1 ACADEMIC PROGRAM: BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CRIMINOLOGY (BSCRIM) A. Curriculum ALDERSGATE COLLEGE SOLANO, NUEVA VIZCAYA, PHILIPPINES 3709 TELEFAX: (078) WEBSITE: SCHOOL OF CRIMINOLOGY SCHOOL OF CRIMINOLOGY BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN CRIMINOLOGY (BSCRIM) Effective FIRST YEAR FIRST TRIMESTER Engl 1 Communication Skills/Study & Thinking None 3 skills in English Fil 1 Sining Sa Pakikipagtalastasan None 3 Math 1 College Algebra None 3 Soc Sci 1 Political Science w/ Phil Constitution None 3 Crim 1 Intro to Criminology &Pscho of Crime None 3 PE 1 Fundamental of Martial Arts None 2 ROTC 11 Military Science & Tactics None SECOND TRIMESTER Engl 2 Speech & Oral Communication Arts Engl 1 3 Math 2 Plane Trigonometry Math 1 3 Fil 2 Pagbasa at pagsulatsaibatibangdisiplina Fil 1 3 Soc Sci 2 General Psychology Soc Sci 1 3 LEA 1 Police Org. & Admin. w/ Police Crim 1 3 Planning Relg 11 Biblical Studies (New & Old Testament) None 3 ROTC 12 Military Science & Tactics ROTC THIRD TRIMESTER P.E 2 Disarming Techniques PE 1 2 Relg 12 Comparative spirituality CR&CB) Relg 11 3 Hist 11 Philippine History None 3
2 SocSci 3 Society & Culture w/ Population Soc Sci 1 & 3 Education 2 Comp 1 Computer Application None 3 Crim 2 Philippine Criminal Justice System Crim SECOND YEAR FIRST TRIMESTER Engl 3 Technical Report Writing Engl 1, 2 3 CLJ 1 Criminal Law (Book 1) CJS 3 CTICS 1 Personal Identification None 6 P.E 3 First Aid & Water Survival None 2 LEA 2 Industrial Security Management LEA 1 3 Philo 1 Logic None SECOND TRIMESTER CDI 1 Fundamental of Criminal Investigation None 3 Crim 3 Ethics and Values Crim 1, 2 3 Engl 30A Effective Communication in English None 3 Engl 4 Technical Investigative Report Writing II Tech 1 3 CLJ 2 Criminal Law (BOOk 2) CLJ 1 3 CTICS 2 Police Photography CTICS THIRD TRIMESTER P.E 4 Marksmanship & Combat Shooting PE 1,2,3 2 LEA 3 Police Patrol Opn. w/ Police Commo LEA 1,2 3 Lit 1 Phil Lit/ Panitikanng Pilipinas None 3 SocSci 4 Basic Economics with TAR Soc Sci Rizal 1 Life & Works of Rizal None 3 Engl 30B Effective Communication in English Engl 30A
3 THIRD YEAR FIRST TRIMESTER CA 1 Institutional Correction None 3 CLJ 3 Criminal Procedure CLJ 1,2 3 CTICS 3 Forensic Ballistics CTICS 1,2, 6 LEA 4 Police Intelligence LEA 1,2,3 3 Crim 4 Juvenile Delinquency & Psycho of Crim 1,2,3 3 Crime CDI 2 Traffic Mgt & Accident Investigation CDI SECOND TRIMESTER CDI 3 Special Crimes Investigation CDI 1,2 3 Nat Sci 1 General Chemistry None 9 P.E 5 Driving Course None 2 CA 2 Non-institutional Correction CA 1 3 CLJ 4 Criminal Evidence CLJ 1,2,3 3 CTICS 4 Questioned Document Examination CTICS 1,2, THIRD TRIMESTER LEA 5 Police Personnel & Records Mgt LEA Crim 5 Human Behavior & Crisis Management Crim CDI 4 Organized Crimes Investigation CDI Nat Sci 2 Forensic Chemistry & Toxicology Nat Sci 1 9 Crim 6 Police Community Relation Crim LEA 6 Comparative Police System LEA
4 FOURTH YEAR FIRST TRIMESTER CDI 5 Drug Education & Vice Control th Year 3 CDI 6 Fire Technology & Arson Investigation th Year 3 CTICS 5 Legal Medicine th Year 3 CLJ 5 Court Testimony th Year 3 CA 1 Course Audit th Year 3 CTICS 5 Polygraphy (Lie detection) th Year 6 Crim 6 Criminological Research & Statistics th Year SECOND TRIMESTER Practicum On-the-Job Training & Community th Year no 45 immersion (Pre-Immersion Phase) back subj. CA 2 Course Audit th Year THIRD TRIMESTER Practicum On-the-Job Training & Community th Year no 45 immersion (Immersion & Post Immersion Phase) back subj Lec Hrs. Lab Hrs. Units s Requirements for Graduation: BSCRIM (Case analysis/study) B. COURSE DESCRIPTION General Education Course (G.E.C s) 1. English 1 Communication Skills 1/Study and Thinking Skills in English ; 1 Semester This course covers the development of communicative competence in English with emphasis on effective reading and writing and listening skills. It is designed to develop language learning strategies, effective communication techniques, and academics study skills. Lessons and activities involve development of oral and written communication skills in different social contexts, reading skills enhancement and effective use of reference and resources.
