GROUP BEHAVIOUR. Dr. M. Thenmozhi Professor Department of Management Studies. Indian Institute of Technology Madras

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1 GROUP BEHAVIOUR Dr. M. Thenmozhi Professor Department of Management Studies Chennai

2 Group Behaviour

3 INTRODUCTION TO GROUP BEHAVIOUR What are Groups? Two or more individuals, interacting and Interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives Group Behaviour Group behaviour emanates from the causes that contribute to the group s effectiveness. The well structured, well defined role and status hierarchy, able leadership, well developed norms and strong cohesiveness a group has, the greater is the groupthink. Groupthink is defined as the deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgement in the interest of group solidarity. As groups function and interact with other groups, they develop their own unique set of characteristics including structure, cohesiveness, roles, norms and processes. As a result, groups may cooperate or compete with other groups, and intergroup competition can lead to conflict.

4 WHY DO PEOPLE WORK IN GROUPS? Security By joining a group, individuals can reduce the insecurity of standing alone. People feel stronger, have fewer self-doubts, and are more resistant to threats when they are part of a group. Status Inclusion in a group that is viewed as important by others provides recognition and status for its members. Self-Esteem Groups can provide people with feelings of self-worth. That is, in addition to conveying status to those outside the group, membership can also give increased feelings of worth to the group members themselves. Power What cannot be achieved individually often becomes possible through group action. There is power in numbers. Goal Achievement There are times when it takes more than one person to accomplish a particular task; there is a need to pool talents, knowledge, or power in order to complete a job.

5 STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT Forming The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty Storming The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict Norming The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness Performing The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional Adjourning The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance

6 A SCHEMATIC OF THE STAGES OF GROUP DEVELOPMENT Prestage 1 Stage I Forming Stage II Storming Stage III Norming Stage IV Performing Stage V Adjourning

7 GROUP BEHAVIOUR MODEL Group member resources Group Task External conditions imposed on the group Group Process Performance and satisfaction Group Structure

8 EXTERNAL CONDITIONS IMPOSED ON THE GROUP Groups are a subset of a larger workplace consisting of the following: Organization Strategy Organizational Infrastructure Leadership Rules Resources Evaluation and Rewards Organizational Culture GROUP MEMBER RESOURCES A group s potential level of performance is, to a large extent, dependent on the resources that its members individually bring to the group. Abilities Set the parameters for what members can do and how effectively they will perform in a group Personality Characteristics The magnitude of the effect of any single Characteristic is small, but taking personality characteristics together, the consequences for group behaviour are of major significance.

9 ROLES A role is a set of expected behaviour patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. Role Identity: Certain attitudes and behaviours consistent with a role Role Perception: An individual s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation Role Expectations: How others believe a person should act in a given situation Role Conflict: A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations ROLES IN GROUPS Task-oriented roles Roles performed by group members to ensure that the tasks of the group are accomplished Maintenance roles Roles performed by group members to maintain good relations within the group Individual roles Roles performed by group members that are not productive for keeping the group on task

10 GROUP COHESIVENESS, PRODUCTIVITY VS PERFORMANCE Cohesiveness High Low Performance Norms High Low High productivity Low productivity Moderate productivity Moderate to low productivity BUILDING BETTER WORKING GROUPS Assigning Appropriate Tasks Providing Organizational Support Building Group Cohesiveness

11 ASSIGNING APPROPRIATE TASKS The group task is a whole and meaningful piece of work, with a visible outcome The outcomes of the group s work on the task have significant consequences for other people The task provides group members with substantial autonomy for deciding about how they do the work Work on the task generates regular, trustworthy feedback about how well the group is performing BUILDING GROUP COHESIVENESS Clear Purpose Participation Civilized Disagreement Open Communications Listening Informal Climate Consensus Decisions Clear Roles and Work Assignments Shared Leadership Style Diversity External Relationships Self-assessment

12 TEAMWORKING TEAM AND TEAMWORKING DEFINITION Specific form of group made up of individuals who work together in a coordinated effort. CHARACTERISTICS 1. Share common identity 2. Have common goals and objectives 3. Share common leadership 4. Share successes and failures 5. Cooperate and collaborate 6. Have membership roles 7. Make decision effectively

13 BENEFITS a) To the organization 1. Increased productivity and quality 2. Increased employee morale 3. Reduced overhead b) To individuals 1. Work become less stressful 2. Responsibility is shared 3. Greater feelings of self-worth 4. Rewards and recognition are shared TEAM FORMATION AND ASSESSMENT TEAM RECRUITMENT CONSIDERATION 1. The level of technical ability of potential team members 2. The level of interpersonal skills of potential team members

