of teaching research and administration and management. International Sustainable in Higher Education, O'Toole, A. (1980). Work in an era of show economic growth. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Porter, L.W. (1961). A study of perceived need satisfaction in bottom and middle management jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, Rahman, A., & Sarcar, N.R. (1990). Occupational Stress Marital status and job satisfaction of working women. The Dhaka University Press Robbins, S.P. (1996). Organizational Behaviour. 7th edition. London: Prentice-Hall. Robbins, S.P. (2001). Organizational Behaviour. 9th edition. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. Robbins S.P., and Judge T.A. (2007). Organizational Behaviour. Twelfth Edition, Prentice Hall of India Private Limited, New Delhi Schmidt, G.L. (1976). Job satisfaction among secondary school administrators. Educational Administration Quarterly, Smith, P.C., Kendall, L.M., and Hulin, C.L. (1969). The Job Descriptive Index Bowling Green. OH: Department of Psychology, Bowling Green State University. Spector, P.E. (1997), Job Satisfaction: Applications, Assessment, Causes and Consequences. London: Sage Publications. Vecchio, R.P. (2000). Organizational Behaviour. 4th ed. Orlondo: Harcourt..

The Relationship between Social Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among MA and BA Teachers

The Relationship between Social Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among MA and BA Teachers Kamla-Raj 2012 Int J Edu Sci, 4(3): 209-213 (2012) The Relationship between Social Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among MA and BA Teachers Soleiman Yahyazadeh-Jeloudar 1 and Fatemeh Lotfi-Goodarzi 2

More information

A Study of Job Satisfaction and IT s Impact on the Performance in the Banking Industry of Pakistan

A Study of Job Satisfaction and IT s Impact on the Performance in the Banking Industry of Pakistan A Study of Job Satisfaction and IT s Impact on the Performance in the Banking Industry of Pakistan Aftab, Hira Lecturer Institute of Business and Information Technology (IBIT) University of the Punjab,

More information

Available online www.bmdynamics.com ISSN: 2047-7031. Society for Business and Management Dynamics

Available online www.bmdynamics.com ISSN: 2047-7031. Society for Business and Management Dynamics Employee Job Satisfaction in Software and ITeS units in Bangalore - An Empirical study Jyothi B.S* 1 and Dr. P.T. Ravindran* Abstract In recent years, Bangalore, ecstatically referred to as a Silicon Valley

More information

Relationship between Working Conditions and Job Satisfaction: The Case of Croatian Shipbuilding Company

Relationship between Working Conditions and Job Satisfaction: The Case of Croatian Shipbuilding Company International Journal of Business and Social Science Vol. 4 o. 2; February 2013 Relationship between Working Conditions and Job : The Case of Croatian Shipbuilding Company Danica Bakotić, PhD Assistant

More information

International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management United Kingdom Vol. II, Issue 3, 2014

International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management United Kingdom Vol. II, Issue 3, 2014 International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management United Kingdom Vol. II, Issue 3, 2014 http://ijecm.co.uk/ ISSN 2348 0386 NEED SATISFACTION AND QUALITY OF WORK-LIFE IN CHENNAI AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRIES

More information

Barriers & Incentives to Obtaining a Bachelor of Science Degree in Nursing

Barriers & Incentives to Obtaining a Bachelor of Science Degree in Nursing Southern Adventist Univeristy KnowledgeExchange@Southern Graduate Research Projects Nursing 4-2011 Barriers & Incentives to Obtaining a Bachelor of Science Degree in Nursing Tiffany Boring Brianna Burnette

More information

in nigerian companies.

in nigerian companies. Information Management 167 in nigerian companies. Idris, Adekunle. A. Abstract: Keywords: Relationship Marketing, Customer loyalty, Customer Service, Relationship Marketing Strategy and Nigeria. Introduction

More information

Teachers Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship with Job Satisfaction

Teachers Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship with Job Satisfaction ADVANCES IN EDUCATION VOL.1, NO.1 JANUARY 2012 4 Teachers Emotional Intelligence and Its Relationship with Job Satisfaction Soleiman Yahyazadeh-Jeloudar 1 Fatemeh Lotfi-Goodarzi 2 Abstract- The study was

More information

A Study on Employees Attitude Towards The Organization and Job Satisfaction

A Study on Employees Attitude Towards The Organization and Job Satisfaction A Study on Employees Attitude Towards The Organization and Job Satisfaction Alok Kumar Srivastav 1, Priyanka Das 2 1,2 Master of Business Administration, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agriculture, Technology

More information

Assessing Employee Satisfaction at the Zimbabwe Open University

Assessing Employee Satisfaction at the Zimbabwe Open University Assessing Employee Satisfaction at the Zimbabwe Open University Daniel Ndudzo Zimbabwe Open University, Harare, Zimbabwe ABSTRACT This study assesses employee satisfaction at the Zimbabwe Open University.