5 This course aims primarily to develop students with effective language and thinking skills and language-learning strategies necessary for academic studies. 2. English 2 Speech and Oral Communication ; 1 Semester This course gives the students an understanding of the basic principles of speech and voice production and proficiency in their use; speech skills common to all forms of oral communication; the selection and evaluation of materials for speech, and organizational thought, voice, action, and speaker-listener relations. Emphasis is given on the development of oral communication skills for elective presentation and debate, both formal and informal. 3. English 3 Technical and Oral Communication ; 1 Semester This course studies and distinguishes types and purposes of technical reports in criminology, use of appropriate terms of phraseologies to meet needs of readers. Spelling, capitalization, mechanics and techniques of writing reports of cases are investigated, both forms and content. It includes application of principles of appropriate report writing: brevity, clarity, completeness and accuracy of facts, and presentation according to prescribed format and style. Pre-requisite: (English 1 & 2) 4. English 4 Technical English, Investigative Report Writing 2 ; 1 Semester This course gives the student training in the structure and format of making reports and feasibility studies. Fundamentals and styles of report writing; carpeta or prison jacket, form and contents of police reports; manner of holding standard police forms; technique sequences of blotter entries; preparation of arrest and crime reports; fundamentals of records management and the decimal system of reports and document filing; study of uniform crime reports and care and custody of confidential files; criminal statistics and wanted processing. (Pre-requisite: English 1, 2, and 3.) 5. Filipino 1 sining ng Pakikipagtalastasan ; 1 Semester Pag-aralan ang Filipino bilang wikang dinamiko na gagamitin sa komunikasyong pasalita. Lilinangin and apat na makrong kasanayan sa pakikinig, pagsasalita, pagbasa at pagsulat sa pamamagitan ng iba tibang texto at kontexto. 6. Filipino 2 Pagbasa at pagsulat sa ibat-ibang Disiplina ; 1 Semester Ang kursong ito ay magbibigay-pokus sa pagbasa at pagsulat bilang kasangkapan sa pagkatuto. Ituturo sa kursong ito and mga estratehiya sa pagbasa ng ibat-ibang genre ng mga tekstong nakasulat. Lilinangin din ang mga mga kasanayan sa pag-unawa lalo na ang kritikal na pagunawa, ganyundin ang kasanayan sa pagsulat ng ibat-ibang sulating akademik. Magiging batayang paksa ang ukol sa humanidades at agham panlipunan, at agham at teknolohiya. 7. Literatura 1/Literature 1 Ang Panitikan ng Filipinas/ The Literature of the Philippines ; 1 Semester
6 And kursong ito ay sakop and pagaaral sa ibat-ibang anyo ng literature sa pamamagitan ng pagbasa sa ilang tekstong pampanitikan ng hango sa ibat-ibang rehiyon ng Filipinas at ibatibang panahon ng kasaysayan ng bayan. This course deals with the study of literary forms or genres as exemplified by selected literary texts from various regions of the Philippines written at different periods in the Philippine literary history. 8. Mathematics 1 College Algebra ; 1 Semester This course focuses on the fundamental operations in pure and applied mathematics involving algebraic expression, fractions, linear and graduated equations, basic statistical concepts involving collection of crime, data tabular and graphical presentation of data, measures of central tendencies and dispersions, variance and sampling procedures. It also includes logarithms, trigonometric functions, singular measurements, and solution angles. 9. Mathematics 2 Plane Trigonometry ; 1 Semester This subject covers the study of trigonometric functions, identities, measurement of angles, solution of triangles, logarithms, radian measure and mil measure. 