Sounding Rockets and Stratospheric Balloons, Unique Test Platforms for Re-entry Systems at Esrange

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1 Sounding Rockets and Stratospheric Balloons, Christian Lockowandt, Mattias Abrahamsson, Gunnar Florin Swedish Space Corporation 1

2 The least populated area in Europe Esrange N E Norway Finland 6000 km 2 restricted airspace Kiruna Esrange 2

3 The Recovery Area Land recovery Payload back in 1H 3

4 The Recovery Area Unique Test Platforms for Re-entry Systems at Esrange 8th ATD Symposium March Land recovery Payload back in 1H 4

5 Drop tests from balloons Stratospheric balloons are used for scientific measurements, drop tests of aerospace vehicles and parachute systems. The complex and risky drop tests are possible due to the large uninhabited restricted impact area. Drop test missions can include free falling objects weighing up to 1 tonne and have to be performed according to strict flightand ground safety rules. 5

6 UNIQUE OPPORTUNITIES The combination of having sophisticated facilities on ground and an impact area located north of Esrange Space Center offers several unique advantages in launching balloons. High-altitude drop tests from balloons are performed at turnaround periods of jet-streams in May-June and August-September 6

7 HISTORY The Microba project developed as part of the German microgravity research programme during The Huygens probe, as a part of the Cassini satellite mission to Saturn, was drop tested by CNES at Esrange in HSFD II (High Speed Flight Demonstrator Phase II) a French/Japanese campaign was carried out at Esrange in

8 D-SEND Project The D-SEND project is performed by JAXA. The goal is to design a silent supersonic transportation system that is economically viable and eco friendly for travels in the 21st century. SSC is working with JAXA in the first two parts in the development. D-SEND#1 and D-SEND#2 8

9 D-SEND microphone system JAXA used their own developed recording system on ground with microphones in the field. The low frequency microphones and data recorders are installed at different heights under a tethered blimp which is situated 1000 Meters above ground. Data Recorder Microphones The microphones measures the effect of the turbulence to the sonic boom signature. Blimp Ascending The microphone system is used both in D- SEND#1 and 2 9

10 D-SEND#1 The project demonstrated a reduced sonic boom for aircraft with a nonconventional shape by releasing drop models from a high altitude (20-30 km) to reach supersonic speeds and produce sonic booms. The drop bodies include electronics that measure their motion, while the microphone systems at lower altitudes record the sonic booms. 10

11 D-SEND#1 SSC s engineers developed the balloon gondola and four drop models according to JAXA s specifications. SSC also conducted the two drop tests. Each gondola released two drop models in quick succession, thus making SSC the first to drop such heavy objects from a single balloon in sequence. The two flights were performed in the spring of 2011 with excellent results 11

12 D-SEND#2 Project The D-SEND#2 objectives are: Demonstration of JAXA s low-sonic-boom design concepts. Demonstration of the airborne sonic-boom measurement method Verify low boom propagation analysis technology Unique Test Platforms for Re-entry Systems at Esrange 8th ATD Symposium March

13 D-SEND#2 Flight scenario A stratospheric balloon will lift at airplane to a altitude between Km At right position the airplane will be released and it will fly autonomously to a microphone site and dive at a angle over the site After the measurements the airplane will crash into ground 13

14 D-SEND#2 Flight #1 took place in August 2013, after successful balloon launch and payload release (30 km) - but had flight failure Flight #2 is scheduled for end- June

15 ERC Earth Return Capsule - background Within Mars Robotic Exploration Preparation-2 programme, in preparation for future international Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission, ESA studies mission concepts returning samples back to Earth, requiring an Earth Return Capsule (ERC). 15

16 ERC Earth Return Capsule Objective: Investigate ERC Dynamic Stability via Balloon Drop Tests by performing full end-to-end dynamic stability tests of Earth reentry capsule shapes, to validate the designs and acquire detailed aerodynamic characterization of ERC bodies of different shapes Drop of small (up to ~60 kg) bodies from stratospheric balloons Three balloons x three drops at different altitudes in one single 21 day campaign Altitude 35 km Provision of separation system for each larger drop bodies 16

17 SSC provisions Balloon Flight train including valve, ballast machine, strobe light, beacon, 2 ATC transponders, radar reflector, parachute and explosives for three balloon flights Three stratospheric m3 balloons. Helium gas for three balloons. EBASS with piloting (The Esrange service system for balloons) Separation system Aerostat cutter parachute EBASS Ballast Transponder radar reflector SSC part described in this proposal SSC part described in this proposal, optional Separation system Drop body/erc Localisation unit Antenna 18

18 SHARK piggy-back flight on MAXUS 8 sounding rocket 19

19 SHARK, a CIRA technology demonstrator SHARK Sounding Hypersonic Atmospheric Re-entering Kapsule, developed by CIRA under ESA contract Objective: in-flight test of Ultra High Temperature Ceramics (UHTC), and to prove the possibility to set up a low cost experimental space platform and execute a re-entry test flight by dropping a capsule from a sounding rocket 20

20 MAXUS 8 sounding rocket Maxus micro-gravity programme 700 km apogee 12 minutes of ug 800 kg payload mass 500 kg scientific payload Castor IVB single stage motor, 10 tonnes solid propellant 21

21 MAXUS 8 payload SHARK fixation i/f 22

22 Making benefit of free volume in motor adapter for accommodation of SHARK 23

23 Interface requirements Tight mass budget, limitation on envelope i/f constraints, with conical shape: Maximum mass: 20.0 kg Maximum diameter: 290 mm Maximum height: 250 mm Also: No electrical interfaces to the main mission 24

24 SHARK sep system mechanics by SSC Three-spring system, wire-held hooks, explosive wire cutter. Activated 5 seconds after motor separation (80 km) SHARK Separation speed 1 m/s, max payload acceleration 0.55 m/s2 25

25 MAXUS 8 drop cone release system Flight preparation delivery of SHARK FM during launch campaign at ESRANGE Interface verification at Esrange Mounting of SHARK on re-entry cone Separation test with SHARK FM Clearance verification 26

26 SHARK flight Flight on March 26, 2010 Separation occurred 91 s after ignition, at a ~150 km altitude, 3 km/s 88 flight path angle. Apogee 700 km No parachute, no positioning system Failed to localize SHARK after flight 27

27 Other in-flight opportunities Super-MAX on Maxus 9 sounding rocket 15 kg drop-cone for supersonic parachute sub-scale tests, under ESA contract Accommodated in same volume as SHARK IMU-BB on Maser 13 sounding rocket 3 kg Inertial Measurement Unit Breadboard, for testing performance in representative launch, ascent and planetary descent/re-entry environment, under ESA contract Accommodated in payload adapter ring 28

28 Independence! In view of high interest in aerodynamic in-flight test platforms, SSC has made a preliminary definition of dedicated (no piggy-back!) low-cost sounding rocket test platform, for recurrent missions Experiment deployment after motor separation 100 km altitude, 50 kg experiment payload 14 wide, 150 cm long experiment structure Recurrent missions 1-3 every year Experiment module 29

29 Thank you! Skating outside SSC Solna office during lunch break 30

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