More information

Chapter Seven. Multiple regression An introduction to multiple regression Performing a multiple regression on SPSS

Chapter Seven. Multiple regression An introduction to multiple regression Performing a multiple regression on SPSS Chapter Seven Multiple regression An introduction to multiple regression Performing a multiple regression on SPSS Section : An introduction to multiple regression WHAT IS MULTIPLE REGRESSION? Multiple

More information

Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction Among Healthcare Professionals At Tilganga Eye Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal

Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction Among Healthcare Professionals At Tilganga Eye Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction Among Healthcare Professionals At Tilganga Eye Centre, Kathmandu, Nepal Nawaraj Chaulagain, Deepak Kumar Khadka Abstract:- Relationships have been reported between

More information

IMPACT OF CORE SELF EVALUATION (CSE) ON JOB SATISFACTION IN EDUCATION SECTOR OF PAKISTAN Yasir IQBAL University of the Punjab Pakistan

IMPACT OF CORE SELF EVALUATION (CSE) ON JOB SATISFACTION IN EDUCATION SECTOR OF PAKISTAN Yasir IQBAL University of the Punjab Pakistan IMPACT OF CORE SELF EVALUATION (CSE) ON JOB SATISFACTION IN EDUCATION SECTOR OF PAKISTAN Yasir IQBAL University of the Punjab Pakistan ABSTRACT The focus of this research is to determine the impact of

More information

THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT

THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BUSINESS & MANAGEMENT Management Education and Entrepreneurial Skill Set A Study among MBA Students of Bangalore J. Krithika Research Scholar, R&D Centre, Bharathiar University,

More information

Job Satisfaction of Teachers in Government Degree Colleges: A Study in Agartala City of Tripura

Job Satisfaction of Teachers in Government Degree Colleges: A Study in Agartala City of Tripura Volume 8 issue 6 December 2015 Job Satisfaction of Teachers in Government Degree Colleges: A Study in Agartala City of Tripura Dr. Kingshuk Adhikari Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce Assam University,

More information

JOB SATISFACTION AMONG TEACHERS OF PRIVATE AND GOVERNMENT SCHOOL: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

JOB SATISFACTION AMONG TEACHERS OF PRIVATE AND GOVERNMENT SCHOOL: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS JOB SATISFACTION AMONG TEACHERS OF PRIVATE AND GOVERNMENT SCHOOL: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS TILAK RAJ*; LALITA** *ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR, DEPARTMANT OF COMMERCE, M.D.U., ROHTAK **RESEARCH SCHOLAR, DEPARTMENT

More information

An Evaluation of Graduates Perception on Employment in Tourism and Hospitality Industry

An Evaluation of Graduates Perception on Employment in Tourism and Hospitality Industry Tourism, Leisure and Global Change, volume 2 (2015), p.toc- 172 An Evaluation of Graduates Perception on Employment in Tourism and Hospitality Industry W.G.S.R Wijesundara Department of Public Administration,

More information

A STUDY ON IMPACT OF JOB ENRICHMENT PRACTICES TOWARDS EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION AT HDFC STANDARD LIFE INSURANCE

A STUDY ON IMPACT OF JOB ENRICHMENT PRACTICES TOWARDS EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION AT HDFC STANDARD LIFE INSURANCE A STUDY ON IMPACT OF JOB ENRICHMENT PRACTICES TOWARDS EMPLOYEE Shilpa R* A. Asif Ali* N. Sathyanarayana* Roopa Rani * SATISFACTION AT HDFC STANDARD LIFE INSURANCE Abstract: In today s dynamic world organizations

More information

EFFECTS OF JOB RELATED FACTORS AS MOTIVATORS ON PERFORMANCE AND SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FIRMS

EFFECTS OF JOB RELATED FACTORS AS MOTIVATORS ON PERFORMANCE AND SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FIRMS International Interdisciplinary Journal of Scientific Research ISSN: 22-9833 www.iijsr.org EFFECTS OF JOB RELATED FACTORS AS MOTIVATORS ON PERFORMANCE AND SATISFACTION OF EMPLOYEES IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

More information

The Implementation of Teamwork in Jordan

The Implementation of Teamwork in Jordan European Journal of Economics, Finance and Administrative Sciences ISSN 1450-2275 Issue 45 (2012) EuroJournals, Inc. 2012 http://www.eurojournals.com/ejefas.htm The Implementation of Teamwork in Jordan

More information

Examining Differences (Comparing Groups) using SPSS Inferential statistics (Part I) Dwayne Devonish

Examining Differences (Comparing Groups) using SPSS Inferential statistics (Part I) Dwayne Devonish Examining Differences (Comparing Groups) using SPSS Inferential statistics (Part I) Dwayne Devonish Statistics Statistics are quantitative methods of describing, analysing, and drawing inferences (conclusions)

More information

The effect of compensation on employees motivation: In Jimma University academic staff

The effect of compensation on employees motivation: In Jimma University academic staff Basic Research Journal of Business Management and Accounts ISSN 2315-6899 Vol. 3(2) pp. 17-27 February 2014 Available online http//www.basicresearchjournals.org Copyright 2014 Basic Research Journal Full

More information

ROLE OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT IN BUILDING JOB SATISFACTION AMONG EMPLOYEES OF AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRIES IN INDIA

ROLE OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT IN BUILDING JOB SATISFACTION AMONG EMPLOYEES OF AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRIES IN INDIA International Journal of Human Resource Management and Research (IJHRMR) ISSN 2249-6874 Vol. 3, Issue 1, Mar 2013, 1-6 TJPRC Pvt. Ltd. ROLE OF EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT IN BUILDING JOB SATISFACTION AMONG EMPLOYEES

More information

COMPARISONS OF CUSTOMER LOYALTY: PUBLIC & PRIVATE INSURANCE COMPANIES.