10. Natural Science 1 General Chemistry 5 Units: Laboratory 2 units: 3 hours/unit; Lecture 3 units: 1 hour/unit 1 Semester This subject covers the study of general and inorganic chemistry dealing with the basic concepts in elementary chemistry and principles of chemical reactions. It includes the study of common elements with particular attention to application in criminal investigation, also the study of descriptive chemistry of metals, chemistry of carbon and carbon compounds and their principles, and laboratory techniques used in the identification of metallic elements. It also requires lecture, recitation and laboratory. 11. Natural Science 2 Forensic Chemistry and Toxicology 5 Units: Laboratory 2 units: 3 hours /unit Lecture 3 units: 1 hour/unit 1 Semester This course deals with the application of chemistry in the identification of physical evidence. It includes collection, preservation, examination and study of blood, semen and other body fluids, gunpowder and explosives, hair and textile fibers, chemical aspects of document examinations, problems of glass fragments and glass fractures, moulage, metallurgy, any petrography as applied to crime investigation, study of nature, physiological action, chemical and physical properties, dosage, treatment and detection of poisons. It also requires lecture, recitation, and laboratory. (Pre-requisite: Natural Science 1.) 12. Philosophy 1 Introduction to Philosophy with Logic ; 1 Semester This course is a specially outlined study of the basic principles of philosophy and its branches covering psychology, ethics and theodicy. It also covers an introduction to formal logic to develop the student s skills in forming clear and systematic thought, conducting inquiries and carrying out abstract logical and critical thinking.
7 13. Social Science 1 Fundamental of Political Science with Philippine Constitution. ; 1 Semester This course deals with the basic concepts of political Science (i.e. power, state government, ideology, nation, and political forces), the types of political systems and the processes of political government. It includes studies of the principles and concepts of political science especially as they apply to the Philippines, the historical development of political institutions from pre-spanish times to the present with special emphasis on the new constitution. 14. Social Science 2 General Psychology ; 1 Semester This is an introductory course to the study of psychology as a science of human behavior. Discussion of different theories, principles, and concepts aim to give the students basic knowledge of human behavior and focus on the fundamental questions of how and why we think, feel and behave the way we do; how we get along with one another; and why we become the unique individuals the we are. 15. Social Science 3 Society and Culture with Population Education ; 1 Semester This course deals with the structures of human societies, the main forces that hold groups together or weaken them, as well as the conditions that transform social life. It also discussed the development and characteristics of Filipino culture, the personal and social values of Filipinos, the historical influence on cultural variations, the structure of Filipino culture viewed in terms of adoptability to change, and understanding of different cultures in today s world with emphasis on population, social change and rural development. 16. Social Science 4 Principles of Economics with Taxation and Land Reform ; 1 Semester This covers an introduction to economics. It deals with the basic concepts of microeconomics, money and banking, economic growth and development and international economics. It also includes discussion on the basic concepts of taxation and land reform. 17. Computer 1 Computer Literacy ; 1 Semester The subject presents an overview of computer hardware, software, and information system as applied to various police functions. This serves as an introduction to computers as data processing tool. Students are given basic training in word processing, spreadsheet, and internet. 18. Philippine History ; 1 Semester This course provides a general survey of the history of the Filipino people from the precolonial times to the present. It analyzes the causes and impact of colonization and traces the stream and growth of Filipino nationalism and cultural heritage.