14 TEAM SELECTION CRITERIA 1. Personal attributes 2. Interpersonal behaviors 3. Communication skills 4. Administrative skills TEAM FORMATION AND ASSESSMENT TEAM RECRUITMENT CONSIDERATION 1. The level of technical ability of potential team members 2. The level of interpersonal skills of potential team members TEAM SELECTION CRITERIA 1. Personal attributes 2. Interpersonal behaviors 3. Communication skills 4. Administrative skills

15 TEAM DEVELOPMENT STAGES OF TEAM DEVELOPMENT Stage I: Orientation or forming Stage II: Conflict or storming Stage III: Collaboration or norming Stage IV: Productivity or performing Stage V: Changing or transforming TEAM MEMBERS ROLES DEFINITION OF TEAM -MEMBER ROLES Interaction to carry out tasks where members settle into individual 'roles' by mutual consent. Such roles include both task and processes aspects of the team's interaction. THE ROLES 1. Giving information 2. Seeking information 3. Initiating 4. Standard setting 5. Clarifying 6. Summarizing 7. Consensus testing

16 DECISION MAKING DEFINITION OF DECISION MAKING The process by which individuals or groups arrive at a decision, judgment, or conclusion through a process of deliberation A DECISION-MAKING MODEL 1. Clarify the purpose of the decision 2. Establish criteria 3. Separate the criteria 4. Generate options 5. Compare options 6. Identify the risks of each option 7. Assess the risks of each option by ranking them 8. Make the decision

17 DECISION MAKING PROCEDURES 1. Decision by authority 2. Decision by minority 3. Decision by majority 4. Decision by consensus 5. Decision by unanimity ADVANTAGES OF PARTICIPATORY DECISION MAKING 1. Increased information and knowledge 2. Increased diversity of views 3. Increased acceptance of the solution 4. Increased legitimacy RESOLVING TEAM CONFLICT DEFINITION OF CONFLICT Emotional disturbance resulting from a clash of opposing points of view or from an inability to manage those points of view with realistic or moral considerations

18 VIEW OF CONFLICT 1. Traditional perspective 2. Human relation perspective 3. Interactionist perspective MEETING MANAGEMENT SKILLS DEFINATION OF A TEAM MEETING Act or process of coming to gather for a common purpose: OBJECTIVE OF MEETING 1. To share information 2. To receive information 3. To generate new ideas 4. To analyze and solve problem 5. To reach group decisions 6. To explain problems or goals and gain support 7. To make recommendations 8. To motivate employees

19 PREPARE THE AGENDA 1. The topics to be discussed 2. The person responsible for each topic 3. The time allocated for each topic 4. The topic category PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION OF PROBLEM SOLVING Objective examination of issues to arrive at a solution THE SEVEN-STEP PROCESS Step 1: Define the problem Step 2: Identify the desired future state Step 3: Identify the forces acting on the problem Step 4: Analyze the forces acting on the problem Step 5: Plan a strategy Step 6: Develop an action plan Step 7: Evaluate

20 POLITICS OF PARTICIPATION DEFINITION OF THE POLITICS OF PARTICIPATION Competing interests involved when teams play a role in deciding organizational undertaking CRITICAL FACTORS 1. Management's philosophy and core values 2. Organizational structure 3. Problem solving groups 4. Information system 5. Physical and technical design 6. Reward systems 7. Personnel policies 8. Career systems 9. Employee-selection systems 10. Training orientation 11. Leadership style

21 CRITICAL ROLES IN THE CHANGE PROCESS 1. The sponsor 2. The change agent 3. The target 4. The champion CONFLICT, NEGOTIATION AND INTER GROUP BEHAVIOUR CONFLICTS Traditional view: All conflicts are dysfunctional, to be avoided. Human relations view: Conflicts are inevitable. Interactionist view : There should be a minimum number of constructive conflicts. NEGOTIATION BARGAINING 1. Distributive bargaining 2. Integrative bargaining 3. Third party negotiations: - Mediator, arbitrator, conciliator, consultant.