COMPARISONS OF CUSTOMER LOYALTY: PUBLIC & PRIVATE INSURANCE COMPANIES. 277 CHAPTER VI COMPARISONS OF CUSTOMER LOYALTY: PUBLIC & PRIVATE INSURANCE COMPANIES. This chapter contains a full discussion of customer loyalty comparisons between private and public insurance companies

More information

My Online Friends Understand Me Better The Impact of Social Networking Site Usage on Adolescent Social Ties and Mental Health

My Online Friends Understand Me Better The Impact of Social Networking Site Usage on Adolescent Social Ties and Mental Health My Online Friends Understand Me Better The Impact of Social Networking Site Usage on Adolescent Social Ties and Mental Health Dr. Ke Guek Nee International Medical University (IMU) Malaysia Dr. Wong Siew

More information

Online International Interdisciplinary Research Journal, {Bi-Monthly}, ISSN 2249-9598, Volume-V, Issue-V, Sept-Oct 2015 Issue

Online International Interdisciplinary Research Journal, {Bi-Monthly}, ISSN 2249-9598, Volume-V, Issue-V, Sept-Oct 2015 Issue Study of Employee Perception towards Performance Appraisal System with Special Reference to Education Sector in Pune City Sunanda Navale Founder Secretary, Sinhgad Technical Education Society, Ambegaon

More information

Principal & Programme Director Indus Business Academy,

Principal & Programme Director Indus Business Academy, Employee Job Satisfaction With Reference To IT Companies in Bangalore by Ms. Ameer Asra Ahmed [a], Dr. M.S. Ramachandra [b] & Ms. Akshata M.S. [c] Abstract This paper aims at studying the level of Job

More information

Teacher s Motivation & Job Satisfaction

Teacher s Motivation & Job Satisfaction International Journal of Management Sciences and Business Research Volume 1, Issue -2012 ISSN (26-23) Teacher s Motivation & Job Satisfaction Ghulam Salma Phd student at Faculty of Administrative Sciences,University

More information

CHAPTER 5: CONSUMERS ATTITUDE TOWARDS ONLINE MARKETING OF INDIAN RAILWAYS

CHAPTER 5: CONSUMERS ATTITUDE TOWARDS ONLINE MARKETING OF INDIAN RAILWAYS CHAPTER 5: CONSUMERS ATTITUDE TOWARDS ONLINE MARKETING OF INDIAN RAILWAYS 5.1 Introduction This chapter presents the findings of research objectives dealing, with consumers attitude towards online marketing

More information

What Is the Relationship between Spiritual Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among MA and BA Teachers?

What Is the Relationship between Spiritual Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among MA and BA Teachers? What Is the Relationship between Spiritual Intelligence and Job Satisfaction among MA and BA Teachers? Abstract Soleiman Yahyazadeh-Jeloudar Universiti of Mazandaran Iran Fatemeh Lotfi-Goodarzi Ministry

More information

COMMUNICATION SATISFACTION IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY: A CASE STUDY OF EMPLOYEES AT A THEME PARK IN CHINA ABSTRACT

COMMUNICATION SATISFACTION IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY: A CASE STUDY OF EMPLOYEES AT A THEME PARK IN CHINA ABSTRACT COMMUNICATION SATISFACTION IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY: A CASE STUDY OF EMPLOYEES AT A THEME PARK IN CHINA ABSTRACT Qiuzi Liang & Kijoon Back Conrad N. Hilton College University of Houston Communication

More information

Hatice Camgöz Akdağ. findings of previous research in which two independent firm clusters were

Hatice Camgöz Akdağ. findings of previous research in which two independent firm clusters were Innovative Culture and Total Quality Management as a Tool for Sustainable Competitiveness: A Case Study of Turkish Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry SMEs, Sedef Akgüngör Hatice Camgöz Akdağ Aslı

More information

INFLUENCE OF EXPECTANCY THEORY ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE IN LAGOS STATE CHAPTER ONE

INFLUENCE OF EXPECTANCY THEORY ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE IN LAGOS STATE CHAPTER ONE INFLUENCE OF EXPECTANCY THEORY ON EMPLOYEES PERFORMANCE IN LAGOS STATE CHAPTER ONE 1.1 Introduction In every organisation, the human resource is the most delicate and complex to manage and control. Most

More information

April 2014 Vol - 2 Issue- 4

April 2014 Vol - 2 Issue- 4 Online Journal ISSN : 2347-9671 www. epratrust.com April 2014 Vol - 2 Issue- 4 EFFECTIVENESS OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON FACULTY RETENTION IN HIGHER EDUCATION: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN MYSORE

More information

Introduction. Research Problem. Larojan Chandrasegaran (1), Janaki Samuel Thevaruban (2)

Introduction. Research Problem. Larojan Chandrasegaran (1), Janaki Samuel Thevaruban (2) Larojan Chandrasegaran (1), Janaki Samuel Thevaruban (2) Determining Factors on Applicability of the Computerized Accounting System in Financial Institutions in Sri Lanka (1) Department of Finance and

More information

A STUDY ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION WITH REFERENCE TO MOBILE SERVICE PROVIDERS IN HYDERABAD (INDIA)