8 19. Rizal Course Life and Works of Rizal This course deals with an analysis, evaluation and interpretation of Rizal s life, his birth and parentage, education and travels. The student is initiated to a reflective study of Rizal s thoughts, ideas as revealed in his Novels, Poems and Essays. It also includes discussion in the validity, applicability and usefulness of Rizal s ideas to contemporary Philippine Society. PROFESSIONAL SUBJECTS (PS) 1. Criminology 1 Introduction to Criminology and Psychology of Crimes An overview of the different Schools of thought in Criminology; theories that explain criminal behavior; techniques of measuring the characteristics of criminals, crime, and victims; the interrelatedness of theory, policy, and practice in the criminal justice system; current issues and studies in criminology. 2. Criminology 2 Philippine Criminal Justice System The study of the five (5) pillars of Criminal Justice in the Philippines Law enforcement, the Prosecution, the Courts, the Corrections, and the Community. It also includes their respective functional relationships as well as individual roles in the Administration of the Criminal Justice System in the solution of crimes. 3. Criminology 3 Police Ethics and Values This course deals with the study of the PNP code of professional conduct and setting of standards that spells out how police officers ought to behave in the performance of duty and/or rendering services to the community. It gives emphasis on a humanity-oriented discipline intended to develop and understanding of the norms of appropriate action in law enforcement and their stand on the basic issue including the legal and moral duties of law enforcement toward the community, based on Presidential Decree Criminology 4 Juvenile Delinquency and Crime Prevention This course focuses on the Etiology of delinquent and criminal behavior and the factors that bring about juvenile delinquency; the prevention and control of teenage crime and manner of combating it; influence of community institutions on delinquency; the organization of civic and government councils for the prevention of juvenile delinquency; the establishment of recreation and character building agencies; counseling and guidance clinic for juveniles and police juvenile control bureaus; study of juvenile courts; probation service and correctional institutions; study of social welfare and development agencies and the laws applicable. (Pre-requisite: Criminal Sociology 1.) 5. Criminology 5 Human Behavior and Crisis Management This course deals with the processes of understanding the abnormal behavior in relation to crime and the adoption of strategies and tactics in dealing with potential and actual crisis. It
9 includes the art of negotiation and the application of appropriate force during an emergency situation. 6. Criminology 6 Criminological Research & Statistics This course explores the different ways in which criminological research is carried out. It includes the different styles of criminological research (e.g. policy-related, action-based), different types of research design, and the use of statistics. 7. LEA 1 - Police Organization & Administration with Police Planning This course deals with the study on the principles underlying the police organization and management with particular focus on the constitutional mandates the R.A 6975; R.A 8551 together with previews laws and issuances relating thereto. It includes the organizational structure and administration of the Philippine National Police, both national and local levels. Emphasis is given on direction, supervision, coordination and control of all local police forces as a homogenous body under a single command. This course is also designed to equip students with knowledge on the development of effective plans particularly on strategies and tactics for effective operations. It includes the emphasis on the special techniques and procedures applicable to unusual needs like unusual criminal activities, civil disturbances, special community events, disaster plans, and civil defense. 8. LEA 2 - Industrial Security management The course deals with the study on organizational setup, administration and operation of security agencies, special police and investigation agencies. It includes the study on Republic Act no otherwise known as the private Security Agency Law. 9. LEA 3 - Police Patrol Operation with Police Communication System This course deals with the study on the organizational setup of a patrol force, its function and responsibility; patrol supervision and its functional relationships with other police units. It includes the study of the various systems of police communication like telephone, radio, TV and Teletype; techniques in transmission of messages thru the various media and its application to the requirements of police administration and operations; use of police call boxes and 2-way Radio; as well as instruction on the use of modern electronic gadgets on the transmission of messages such as the use of signal lights and flares. 10. LEA 4 Police Intelligence This course deals with comparative study of Military and Police intelligence functions and operations, types of police intelligence, phases of intelligence cycle; modus operandi (MO) and order of battle regulations (OBR) system for identification of criminals and other threats to national security.
