Survey Tie Guidelines

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1 Survey Tie Guidelines 1

2 Purpose of guidelines Interpretative guide for proper ties to comply with Board Rule (g) Is not a finite list of proper ties Variations of the examples are acceptable, if the intent of the rule is met The purpose of a tie is to reproduce a boundary when all or most of the property corners have been destroyed, or to verify the position of any given corner without the necessity or resurveying the entire tract of land. 2

3 Grid tie Required when property is within 2000 of a geodetic monument Recommended when possible Available Tools OPUS-S/OPUS-RS Real Time Kinematic Network (RTKN) Traverse connection 3

4 OPUS-S/OPUS-RS Acceptable methods for a grid tie Provide summary of results 4

5 What is OPUS? On-line Positioning User Service Fast & easy access to the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) for GPS users 5

6 How does OPUS compute positions? 1. OPUS chooses the 3 best nearby CORS 2. Computes 3 baselines 3. Determines 3 positions 4. Averages the 3 positions by a simple mean (equal weights) to a single position Note: Differences between positions include any errors in CORS coordinates 6

7 Peak to Peak Errors OPUS Peak to Peak Errors Separation of the maximum and minimum component values from the 3 separate CORS solutions. Northing max m Northing P to P Error Northing min Easting min m Easting P to P Error Easting max LEGEND: CORS Baseline Solution from a CORS Easting P to P Error Northing P to P Error 7

9 Extended Output Peak to Peaks Errors are relatively large: Horz: 14 cm Vert: 23 cm 9

10 OPUS-RS search algorithm < 50 km < 250 km 1. Sort stations in CORS network by distance from rover. 2. Select up to 9 CORS that are < 250 km from rover and that have suitable data. No solution is computed if < 3 CORS are selected. No solution computed if distance from rover to polygon enclosing selected CORS is > 50 km. 10

11 OPUS-RS solution report 11

12 OPUS Projects

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14 Real Time Network (RTN) Acceptable methods for a grid tie Proper field procedures should be used to insure the quality of the data collected Redundant observations when possible 14

15 Grid ties Other methods of grid ties: Static GPS RTK GPS Traverse F. SAMPLE CERTIFICATE Combining a boundary survey, GPS certificate I, certify that this plat was drawn under my supervision from an actual survey performed under my supervision (deed description recorded in Book, page, etc.) (other); that the boundaries not surveyed are clearly indicated as drawn from information found in Book, page ; that the ratio of precision as calculated is 1: ; that the Global Positioning System (GPS) survey and the following information was used to perform the GPS (GNSS if dual constellations are used) survey: Class of survey Positional accuracy Type of GPS field procedure: Dates of survey: Datum/Epoch: Published/Fixed-control use: Geoid model: Combined grid factor(s): Units: That this plat was prepared in accordance with G.S as amended (if the survey is not a G.S , remove this sentence). That this plat meets the requirement of G.S section F-11- (insert the section in F-11 that matches this survey if it is a survey) Witness my original signature and seal this the day of. 15

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17 Positional Tie Reporting Policy BP Rev 1 When tools such as Online Positioning User Service (OPUS) or a Real Time Network (RTN) are used to position a property corner, in lieu of reporting the Continuous Operating Reference Station(s) (CORS) positions (State Plane Coordinates or geographic position) as required by 21 NCAC (g) and.1607(b)(6) & (e), a statement by the PLS indicating that OPUS or a RTN was used to determine the position(s) of a property corner(s) or control monument(s) and report of the positional information provided by the tool, such as OPUS or RTN will meet the requirement of reporting the positional information of the published control as required in 21 NCAC (g) and.1607(b)(6) & (e). 17

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21 Tie to control corners Control monuments within a previously recorded subdivision may be used in lieu of grid control NC General Statute One or more corners of such development to be designated as control corner And two or more street center lines or offset lines within or on the street right-of-way lines to be permanently monumented at intersecting center lines or offset lines, points of curvature or such other control points, which monuments shall also be designated as control corners 21

22 Article 5A.: Control corners in real estate developments Requirement of permanent markers as "control corners." Whenever any person, firm or corporation shall hereafter divide any parcel of real estate into lots and lay off streets through such real estate development and sell or offer for sale any lot or lots in such real estate development, it shall be the duty of such person, firm or corporation to cause one or more corners of such development to be designated as "control corner" and shall cause two or more street center lines or offset lines within or on the street right-of-way lines to be permanently monumented at intersecting center lines or offset lines, points of curvature or such other control points, which monuments shall also be designated as control corners and to affix or place at such control corner or corners permanent markers which shall be of such material and affixed to the earth in such a manner as to insure as great a degree of permanence as is reasonably practical. (1947, c. 816, s. 1; 1959, c ) 22