A STUDY ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION WITH REFERENCE TO MOBILE SERVICE PROVIDERS IN HYDERABAD (INDIA) A STUDY ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION WITH REFERENCE TO MOBILE SERVICE PROVIDERS IN HYDERABAD (INDIA) *Kobra Veisi and Muralidhar Department of Business & Commerce Management, Management Branch, Osmania University,

More information

RECRUITERS PRIORITIES IN PLACING MBA FRESHER: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

RECRUITERS PRIORITIES IN PLACING MBA FRESHER: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS RECRUITERS PRIORITIES IN PLACING MBA FRESHER: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS Miss Sangeeta Mohanty Assistant Professor, Academy of Business Administration, Angaragadia, Balasore, Orissa, India ABSTRACT Recruitment

More information

JOB SATISFACTION AND EMPLOYEES WORK PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF PEOPLE S BANK IN JAFFNA PENINSULA, SRI LANKA

JOB SATISFACTION AND EMPLOYEES WORK PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF PEOPLE S BANK IN JAFFNA PENINSULA, SRI LANKA JOB SATISFACTION AND EMPLOYEES WORK PERFORMANCE: A CASE STUDY OF PEOPLE S BANK IN JAFFNA PENINSULA, SRI LANKA Balasundaram NIMALATHASAN University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka Associate Professor PhD Valeriu BRABETE

More information

EMPLOYEE RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION PRACTICES IN INDIAN BANKING SECTOR. Dr. Narinder Kaur. Principal. University College, Meerapur ( Patiala)

EMPLOYEE RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION PRACTICES IN INDIAN BANKING SECTOR. Dr. Narinder Kaur. Principal. University College, Meerapur ( Patiala) EMPLOYEE RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION PRACTICES IN INDIAN BANKING SECTOR Dr. Narinder Kaur Principal University College, Meerapur ( Patiala) nk_patiala@yahoo.com and Introduction Sandeep Bansal Research scholar

More information

ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Online Open Access publishing platform for Management Research

ASIAN JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT RESEARCH Online Open Access publishing platform for Management Research Online Open Access publishing platform for Management Research Research Article ISSN 2229 3795 Influence of Non Financial Rewards on Job Satisfaction: A Case Study of Educational Sector of Pakistan Department

More information

SYNOPSIS OF THE THESIS ON A STUDY ON HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN BPO WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HIGH EMPLOYEE ATTRITION

SYNOPSIS OF THE THESIS ON A STUDY ON HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN BPO WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HIGH EMPLOYEE ATTRITION SYNOPSIS OF THE THESIS ON A STUDY ON HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN BPO WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HIGH EMPLOYEE ATTRITION JAMES. M. J. Research Scholar Dr. U. Faisal Supervising Teacher INTRODUCTION The

More information

Work-Life Conflict: Factors Associated with Negative Spillover from Home to Work

Work-Life Conflict: Factors Associated with Negative Spillover from Home to Work Work-Life Conflict: Factors Associated with Negative Spillover from Home to Work Susan Schmidt Faculty Sponsor: Enilda Delgado, Department of Sociology/Archaeology ABSTRACT Work-life conflict can have

More information

II. DISTRIBUTIONS distribution normal distribution. standard scores

II. DISTRIBUTIONS distribution normal distribution. standard scores Appendix D Basic Measurement And Statistics The following information was developed by Steven Rothke, PhD, Department of Psychology, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago (RIC) and expanded by Mary F. Schmidt,

More information

Evaluating the Factors Affecting on Intension to Use of E-Recruitment

Evaluating the Factors Affecting on Intension to Use of E-Recruitment American Journal of Information Science and Computer Engineering Vol., No. 5, 205, pp. 324-33 http://www.aiscience.org/journal/ajisce Evaluating the Factors Affecting on Intension to Use of E-Recruitment

More information

Expectancy Value Theory: Motivating Healthcare Workers

Expectancy Value Theory: Motivating Healthcare Workers Expectancy Value Theory: Motivating Healthcare Workers Stefania De Simone Researcher in Organizational Behavior Institute for Research on Innovation and Services for Development National Research Council

More information

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO OF FIRMS LISTED IN NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND DIVIDEND PAYOUT RATIO OF FIRMS LISTED IN NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management United Kingdom Vol. III, Issue 11, November 2015 http://ijecm.co.uk/ ISSN 2348 0386 THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND DIVIDEND

More information

PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCY AMONG SCHOOL AND NON-SCHOOL COUNSELLORS IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA

PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCY AMONG SCHOOL AND NON-SCHOOL COUNSELLORS IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCY AMONG SCHOOL AND NON-SCHOOL COUNSELLORS IN RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA Dr. Maxwell. D. Eremie Department of Educational Foundations Faculty of Technical and Science Education University

More information

KEYWORDS: Value chain, Accounting, Information, System, Decision Making

KEYWORDS: Value chain, Accounting, Information, System, Decision Making THE EFFECT OF USING ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE THE VALUE CHAIN IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS - EMPIRICAL STUDY Dr. Khaled M. Qatanani Accounting & Finance Dept. Applied Science University Bahrain

More information

Calculating, Interpreting, and Reporting Cronbach s Alpha Reliability Coefficient for Likert-Type Scales