10 11. LEA 5 - Police Personnel & Records Management This course deals with the study of police personnel management functions from recruitment to retirement; application of NAPOLCOM and PNP rules and regulations; police records management; and preparation of police personnel reports. 12. LEA 6 - Comparative Police System This study covers the role of Interpol in promoting cooperation among police organizations in the world in order to fight international crimes. It includes an overview of selected police models and the contribution of different police forces to world peace through the United Nations. 13. CDI 1 - Fundamental of Criminal Instigation This course covers the concepts and principles of criminal investigation including the modern techniques in crime detection and investigation. This also includes modern techniques in processing the crime scene involving Murder, Homicide, Rape, Robbery, etc. it also aims to study the concepts and general principles of arrests, searches and seizures, and the rights of the accused during custodial investigation. 14. CDI 2 - Traffic Mgt & Accident Investigation This course covers the study of the fundamentals of traffic safety education, enforcement, engineering, techniques in vehicular and pedestrian direction and control, techniques in point and intersectional vehicle-volume determination for emergency and priority controls; study of different traffic Decrees, Codes in national and local levels; techniques in selective enforcement preparation of plan s and policies for special and emergency traffic situations; methods and procedures in the use of the hand signals and electronic signal lights; techniques in accident investigation; determination of reaction-time and brake-in-time application of scientific aids in hit-and-run cases. (Pre-requisite: Crime detection 1). 15. CDI 3- Special Crimes Investigation This study focuses on crimes committed by person, group of persons, or corporation while undertaking legitimate profession or business occupation. It includes but is not limited to computer crimes, fraud against the government, insurance fraud, tax fraud, bribery, corruption, money laundering, and bankruptcy frauds. 16. CDI 4 - Organized Crimes Investigation This is a study of the nature of organized crimes, their attributes and categories. The study includes international and local organized groups of Criminals. 17. CDI 5 - Drug Education & Vice Control This course studies the drug abuse prevention and education program of the government that includes recognition, nature and extent of drug problems; causes and influence of drug abuse;
11 origin, identification and classification of commonly abused drugs, prohibited and regulated drugs and symptoms of drug abuse. This course also includes preventive drug abuse education and information program in schools and communities; and treatment and rehabilitation program for drug dependents. (Pre-requisite: Crime Detection 1). 18. CDI 6 Fire Technology and Arson Investigation The entire course covers the principles of the technology of fire and its behavior. Emphasis is also given on fire investigation and the role of firefighters during fire suppression and investigation. It also includes the study of the fire and building code, law on destructive arson including arson investigation. (Pre-requisite: Crime Detection 1). 19. Criminalistics 1 Personal Identification 4 units: 2 units lecture (2hours/week 2 unit lab (4hours/week 1 semester This course covers the fundamental study of ancient and modern methods of personal identification with emphasis on Dactyloscopy, Orthodontology and Palmistry, that embraces the identification and comparison of fingerprint patterns and ridge characteristics; the scientific method of recognition, development and preservation of latent prints; and the recording and classifying of fingerprints that include the Henry System and FBI Extension. 20. Criminalistics 2 - Police Photography 4 units: 2 units lecture (2hours/week 2 unit lab (4hours/week 1 semester This course deals with the study on the history of Photography, technical photography and forensic photography. Police Photography shall also cover the study of advance photo system and its application in police work. 21. Criminalistics 3 Forensic Ballistics 4 units: 2 units lecture (2hours/week 2 unit lab (4hours/week 1 semester This course deals with scientific study of firearm identification with the use of laboratory examination. The subject gives emphasis on the study of ammunitions, projectiles, gunpowder, primer and explosives, including the use of bullet comparison microscope. It also deals with the principles in the microscopic and macroscopic examination of firearm evidences and the preparation of reports for legal proceedings in the solution of cases involving firearms. 22. Criminalistics 4 - Questioned Document Examination 4 units: 2 units lecture (2hours/week 2 unit lab (4hours/week 1 semester This course covers the scientific methods of identification and examination of questionable documents, handwriting examination, detection of forgery, falsification and counterfeiting of documents and obliterations; examination of documents by means of visible light, ultra-violet and infra-red radiation and colored powders; recognition and selection of standards; and examination of questionable typewriting, computerized documents and other forms of modern printing.
