Study of Poured-In-Place Concrete Wall Performance in Coastal British Columbia

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1 AGENDA l Study of Poured-In-Place Concrete Wall Performance in Coastal British Columbia l Types of Concrete Walls l Water Penetration Control Strategies l Focus on Poured In Place Concrete Walls CONTEXT CMHC SCHL Types of Concrete Wall Assemblies Face Seal Precast Cladding l Precast Concrete Cladding Rainscreen or face seal (barrier) assemblies Panels unrestrained and therefore minimal cracking anticipated Rainscreen or face seal joints l Tilt-Up Concrete Panels Typically face seal (barrier) assemblies Panels unrestrained and therefore minimal cracking anticipated Rainscreen or face seal joints l Poured in Place Concrete Improved face seal with some mass wall characteristics Restrained nature of poured-in-place concrete elements leads to more cracking Poured-in-place means cold joints that need to be addressed differently than open joints between panels 100% Face Seal Precast Tilt-Up Joints in Precast Concrete Face seal Single bead of caulking Rainscreen Dual bead of caulking, outer bead left open to allow drainage

2 Face Seal Precast Tilt-Up Joints in Precast Concrete l Add photos of joints Good Trades!? Rainscreen Precast Concrete Cladding Poured-In-Place Concrete Walls 97% 2% 1% Insulation in Stud Space Only Insulation Against Concrete

3 Insulation Against Concrete and In Stud Space Case Studies l Look at variety of buildings to identify range of performance issues that need to be addressed Performance Issues - Condensation Performance Issues Construction Joints Performance Issues - Cracks Performance Issues - Staining

4 Performance Issues Leakage at Interfaces Performance Issues Damage Within Wall Performance Issues Air Movement Rain Penetration Control Strategy l Air flow into cavity between studs and concrete Partition walls, electrical outlets, dropped ceilings Driving force to drive air into cavity l Solution Insulate back side of concrete AIR FLOW INTO CAVITY CAN RESULT IN CONDENSATION ON INSIDE SURFACE OF CONCRETE l For uncracked wall area rain penetration control relies on: Water shedding at the surface of the 99% 1% concrete Concrete absorbing moisture and subsequent drying to the exterior l Redundancy is achieved l What happens at cold joints and cracks? What Happens at Cold Joints and Cracks? l Restrained nature of poured-in-place concrete elements leads to more cracking l Poured-in-place means cold joints that need to be addressed differently than open joints between panels l Joints and cracks are essentially holes through the concrete l Challenge is achieving redundancy or second line of defense at cold joints and cracks Coating will not bridge any significant crack in a durable manner l Focus on: Reducing size, frequency and exposure conditions for joints and cracks Controlling location of cracking Good concrete mix design, and placement techniques Providing a durable (redundancy) seal where joint or crack occurs Analysis of Walls l Analysis using programs like WUFI tell us nothing particularly useful about performance related to the areas of concern with this wall type Cannot analyze what happens when a construction joint or crack leaks

5 WUFI WUFI Useful for drawing relative conclusions like Wall type W1 retains more moisture than W2 & W3 Relative impact on drying of various coatings l Alternate arrangements of overhangs and poured-in-place concrete wall configurations create differing levels of risk LOWEST RISK MORE RISK Good overhang protection provided by slab projection. Concrete wall is in compression due to vertical loads and no vertical cold joints used Good overhang protection provided by slab projection. Use of upstand wall under window creates vertical cold and uncompressed infill concrete element (no significant vertical loads) MORE RISK MOST RISK No overhang protection. Only exposed concrete occurs between windows and is in compression. No vertical control joints used No overhang protection. Use of upstand wall under window creates vertical cold and uncompressed concrete element

6 Vertical Control Joint Vertical Construction Joint Balcony Edge to Wall Interface Horizontal Construction Joint Window-Wall to Wall Interface Wall Type Concrete Description Air Film 150 mm Concrete 25 mm Extruded Polystyrene Foam 67 mm Batt Insulation (with steel 400) 0.15 mm Polyethylene Film 13 mm Gypsum Wallboard Air Film Nominal Thermal Resistance RSI (m 2 K/W) Effective Thermal Resistance (m 2 K/W) C 16.5 C 18.2 C Rainscreen Stucco Air Film 22 mm Stucco 22 mm Airspace 76 mm Semi Rigid Fibre Insulation (with steel 400) Waterproofing membrane 13 mm Exterior sheathing 89mm Airspace c/w steel studs 13 mm Gypsum Wallboard Air Film Steel studs are in contact with the concrete wall A 12.5 mm airspace is left between the steel studs and the concrete wall Exterior Temp -6 C Interior Temp 21 C A 25mm layer of extruded polystyrene foam placed between the steel studs and the concrete wall

7 17.7 C 19.1 C 19.1 C 12.1 C 12.3 C Insulation is placed along the exterior wall surfaces only Exterior Temp -6 C Interior Temp 21 C The partition walls are insulated to a depth of 400 mm (16 inches) towards the interior The partition walls are insulated to a depth of 914 mm (3 ft) towards the interior Floor slab to wall intersection of W2 Exterior Temp -6 C Interior Temp 21 C Floor slab to wall intersection or W2 incorporating a concrete eyebrow on the exterior side. Concrete Wall Priorities Aluminum angle in contact with steel studs (heat sink angle) Insulation THERMAL PERFORMANCE RATING Worst Better Best Condensation Potential Level For Exterior Temperature: -6 C No Condensation Minor to Moderate Levels Severe Levels Window Frame Sitting Directly on Concrete Opening RH < 29 29<RH<44 RH>44 Window Frame Insulated Between Frame and Concrete and Heat Sink Angle Installed RH < 36 36<RH<45 RH>45 For Exterior Temperature: 0 C WATER PENETRATION Worst RATING Best West Coast Balance Better No Condensation Minor to Moderate Levels Severe Levels RH<39 39<RH<54 RH>54 RH<46 46<RH<54 RH>54 Key Points Poured-In-Place Concrete Walls l The risky part of a concrete wall assembly from a rain penetration perspective are locations of cracks and joints l Manage rain penetration at cracks and joints through Building form and pour configurations that limit number of cracks, size of cracks and exposure conditions Concrete mix design and placement techniques that minimize cracking and other imperfections in pour that contribute to leakage Detailing that reflects 2 lines of defense (redundancy) l Due to the lesser certainty in predicting the location of cracks and the variable damming characteristics of waterstop materials there will always be greater risk of water penetration associated with poured-in-place concrete walls than with most rainscreen wall assemblies l Water penetration issues are likely to be localized problems l Thermal issues are important too (energy and condensation)

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