Calculating, Interpreting, and Reporting Cronbach s Alpha Reliability Coefficient for Likert-Type Scales 2003 Midwest Research to Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education Calculating, Interpreting, and Reporting Cronbach s Alpha Reliability Coefficient for Likert-Type Scales Joseph

More information

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF EMPLOYEES PERSPECTIVES ON HIGH ATTRITION

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF EMPLOYEES PERSPECTIVES ON HIGH ATTRITION DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF EMPLOYEES PERSPECTIVES ON HIGH ATTRITION Analysis is the key element of any research as it is the reliable way to test the hypotheses framed by the investigator. This

More information

Impact of Rewards on Employee Performance: With Special Reference to ElectriCo. W.A. Edirisooriya

Impact of Rewards on Employee Performance: With Special Reference to ElectriCo. W.A. Edirisooriya Reshaping Management and Economic Thinking through Integrating Eco-Friendly and Ethical Practices Proceedings of the 3 rd International Conference on Management and Economics 26-27 February 2014 Faculty

More information

WHAT IS A JOURNAL CLUB?

WHAT IS A JOURNAL CLUB? WHAT IS A JOURNAL CLUB? With its September 2002 issue, the American Journal of Critical Care debuts a new feature, the AJCC Journal Club. Each issue of the journal will now feature an AJCC Journal Club

More information

UNDERSTANDING THE TWO-WAY ANOVA

UNDERSTANDING THE TWO-WAY ANOVA UNDERSTANDING THE e have seen how the one-way ANOVA can be used to compare two or more sample means in studies involving a single independent variable. This can be extended to two independent variables

More information

SPSS: Descriptive and Inferential Statistics. For Windows

SPSS: Descriptive and Inferential Statistics. For Windows For Windows August 2012 Table of Contents Section 1: Summarizing Data...3 1.1 Descriptive Statistics...3 Section 2: Inferential Statistics... 10 2.1 Chi-Square Test... 10 2.2 T tests... 11 2.3 Correlation...

More information

JOB SATISFACTION DURING RECESSION PERIOD: A STUDY ON PUBLIC & PRIVATE INSURANCE IN PUNJAB

JOB SATISFACTION DURING RECESSION PERIOD: A STUDY ON PUBLIC & PRIVATE INSURANCE IN PUNJAB JOB SATISFACTION DURING RECESSION PERIOD: A STUDY ON PUBLIC & Hardeep Kaur* PRIVATE INSURANCE IN PUNJAB Abstract: This study is on the public and private sector employees of insurance sector to measure

More information

The Impact Of Reward And Recognition Programs On Employee s Motivation And Satisfaction: An Empirical Study

The Impact Of Reward And Recognition Programs On Employee s Motivation And Satisfaction: An Empirical Study International Review of Business Research Papers Vol. 5 No. 4 June 2009 Pp.270-279 The Impact Of Reward And Recognition Programs On Employee s Motivation And Satisfaction: An Empirical Study Reena Ali

More information

Examining Motivation Theory in Higher Education: An Expectancy Theory Analysis of Tenured Faculty Productivity

Examining Motivation Theory in Higher Education: An Expectancy Theory Analysis of Tenured Faculty Productivity VOLUME 15, NUMBER 1, 2012 Examining Motivation Theory in Higher Education: An Expectancy Theory Analysis of Tenured Faculty Productivity Brent Estes, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Health & Kinesiology

More information

Impact of ICT on Teacher Engagement in Select Higher Educational Institutions in India

Impact of ICT on Teacher Engagement in Select Higher Educational Institutions in India Impact of ICT on Teacher Engagement in Select Higher Educational Institutions in India Bushra S P Singh 1, Dr. Sanjay Kaushik 2 1 Research Scholar, University Business School, Arts Block 3, Panjab University,

More information

Advertising value of mobile marketing through acceptance among youth in Karachi

Advertising value of mobile marketing through acceptance among youth in Karachi MPRA Munich Personal RePEc Archive Advertising value of mobile marketing through acceptance among youth in Karachi Suleman Syed Akbar and Rehan Azam and Danish Muhammad IQRA UNIVERSITY 1. September 2012

More information

Performance appraisal politics and employee turnover intention

Performance appraisal politics and employee turnover intention Performance appraisal politics and employee turnover intention Rusli Ahmad Camelia Lemba Faculty of Cognitive Sciences and Human Development Universiti Malaysia Sarawak arusli@fcs.unimas.my Wan Khairuzzaman

More information

SPSS Guide: Regression Analysis

SPSS Guide: Regression Analysis SPSS Guide: Regression Analysis I put this together to give you a step-by-step guide for replicating what we did in the computer lab. It should help you run the tests we covered. The best way to get familiar

More information

Association Between Variables

Association Between Variables Contents 11 Association Between Variables 767 11.1 Introduction............................ 767 11.1.1 Measure of Association................. 768 11.1.2 Chapter Summary.................... 769 11.2 Chi

More information

JOB SATISFACTION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FOR ALTERNATIVES TO JDI

JOB SATISFACTION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FOR ALTERNATIVES TO JDI JOB SATISFACTION: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FOR ALTERNATIVES TO JDI T. Ramayah School of Management Universiti Sains Malaysia 800 Penang, Malaysia ramayah@usm.my Muhamad Jantan School of Management Universiti