12 23. Criminalistics 5 - Polygraphy (Lie Detection) 4 units: 2 units lecture (2hours/week 2 unit lab (4hours/week 1 semester This course deals with the study of lie detection and interrogation. It covers the methods and techniques of conducting polygraph examination and other conventional methods of detecting deception. The focus of the study is on the uses of the polygraph instrument and the standard procedures of polygraph examination including modern deception detection techniques. 24. Criminalistics 6 - Legal Medicine This course deals with the application of medical science in crime investigation with emphasis on the medico-legal aspects of physical injuries: death and crimes, abortion, infanticide, paternity, and filiations, impotency, sterility and poisoning. 25. Criminal Law 1 (Book one) Study of the general provisions of the Revised Penal Code, Special Criminal Statutes of the Philippines, Presidential Decrees and Letters of Instructions and cases relative thereto. 26. Criminal Law 2 (Book two) This course covers the study of crimes and penalties. It includes the study of elements of crimes embodied in the Revised Penal Code Book 2, and the circumstances which affect criminal liabilities. It also study jurisprudence. (Pre-requisite: Book One) 27. Criminal Law 3 Criminal Procedure This course deals with the rules of court on criminal procedure and cases covering the law of arrest, search and seizures, rules of preliminary investigation, the granting of bail, and the rights of the accused. 28. Criminal Law 4 Criminal Evidence This course deals with the study of the fundamental principles of criminal evidence as embodied in the Rules of Court. 29. Criminal Law 5 Court Testimony This course deals with the observation, enactment and the participation of the police officers in the Court process. 30. CA 1 - Institutional Administration This course covers an examination of the history, philosophy and objectives of imprisonment and the development of prisons. It includes the study of institutional agencies in the Philippines, to include the BJMP which oversees city and Municipal Jails; provincial Jails and the Bureau of Corrections and its institutions in term of their structures, management, standards,
13 programs and services. It includes critical analysis of the laws creating these agencies to determine areas for possible improvement. 31. CA 2 Non-Institutional Correction This course covers the study of the Presidential Decree No. 968 otherwise known as the Probation Law of 1976 as amended, establishing a probation system in the Philippines, its historical background, philosophy, concepts and the operation as a new correctional system, investigation, selection and condition of probation s distinction between incarceration, parole, probation and other forms of probation in the administration of Criminal Justice System. This course also treats the study of Act No as amended otherwise known as Indeterminate Sentence Law that created the Board of Pardons and Parole, system of releases and recognizance, execution, clemency and pardon. 32. P.E 1 Fundamental of Martial Arts 2 Units (2 Hours/week) 1 Semester The course deals on the study of Judo, Karate-do, and arnis as a means of self-defense for law enforcement officer, it includes the instructions on safety falls, kickback throws, fighting stances, pushing and open hand strikes, hand grips and grabbing, headlock and hammer lock, running and conditioning the body through calisthenics, developing force and flexibility. This course is a two-unit subject, lecture-demonstration-application, intended for criminology students and police officers. 33. P.E 2 Disarming Techniques and Boxing 2 Units (2 Hours/week) 1 Semester This course deals on the study and practice of martial arts as a means of self-defense of law enforcement officer. The study put emphasis on special instructions in physical conditioning, unarmed defense tactics, offensive and defensive procedures, pistol disarming, defense against knife and club attacks. It also includes the application of the different principles of Karate-do, Aikido long stick, police baton, taekwan-do, thai boxing and other forms of martial arts. This demonstration-application subject is intended for criminology students. 34. P.E 3 First Aid and Water Survival and Life Saving 2 Units (2 Hours/week) 1 Semester The course revolves around the basic principles of first aid in emergencies: application of artificial respiration and treatment of shock; first aid in cases involving burns, bone injuries, poisoning, strokes, fainting and convulsion, immobilizing and transferring the victim to a place of safety, and transporting the injured to the hospitals. Special instruction in swimming and forms of rescue operation, resuscitation in the recovery of submerged victims, safety measures and accident prevention are also presented. 35. P.E 4 Marksmanship and Combat Shooting 2 Units (2 Hours/week) 1 Semester This deals with combat shooting course for police officers; practice in the use of handguns, riot guns, Armalites and machineguns in defense combat; firing at moving and stationary targets; training in firearms shooting positions; practice in quick draw techniques and night firing.
14 36. Practicum On-the-Job Training and Community Immersion 6 units 540 hours 1 Semester This course is designed to develop an insight into the actual operation of a police station, Jail or Penal Institution, Fire Departments and Security Agencies and other agencies comprising the five Pillars of the Criminal Justice System and the relationship between them as a supplement and conjunction with the academic program; off-campus or practicum program in selected police agencies; actual field work, observation and practice of police tasks, activities or operations, including patrol, traffic, crime investigation, Criminalistics performed internships requiring observations in the Penal Institutions, Jails, Reformatories in DSWD and other agencies with relations to the course program. This course is also aimed at providing students with an opportunity to understand the economic, social, and cultural reality of the community. It is centered on students getting in touch with themselves as they interact and relate with individuals, groups, and families in selected nearby community, the course is divided into three phases namely: Pre-Immersion phase, Immersion phase, and Post-Immersion phase.