Introduction to Advanced Commercial-Scale Biomass Boiler Technologies

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1 Introduction to Advanced Commercial-Scale Biomass Boiler Technologies 2012 Alaska Wood Energy Conference Ketchikan Oct 9-11, 2012 Prepared by: David Dungate Tel:

2 Presentation Outline n Biomass Heating Opportunity n Biomass Fuel Considerations n System Performance n Project Examples n Conclusions/Opportunities

3 Biomass Thermal Opportunity n Addresses key energy, economic environmental and social problems problems at the local and global scale

4 Fuel Price Comparison Cost/MMBtu $45.00 $40.00 $35.00 $30.00 $25.00 $20.00 $15.00 $10.00 $5.00 $- Wood Chip $70/t Wood Pellet $335/t Fuel Oil $3.35/gal Propane $3.50/gal Electricity $.10/kW Notes: Pellets = 16.5 MMBtu/ton, moisture = 10.9 MMBtu/ton, Data Source:

5 Energy to Produce/Refine Fuels Wood Chips 0.5-1% Wood Pellets 2-6% Oil/Natural Gas 10-20% Corn Ethanol % Ø Refining improves the fuel quality; but also consumes energy and releases pollution during the refining process. Ø Most analyses only consider emissions during fuel use and not emissions during refining. Source: Planning and Installing Bioenergy Systems: A guide for installers, architects and engineers. James & James. 2007

6 Biomass Advantages/ Disadvantages n Lower cost vs. fossil fuels n Greenhouse gas reduction n Supports local economic development n Dispatchable (on-demand) renewable fuel n Supports sustainable forest management n No soil contamination from hydrocarbons n Low density = Increased transportation cost n Higher equipment cost vs. fossil fuels

7 Wood Fuel Cost at Various Moisture Contents Cost/MMBtu $14.00 $12.00 $10.00 $8.00 $6.00 $4.00 $2.00 $- 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Fuel Moisture Content Moisture % MBtu/t Efficiency Mbtu/t output $/ton $/MMBtu 6% % $ 150 $ % % $ 135 $ % % $ 120 $ % % $ 100 $ % % 9030 $ 80 $ % % 7430 $ 70 $ % % 5762 $ 60 $ % % 4128 $ 50 $ 12.11

8 European Biomass Leadership n n n n Europe s leaders in biomass technology (i.e. Austria, Germany, Sweden) Austria Population of 8 million has 30 Wood Boiler Companies (70% of European Wood Boiler Market) In Austria, 25% of all heating is by biomass and wood boilers outsell oil boilers for residential applications. Upper Austria Region committed to 100% renewable space heating and electricity by 2030.

9 Typical Outdoor Wood Boiler n Unmodulated fuel and air supply n Difficult to match firing rate to demand n Wet/inconsistent fuel contributes to low efficiency

10 Features of Advanced Boilers n High-temperature, controlled, clean combustion (Control of time, temperature and turbulence) n Automated operation and modulation n n n n ignition fuel feeding monitoring pressure and oxygen levels ash cleaning n 80%+ thermal efficiency n Integrated with a BMS/Remote monitoring n Integrated with thermal storage

11 High-Efficiency Commercial Boilers Pellet/dry-fuel-Type Wet Fuel Type

12 1. Fuel bin stirrer 2. Gear motor 3. Fuel auger 4. Fuel auger channel 5. Auger drive motor 6. Separating flap valve for the channel and intermediate storage bin 7. Ultrasonic probe 8. Intermediate storage bin 9. Fuel anti-bridging device 10. Feeding auger 11. Emergency fire extinguisher 12. Automatic ignition 13. Air blower 14. Control panel box 15. Control panel 16. Primary combustion zone 17. Grating wheel 18. Secondary combustion zone ACT Boiler Configuration 19. Ash container 20. Exchanger flap valve 21. Heat exchanger with turbulators (without sheet covering) 22. Turbulators 23. Turbulator drive

13 Advanced Boiler Emission Comparison lbs./mmbtu Comparative data source: PM N0x CO US EPA s AP42 emission factors for commercial boilers 0.3 lbs/mmbtu is NH particulate standard for conventional fuel boilers 0 E-Cabin ACT (Dry Wood) Typical Wet Wood Typical Dry Wood Distillate Fuel Oil No. 6 Fuel Oil Natural Gas Propane

14 Chip Storage and Handling

15 Wood Pellet Storage Silo Option Typical Wood Boiler Configuration

16 Containerized Wood Chip Boiler MMBtu MMBtu Boiler Wood installed Chip Boiler in a 20 in a shipping 20 Shipping container Cayuga Nature Center Container with adjacent chip storage Ithaca, NY Combustion chamber Auger/Stirrer in the chip fuel bin Wood chip fuel bin