More information

Motivation Through Needs, Job Design, and Satisfaction

Motivation Through Needs, Job Design, and Satisfaction Chapter Seven Motivation Through Needs, Job Design, and Satisfaction 7-2 Motivation Defined Motivation: Psychological processes that cause the arousal direction, and persistence of voluntary actions that

More information

Trust, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and the Volunteer s Psychological Contract

Trust, Job Satisfaction, Organizational Commitment, and the Volunteer s Psychological Contract Trust, Job Satisfaction, Commitment, and the Volunteer s Psychological Contract Becky J. Starnes, Ph.D. Austin Peay State University Clarksville, Tennessee, USA starnesb@apsu.edu Abstract Studies indicate

More information

Impact of Human Resource Practices on Employees Productivity A Comparative Study between Public and Private Banks in India

Impact of Human Resource Practices on Employees Productivity A Comparative Study between Public and Private Banks in India International Journal of Trade and Commerce-IIARTC January-June 2012, Volume 1, No. 1, pp. 142-148 ISSN-2277-5811 SGSR. (www.sgsrjournals.com) All right reserved. Impact of Human Resource Practices on

More information

Motivation and Retention: HR Strategies in Achieving Quality of Work Life

Motivation and Retention: HR Strategies in Achieving Quality of Work Life Global Journal of Management and Business Studies. ISSN 2248-9878 Volume 3, Number 7 (2013), pp. 763-768 Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com/gjmbs.htm Motivation and Retention: HR

More information

Impact of Brand Equity towards Purchasing Desition: A Situation on Mobile Telecommunication Services of Sri Lanka

Impact of Brand Equity towards Purchasing Desition: A Situation on Mobile Telecommunication Services of Sri Lanka Journal of Marketing Management June 2015, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 100-117 ISSN: 2333-6080(Print), 2333-6099(Online) Copyright The Author(s). All Rights Reserved. Published by American Research Institute for

More information

THE INFLENCE OF PRINCIPALS LEADERSHIP STYLES ON SCHOOL TEACHERS JOB SATISFACTION STUDY OF SECONDRY SCHOOL IN JAFFNA DISTRICT

THE INFLENCE OF PRINCIPALS LEADERSHIP STYLES ON SCHOOL TEACHERS JOB SATISFACTION STUDY OF SECONDRY SCHOOL IN JAFFNA DISTRICT International Journal of Scientific and esearch Publications, Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2014 1 THE INFLENCE OF PINCIPALS LEADESHIP STYLES ON SCHOOL TEACHES JOB SATISFACTION STUDY OF SECONDY SCHOOL IN

More information

Running Head: HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES AND ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE. Pakistan. Muzaffar Asad. Syed Hussain Haider. Muhammad Bilal Akhtar

Running Head: HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES AND ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE. Pakistan. Muzaffar Asad. Syed Hussain Haider. Muhammad Bilal Akhtar Running Head: HUMAN RESOURCE PRACTICES AND ENTERPRISE PERFORMANCE Human Resource Practices and Enterprise Performance in Small and Medium Enterprises of Pakistan Muzaffar Asad Syed Hussain Haider Muhammad

More information

Factors Affecting Employee Turnover: A Study on Private Schools Teachers in Butwal Municipality

Factors Affecting Employee Turnover: A Study on Private Schools Teachers in Butwal Municipality Factors Affecting Employee Turnover: A Study on Private Schools Teachers in Butwal Municipality Tara Prasad Upadhyaya 1, Netra Prasad Basel 2 and Alisha Shakya 3 Abstract Purposes: The main purpose of

More information

DETERMINANTS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION LEVEL OF ELECTRONIC HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (E-HRM) IN JORDANIAN SHAREHOLDING COMPANIES

DETERMINANTS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION LEVEL OF ELECTRONIC HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (E-HRM) IN JORDANIAN SHAREHOLDING COMPANIES DETERMINANTS OF THE IMPLEMENTATION LEVEL OF ELECTRONIC HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (E-HRM) IN JORDANIAN SHAREHOLDING COMPANIES Rand H. Al-Dmour Former MBA student at the University of Jordan (Currently

More information

Factors Influencing Compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Regulations in Public Hospitals in Kenya: A Case Study of Thika Level 5 Hospital

Factors Influencing Compliance with Occupational Safety and Health Regulations in Public Hospitals in Kenya: A Case Study of Thika Level 5 Hospital Factors Influencing Compliance with Occupational Safety and Health in Public Hospitals in Kenya: A Case Study of Thika Level 5 Hospital Jane Wambilianga 1, Dr. Esther Waiganjo 2 M. Sc, Jomo Kenyatta University

More information

Intercultural sensitivity of students from departments of nursing and healthcare administration. Abstract

Intercultural sensitivity of students from departments of nursing and healthcare administration. Abstract Intercultural sensitivity of students from departments of nursing and healthcare administration Abstract Since globalization requires people from diverse cultural backgrounds to communicate effectively,

More information

Asian Research Journal of Business Management

Asian Research Journal of Business Management Asian Research Journal of Business Management FACTORS INFLUENCING ONLINE TRADING ADOPTION: A STUDY ON INVESTORS ATTITUDE IN GREATER VISAKHAPATNAM CITY Dr. Krishna Mohan Vaddadi 1 & Merugu Pratima 2 * 1

