Lecture 5. The Cell The cell membrane and Membrane Proteins

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1 Lecture 5 The Cell The cell membrane and Membrane Proteins

2 The cell Ameoba- single celled organism A single human cell The Cell is the simplest collec4on of ma9er that can live Cells 4ssue organ

3 The cell chromosomes ribosome Plasma membrane Ameoba- single celled organism A single human cell The Cell is the simplest collec4on of ma9er that can live Cells 4ssue organ

4 The cell chromosomes ribosome Cytoplasm Plasma membrane Ameoba- single celled organism A single human cell The Cell is the simplest collec4on of ma9er that can live Cells 4ssue organ

5 2 Main cell types: Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic 3.5 billion yrs ago 1.5 billion yrs ago No organelles Only ribosomes Genetic material floats free Thick cell wall made of peptidoglycan Eukaryotic cells are ~ ten times larger than prokaryotic cells. No cell wall (animals) Or Cell wall made from cellulose (plants)

6 nucleus cytoplasm cell membrane mitochondria endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus ribosomes cytoskeleton centriole eukaryotic cell All eukaryotic cells have a number of features in common. These include: An organelle is a specialized part of a cell Analogous to the organs of mul4cellular animals.

7 eukaryotic cell The three main parts of every eukaryo4c cell are: The cell membrane (its outside or coa4ng) The nucleus (its center or brain) The cytoplasm (everything in between), which is also called cytosol The cell membrane: - keeps the cell together. Separates living cell from non- living surrounds - Is not solid. It has 4ny openings that let things in and out. - exhibits selec4ve permeabilty = allowing some substances to cross more readily than others This is very important for life allows nutrients in - allows waste out

8 Macrophage Macrophage T-cells Nerve cells

9 Cell membranes are fluid mosaics of lipids and proteins Cellular membranes Cell membrane is made up of a phospholipid bilayer

10 Amphipathic molecules Phospho-lipids

11 Plasma membrane is made up of a phospholipid bilayer Creates a stable boundary between 2 aqueous compartments Discovered in the 1900 s

12 Model of the cell membrane A plasma membrane will adhere to water Two schools of thought on how 1930 s 1960 s

13 Model of the cell membrane 1. not all membranes have the same % of proteins associated with them 2. membrane proteins are not very soluble in water Singer and Nicholson

14 Cell membrane Mosaic of proteins Lipids are always moving sideways Proteins dril slowly Cholesterol act as a temperature buffer keeping the membrane fluid at moderate temperatures Membranes must be fluid to work

15 Membrane proteins Phospholipids- fabric of the cell membrane Proteins determine membranes specific functions Different types of cells-different types of proteins Different organelles within a cell-different proteins

16 Membrane proteins 2 types of membrane protein- 1. Integral proteins penetrate the hydrophobic core, many are transmembrane 2. Peripheral proteins are not embedded in the membrane at all, they are olen bound to exposed integral proteins or loosely to the surface of the membrane

17 Membrane proteins

18 Transmembrane protein eg Bacteriorhodopsin Transmembrane, hydrophobic regions are usually alpha helical

19 6 major Membrane protein func4ons Hydrophilic channel or Carrier protein Tight junc4ons formed between cells Team of enzymes Glycoprotein- ID tag Stablises loca4on of certain proteins

20 Transport across the membrane 3 modes of transport:

21 Transport across a membrane Regulation of transport across the cell membrane-essential its to existence Eg. Muscle cells Sugars, amino acids, oxygen, ions in Carbon dioxide, ions, metabolic waste Cell membrane is selectively permeable out

22 Diffusion-passive transport What dictates the direction of transport? Diffusion- tendency for molecules of any substance to spread evenly into available space Any substance will diffuse down its concentration gradient- spontaneous process no energy required Small hydrophobic molecules will diffuse across the membrane Eg. Oxygen crosses into cells performing cellular respira4on

23 Selective Permeability Membrane proteins key role in regulating transport } Need protein transporters

24 Selective permeability Charged and polar molecules can cross the membrane by passing through transport proteins Transport proteins span the membrane Transport proteins are very specific 2 types- channel and carrier Channel protein eg. aquaporin Carrier protein eg glucose

25 Facilitated Diffusion-Passive Transport Diffusion of hydrophilic solutes across the membrane must be facilitated by transport proteins High conc. of solute Low conc. of solute channel transporter: eg. Aquaporin for water or Sodium channel for Na+ Transport proteins are very specific Channel proteins provide hydrophilic corridors Eg.s Ion channels- Gated ion channelsstimulus regulated Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Ligand gated ion channel eg. neurotransmi<ers

26 Facilitated Diffusion-Passive Transport Carrier proteinschange shape in order to translocate substances across the membrane Changes in shape triggered by the binding and release of the transported molecule Carrier protein eg. Glucose transporter Facilitated Diffusion is passive because the solute moves down the gradient

27 Active transport-uses energy Movement of substances against their concentration gradient across the membrane From a low concentration to a high concentration Requires work- cell uses energy- active All active transporters are carrier proteins Active transport enables a cell to maintain higher internal concentrations of molecule compared to the external environment

28 Active transport ATP supplies the energy for active transport ATP can transfer its terminal phosphate group directly to the transport protein: transfer of energy phosphorylation Eg of a carrier protein that requires ATP to transport is the sodium-potassium pump Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the cells energy molecule

29 Sodium-potassium protein pump High in Na+ High in K+ Sodium and Potassium are being pumped against their concentration gradient Sodium is already higher outside the cell and potassium is already higher inside the cell

30 Sodium-potassium protein pump Sodium- potassium pump = electrogenic pump = Generates a voltage across the membrane - More charged inside a cell than outside - creates an electrochemical gradient

31 Membrane potential Voltage across the membrane = membrane potential -storage of electrical potential energy This potential energy can be tapped into by the cell to carry out work, instead of using ATP eg.: the diffusion of H+ ions back down their electrochemical gradient can be coupled to the active transport of Sucrose against its concentration gradient

32 In Summary...Transport across the membrane

33 Biology Campbell and Reece Chapters 5, 7 and 8

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