22 SUMMARY Conflicts can be either constructive or destructive to the functioning of the group or unit. Distributive bargaining can resolve disputes but it often negatively affects one or more negotiators satisfaction. Integrative bargaining, in contrast,tends to provide outcomes that satisfy all parties and to build lasting relationships. According to the interactionists view,even all intergroupconflicts need not be dysfunctional. INTERGROUP RELATIONS 1. Interdependence 2. Liaison roles 3. Task forces THE CONFLICT PROCESS 1. Potential opposition or incompatibility. 2. Cognition and personalization 3. Intentions: Competing Collaborating Avoiding Accommodating Compromising

23 CONFLICT MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES 1. Problem solving 2. Super-ordinate goals 3. Expansion of resources 4. Avoidance 5. Smoothie 6. Compromise 7. Authoritative command 8. Altering human and structural variables. TEAMWORKING TEAM AND TEAMWORKING DEFINITION Specific form of group made up of individuals who work together in a coordinated effort.

24 CHARACTERISTICS 1. Share common identity 2. Have common goals and objectives 3. Share common leadership 4. Share successes and failures 5. Cooperate and collaborate 6. Have membership roles 7. Make decision effectively BENEFITS a) To the organization 1. Increased productivity and quality 2. Increased employee morale 3. Reduced overhead b) To individuals 1. Work become less stressful 2. Responsibility is shared 3. Greater feelings of self-worth 4. Rewards and recognition are shared

25 TEAM FORMATION AND ASSESSMENT TEAM RECRUITMENT CONSIDERATION 1. The level of technical ability of potential team members 2. The level of interpersonal skills of potential team members TEAM SELECTION CRITERIA 1. Personal attributes 2. Interpersonal behaviors 3. Communication skills 4. Administrative skills TEAM DEVELOPMENT STAGES OF TEAM DEVELOPMENT Stage I: Orientation or forming Stage II: Conflict or storming Stage III: Collaboration or norming Stage IV: Productivity or performing Stage V: Changing or transforming

26 TEAM MEMBERS ROLES DEFINITION OF TEAM -MEMBER ROLES Interaction to carry out tasks where members settle into individual 'roles' by mutual consent. Such roles include both task and processes aspects of the team's interaction. THE ROLES 1. Giving information 2. Seeking information 3. Initiating 4. Standard setting 5. Clarifying 6. Summarizing 7. Consensus testing DECISION MAKING DEFINITION OF DECISION MAKING The process by which individuals or groups arrive at a decision, judgment, or conclusion through a process of deliberation

27 A DECISION-MAKING MODEL 1. Clarify the purpose of the decision 2. Establish criteria 3. Separate the criteria 4. Generate options 5. Compare options 6. Identify the risks of each option 7. Assess the risks of each option by ranking them 8. Make the decision DECISION MAKING PROCEDURES 1. Decision by authority 2. Decision by minority 3. Decision by majority 4. Decision by consensus 5. Decision by unanimity

28 ADVANTAGES OF PARTICIPATORY DECISION MAKING 1. Increased information and knowledge 2. Increased diversity of views 3. Increased acceptance of the solution 4. Increased legitimacy RESOLVING TEAM CONFLICT DEFINITION OF CONFLICT Emotional disturbance resulting from a clash of opposing points of view or from an inability to manage those points of view with realistic or moral considerations VIEW OF CONFLICT 1. Traditional perspective 2. Human relation perspective 3. Interactionist perspective MEETING MANAGEMENT SKILLS DEFINATION OF A TEAM MEETING Act or process of coming to gather for a common purpose:

29 OBJECTIVE OF MEETING 1. To share information 2. To receive information 3. To generate new ideas 4. To analyze and solve problem 5. To reach group decisions 6. To explain problems or goals and gain support 7. To make recommendations 8. To motivate employees PREPARE THE AGENDA 1. The topics to be discussed 2. The person responsible for each topic 3. The time allocated for each topic 4. The topic category PROBLEM SOLVING DEFINITION OF PROBLEM SOLVING Objective examination of issues to arrive at a solution

30 THE SEVEN-STEP PROCESS Step 1: Define the problem Step 2: Identify the desired future state Step 3: Identify the forces acting on the problem Step 4: Analyze the forces acting on the problem Step 5: Plan a strategy Step 6: Develop an action plan Step 7: Evaluate POLITICS OF PARTICIPATION DEFINITION OF THE POLITICS OF PARTICIPATION Competing interests involved when teams play a role in deciding organizational undertaking CRITICAL FACTORS 1. Management's philosophy and core values 2. Organizational structure 3. Problem solving groups 4. Information system 5. Physical and technical design

31 6. Reward systems 7. Personnel policies 8. Career systems 9. Employee-selection systems 10. Training orientation 11. Leadership style CRITICAL ROLES IN THE CHANGE PROCESS 1. The sponsor 2. The change agent 3. The target 4. The champion

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