More information

PROFESSIONAL SATISFACTION OF TEACHERS FROM KINDERGARTEN. PRELIMINARY STUDY

PROFESSIONAL SATISFACTION OF TEACHERS FROM KINDERGARTEN. PRELIMINARY STUDY Volume 7, Volume 4, 2014 PROFESSIONAL SATISFACTION OF TEACHERS FROM KINDERGARTEN. PRELIMINARY STUDY Valerica Anghelache Abstract. Professional development is a topic of great interest for all those who

More information

Independent t- Test (Comparing Two Means)

Independent t- Test (Comparing Two Means) Independent t- Test (Comparing Two Means) The objectives of this lesson are to learn: the definition/purpose of independent t-test when to use the independent t-test the use of SPSS to complete an independent

More information

The Importance of Motivation Factors on Employee Performance in Kosovo Municipalities

The Importance of Motivation Factors on Employee Performance in Kosovo Municipalities The Importance of Motivation Factors on Employee Performance in Kosovo Municipalities Naim Ismajli, Assistant Lecturer at AAB University, (Corresponding Author) AAB University, Zona Industriale Prishtinë

More information

Proc. of Int. Conf. on Computing, Communication & Manufacturing 2014

Proc. of Int. Conf. on Computing, Communication & Manufacturing 2014 Proc. of Int. Conf. on Computing, Communication & Manufacturing 2014 Technology Acceptance Model implementation in Open Source Learning Management System Parantap Chatterjee MCKV Institute Of Engineering/MCA,

More information

Job Satisfaction of Public Administrative Personnel in Greece

Job Satisfaction of Public Administrative Personnel in Greece Job Satisfaction of Public Administrative Personnel in Greece Batiou Vasiliki PhD Candidate, University of acedonia, Greece Valkanos Efthymios Assistant Professor, University of acedonia, Greece DOI: 10.6007/IJARBSS/v3-i11/336

More information

The Impact of Affective Human Resources Management Practices on the Financial Performance of the Saudi Banks

The Impact of Affective Human Resources Management Practices on the Financial Performance of the Saudi Banks 327 The Impact of Affective Human Resources Management Practices on the Financial Performance of the Saudi Banks Abdullah Attia AL-Zahrani King Saud University azahrani@ksu.edu.sa Ahmad Aref Almazari*

More information

The Impact of Management Information Systems on the Performance of Governmental Organizations- Study at Jordanian Ministry of Planning

The Impact of Management Information Systems on the Performance of Governmental Organizations- Study at Jordanian Ministry of Planning The Impact of Management Information Systems on the Performance of Governmental Organizations- Study at Jordanian Ministry of Planning Dr. Shehadeh M.A.AL-Gharaibeh Assistant prof. Business Administration

More information

Effect of Job Autonomy Upon Organizational Commitment of Employees at Different Hierarchical Level

Effect of Job Autonomy Upon Organizational Commitment of Employees at Different Hierarchical Level psyct.psychopen.eu 2193-7281 Research Articles Effect of Job Autonomy Upon Organizational Commitment of Employees at Different Hierarchical Level Shalini Sisodia* a, Ira Das a [a] Department of Psychology,

More information

Organizational Commitment among Public and Private School Teachers

Organizational Commitment among Public and Private School Teachers The International Journal of Indian Psychology ISSN 2348-5396 (e) ISSN: 2349-3429 (p) Volume 2, Issue 3, Paper ID: B00381V2I32015 http://www.ijip.in April to June 2015 ABSTRACT: Organizational Commitment

More information

A STUDY ON MOTIVATION AND JOB SATISFACTION OF LANGUAGE TEACHERS AT THE EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY OF LEFKE, ENGLISH PREPARATORY SCHOOL

A STUDY ON MOTIVATION AND JOB SATISFACTION OF LANGUAGE TEACHERS AT THE EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY OF LEFKE, ENGLISH PREPARATORY SCHOOL 208 Abstract A STUDY ON MOTIVATION AND JOB SATISFACTION OF LANGUAGE TEACHERS AT THE EUROPEAN UNIVERSITY OF LEFKE, ENGLISH PREPARATORY SCHOOL Ezgi Umur,European University of Lefke, English Preparatory

More information

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB SATISFACTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT: THE CASE OF HOSPITAL EMPLOYEES

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB SATISFACTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT: THE CASE OF HOSPITAL EMPLOYEES THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB SATISFACTION AND ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT: THE CASE OF HOSPITAL EMPLOYEES Metin KAPLAN *, Emine OGUT **, Asli KAPLAN *** and Kadir AKSAY **** Abstract: Organizational commitment

More information

An Evaluation of Bank Customer Satisfaction in Pakistan, Case of Conventional Banks

An Evaluation of Bank Customer Satisfaction in Pakistan, Case of Conventional Banks An Evaluation of Bank Satisfaction in Pakistan, Case of Conventional Banks Haroon Rasheed Management School, Wuhan University of Technology 205-Loushi Road, Wuhan P.R China 4300070 Wang Aimin Management

More information

A Study on Customer Orientation as Mediator between Emotional Intelligence and Service Performance in Banks

A Study on Customer Orientation as Mediator between Emotional Intelligence and Service Performance in Banks International Journal of Business and Management Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 8028, ISSN (Print): 2319 801X Volume 2 Issue 5 ǁ May. 2013ǁ PP.60-66 A Study on Customer Orientation as Mediator between Emotional

More information

Organizational Factors Affecting E-commerce Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

Organizational Factors Affecting E-commerce Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises Tropical Agricultural Research Vol. 22 (2): 204-210 (2011) Short communication Organizational Factors Affecting E-commerce Adoption in Small and Medium-sized Enterprises R.P.I.R. Senarathna and H.V.A.