17 Pellet Boiler Federal Bldg. Ketchikan, AK

18 Hospital Wood Chip Boiler

19 Containerized Pellet Boiler

20 Greenhouse Pellet Boiler Photos Credit: Sandri Energy

21 1.7 MMBtu Pellet Boiler Integrated with Solar Panels Pellet Boiler Natural History Museum of the Adirondacks The W!ld Center Pellet storage

22 Boiler Payback Calculation Project type Pellets ACT Bioenergy Boiler size 6 Full load hour operation 4118 ACT Bioenergy Boiler Btu Total annual fossil fuel demand 7000 MMBtu Project type? BTUs 3412 Main Fuel Type Replaced MMBtu Quantity Used or Ordered Per Year gallons MMBtu Cost per Unit in$ 3.50 $ MMBtu Total Cost of Main Fuel Type Replaced 177,279 $ Annual Efficiency of Oil/Gas System % 80 % Fuel Type? $ Units $/MMBtu Cost per Useful MMBtu Heat in $ $/MMBtu 1 Natural Gas $/MMBtu $ Annual MMBtu Heat From Main Fuel Replaced 5,600 MMBtu 2 Kerosene Oil = 136,600 Btu/gallon $/gallon $ Annual kwh Electric Immersion Used 0 kwh 3 Fuel Oil = 138,200 Btu/gallon $/gallon $ Cost per kwh Unit of Electricity 13 /kwh 4 Propane = 92,000 Btu /gallon $/gallon $ Conversion kwh to MMBtu (x3412) 0 MMBtu Total Cost of Electricity Replaced 0 $ 5 Wood pellets = 16,400,000 Btu /ton $/ton $ Total MMBtu Replaced 5,600 MMBtu 6 Chips 30% MC= 10,600,000 Btu /ton $/ton $ 5.66 Free Solar MMBtu 0 MMBtu ACT Bioenergy Boiler Boiler Heating Demand 5,600 MMBtu Wood Fuel Type Annual Wood Usage in Tonnes 402 Tons of pellets Cost of Wood Per Tonne $ Ton Cost of Wood Per MMBtu $/MMBtu ACT Bioenergy Boiler Annual Efficiency 85 % ACT Bioenergy Boiler cost per useful MMBtu Heat in $ $/MMBtu Year Fossil fuel Cost Per MMBtu (6.6% Inflation per year) Electric Water Heating Cost Per MMBtu (6.6% Inflation) Wood Fuel Cost Per MMBtu (3.7% Inflation per year) Year Running Cost Annual fossil fuel Running Cost $ 177, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,097 Annual Electricity Water Heating Cost $ Total Oil/Gas and Electric Heating Running Costs $ 177, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,097 $ 4,319,983 ACT Bioenergy Boiler O&M Annual ACT Bioenergy Boiler Running Cost $ 139, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,058 $ 2,647,697 Annual Running Cost Saving $ 38,024 45,129 52,855 61,247 70,355 80,231 90, , , , , , , , , , , , , ,039 Saving Cumulative Payback $ 38,024 83, , , , , , , , , ,191 1,087,249 1,263,373 1,457,905 1,672,286 1,908,055 2,166,864 2,450,479 2,760,794 3,099,834 $ 3,099,834 Total Initial Investment Cost $ 378, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,000 38,024 45,129 52,855 61,247 70,355 80,231 90, , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,000 Installed System Cost. Price Estimate 1 Cash Savings from your ACT Bioenergy Boiler (20yr) Wood Boiler 220kW (0.75 MMBtu) Wood Boiler 350kW (1.35 MMBtu) $ 2,721,834 Wood Boiler 500kW (1.7 MMBtu) $ 378, CO2 emissions avoided from your ACT Bioenergy Boiler (20yr) Yellow cells can be changed to test different scenarios $ Tons GreenHouse Gases 11, ,000 Notes: 1. Price estimate includes fuel storage silo and installation costs. 2. Building heating load estimates based on Retscreen Software data( IRR15 19% NPV10 $406,945 IRR10 13% NPV5 ($110,389) IRR5-10%

23 Typical Project Economics n Boiler size 1.7 MMBtu/h n Building heat load gal/yr. n Heating replaced with wood n Installed Cost $378,000 n Simple ROI = 6 yrs. (without incentives) n 20 yr savings = $2,700,000 n 564 t/yr of GHG reduction

24 Project Feasiblity Evaluation Parameters Info requirements Basic Conditions Location, energy demand, electric power availability Fuel Quantities Site logistics System concept design Site engineering Available biomass (type and properties), trucking distance, seasonal fuel variability Fuel delivery method, type and size of storage, fuel handling on site Boiler (type, #, size, specs) exhaust scrubbing Space requirements, building, pipe routing, fuel storage

25 Conclusions n New advanced biomass boiler systems are available and being installed in Alaska n Biomass market is being driven by cost savings even without government incentives. n Technical support is available to help develop projects.

26 Thank You David Dungate ACT Bioenergy Schenectady, NY Tel: Web:

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