23 Tie to natural or artificial mons Massive objects Natural or man-made objects that are easy to identify and have, or can accept, finite points that can be measured to with certainty Other artificial monuments Use property corners of the highest permanent quality Include corner metadata The use of adjoining property corners requires the use of: At least two (2) adjoining record corners ~ or ~ One (1) record corner and one (1) other point that is visible from the referenced adjoining 23 corner

24 Artificial monuments PK nails and spikes Tend to be less permanent and more likely to be destroyed Artificial points should be used when no other alternative is available Artificial points in road intersections are acceptable, but they are considered to be the lowest preference 24

25 Example of reference points on line Define orientation used on subject parcel Trees mostly on line Set and reference PK nail on line Ridge as described by deed or new survey Pipe or rock with chiseled cross ½ inch pipe or rock with chiseled cross Set as many points as would be necessary on ridge lines (that represent existing or proposed boundary line) that would be needed to re-establish or retrace boundary line with minimal work.

26 Reference monuments Board Rule (e) states: Where a corner falls in a right-of-way, in a tree, in a stream, or on a fence post, boulder, stone, or similar object, one or more monuments or metal stakes shall be placed in the boundary line so that the inaccessible point may be located accurately on the ground and the map. 26

27 Legend All symbols, acronyms, and line types used on a plat should be clearly defined in the legend per Board Rule (d)(11) Note: Other Professional Land Surveyors may be familiar with the symbol or acronym, but the public in most cases will not understand the meaning of the symbols or acronyms. 27

28 Data about data Metadata Metadata provides a description of the data included in the plat or report Examples Horizontal/vertical datums Units Property corner description Material Found or set Above, below, or flush with ground level 28

29 METADATA: Data about data Datums: Horizontal: NAD 27, NAD 83(1986), NAD83 (199X), etc. Vertical: NGVD29, NAVD88, MLLW, MSL, MHW, etc. Units: Meters, U.S. survey feet, international feet, chains, rods, poles, links, smoots, etc. Accuracy: A, B, 1 st, 2 nd, 3 rd, 3 cm, scaled, etc. 29

30 Vertical control datums A set of fundamental elevations to which other elevations are referred. Datum types: Geodetic: Directly or loosely based on Mean Sea Level at one or more points at some epoch Examples: NGVD 29, NAVD 88, IGLD85, etc. Tidal: Defined by observation of tidal variations over some epoch of time Examples: MSL, MLLW, MLW, MHW, MHHW, etc. 30

31 Where s the METADATA?? Horizontal & vertical datums?? Plane Coordinate System?? Units of measure?? Accuracy?? 31

33 Changes to NAD83 (using North Carolina as an example) NAD83(1986)-Started as Classic horizontal network NAD83(1995)-High Accuracy Reference Network (HARN) Observed with GPS using some CORS as control NAD83(2001) Federal Base Network (FBN) and Cooperative Base Networks (CBN) Observed with GPS with Tight CORS control. Also aimed at increasing ellipsoid height accuracy NAD83(NSRS2007) CORS system primary control, used only quality GPS projects. CORS system well developed. NAD83(2011) - Current Adjustment

34 Report of Survey The map or report of survey is required for property boundaries, easements authoritative encumbrances of property boundaries and to wetland boundaries. It is not required for construction staking. 34

35 Report of Survey In lieu of preparing a plat for the client a Report of Survey can be provided to the client that includes the following information: Outline of Report of Survey: General description of survey Who performed the survey Recipient of survey General description of what was surveyed and purpose of survey 35

36 Report of Survey Provide information concerning deeds and plats that were examined for the survey Report the evidence that was recovered Provide a description of corners that were set 36

37 Report of Survey General metadata of survey Bearing reference Horizontal/Vertical datums Certification Statement to Standards of Practice 37

38 Report of Survey: Sample I certify that this survey was done under my responsible charge in compliance with the Standards of Practice for Land Surveying ( ) for (name of recipient of survey) for the purpose of locating the boundaries and corners of Lot #6 and #7 of the Acme Subdivision recorded on plat book B-214 in Waldon County North Carolina Register of Deeds. That before I performed the survey I examined the following deeds and plats recorded in the Waldon County Register of Deeds: Plat recorded in B-214 Plat recorded in Plat Book 8-95 Deed Book Deed Book That after examining the deeds and plats, I examined the property and found: 1/2 iron pipe flush with the ground at the southeast corner of Lot #6 1/2 iron pipe flush with the ground at the southwest corner of Lot #6 No other corners were found. Upon completion of the survey, I set new ½ iron rods flush to the ground at remaining corners of Lot #6 and #7. No visible encroachments were observed. All bearings are referenced to the North Carolina State Plane Coordinate System (NAD(NSRS2007)), and all distances are horizontal distances. This day of, 20. Seal Professional Land Surveyor 38

39 Questions? 39

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