More information

S. Khoury * ABSTRACT. http://ijiepr.iust.ac.ir/

S. Khoury * ABSTRACT. http://ijiepr.iust.ac.ir/ International Journal of Industrial Engineering & Production Research December 2011, Volume 22 Number 4 pp. 237-241 ISSN: 2008-4889 http://ijiepr.iust.ac.ir/ Perceptions Held by Community College Computer

More information

Research of Female Consumer Behavior in Cosmetics Market Case Study of Female Consumers in Hsinchu Area Taiwan

Research of Female Consumer Behavior in Cosmetics Market Case Study of Female Consumers in Hsinchu Area Taiwan usiness, 2010, 2, 348-353 doi:10.4236/ib.2010.24045 Published Online December 2010 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/ib) Research of Female Consumer Behavior in Cosmetics Market Case Study of Female Consumers

More information

Sagaren Pillay a, Marie de Beer b, Kevin Duffy b

Sagaren Pillay a, Marie de Beer b, Kevin Duffy b EVALUATING AND MANAGING EMPLOYEE TURNOVER USING BENCHMARKS: A STUDY OF NATIONAL GOVERNMENT DEPARTMENTS BASED ON ORGANISATIONAL SIZE Sagaren Pillay a, Marie de Beer b, Kevin Duffy b a Statistics South Africa,

More information

Employee Engagement Profiling

Employee Engagement Profiling Employee Engagement Profiling Demo Pilot Study 2013 Sample Report - Tables and Charts have been shortened Registered Associates All enquiries to: support@pario-innovations.com Web: http://www.pario-innovations.com

More information

Basic Concepts in Research and Data Analysis

Basic Concepts in Research and Data Analysis Basic Concepts in Research and Data Analysis Introduction: A Common Language for Researchers...2 Steps to Follow When Conducting Research...3 The Research Question... 3 The Hypothesis... 4 Defining the

More information

Online International Interdisciplinary Research Journal, {Bi-Monthly}, ISSN 2249-9598, Volume-V, May 2015 Special Issue

Online International Interdisciplinary Research Journal, {Bi-Monthly}, ISSN 2249-9598, Volume-V, May 2015 Special Issue A Study of Organizational Commitment of Teacher Educators in Relation To Their Perception of total Quality Management a Asha. J. Patil, b Noorjehan N. Ganihar a Assistant Professor Vijayanagar College

More information

Restaurant Service Employees Motivation and Organizational Commitment: Shared Gratuity versus Independent Gratuity Environments ABSTRACT

Restaurant Service Employees Motivation and Organizational Commitment: Shared Gratuity versus Independent Gratuity Environments ABSTRACT Restaurant Service Employees Motivation and Organizational Commitment: Shared Gratuity versus Independent Gratuity Environments Susan J. Roe Hotel Administration University of Nevada, Las Vegas ABSTRACT

More information

Statistical tests for SPSS

Statistical tests for SPSS Statistical tests for SPSS Paolo Coletti A.Y. 2010/11 Free University of Bolzano Bozen Premise This book is a very quick, rough and fast description of statistical tests and their usage. It is explicitly

More information

EFFECT OF TALENT RETENTION ON ORGANISATION PERFORMANCE IN COMPANIES LISTED IN NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE IN KENYA

EFFECT OF TALENT RETENTION ON ORGANISATION PERFORMANCE IN COMPANIES LISTED IN NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE IN KENYA EFFECT OF TALENT RETENTION ON ORGANISATION PERFORMANCE IN COMPANIES LISTED IN NAIROBI SECURITIES EXCHANGE IN KENYA Rita Kagwiria lyria Department of Entrepreneurship and Procurement Jomo Kenyatta University

More information

DETERMINANTS OF PROFITABILITY UNDERLINING THE WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND COST STRUCTURE OF SRI LANKAN COMPANIES

DETERMINANTS OF PROFITABILITY UNDERLINING THE WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND COST STRUCTURE OF SRI LANKAN COMPANIES DETERMINANTS OF PROFITABILITY UNDERLINING THE WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND COST STRUCTURE OF SRI LANKAN COMPANIES Prabath Suranga Morawakage Graduate of B.B. Mgt (Finance) Special 356,Doranagoda,Bemmulla,Sri

More information

A comparative research on job satisfaction and HRM practices: Empirical investigation of few commercial bank employees in Bangladesh

A comparative research on job satisfaction and HRM practices: Empirical investigation of few commercial bank employees in Bangladesh A comparative research on job satisfaction HRM practices: Empirical investigation of few commercial bank employees in Bangladesh Riaz Uddin Ahmed Lecturer, School of Business Britannia University, Bangladesh

More information