Norway. Introduction. University Press Scholarship Online

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1 University Press Scholarship Online You are looking at 1-10 of 165 items for: keywords : Norway Norway Jan Erik Lane, David McKay, and Kenneth Newton in Political Data Handbook: OECD Countries Published in print: 1996 Published Online: January 2005 ISBN: eisbn: DOI: / X This section provides information on the most significant features of government and politics in Norway. These include data on state structure and offices, parties, government constitutions, electoral and voting systems, and basic media materials on media, education, economic interest organisations and the budget. Introduction Michael Potter in Wittgenstein's Notes on Logic Published in print: 2008 Published Online: January 2009 ISBN: eisbn: DOI: / acprof:oso/ This introductory chapter discusses the theoretical approach used in this book, which focuses on Wittgenstein's Notes on Logic. Wittgenstein wrote the Tractatus during the First World War, but it had its birth in the two years he spent working in Cambridge with Russell between 1911 and He compiled the Notes on Logic at the very end of that period, as a summary for Russell of the work he had accomplished. The destruction of his notebooks makes the Notes almost the only guide to the work he had been doing in Cambridge. Studying them provides insight on which of his ideas Wittgenstein owed to this period, and which to the very different circumstances in which he worked later, first in Norway and then on active service during the war. It also lays bare some of the influences which helped to form Wittgenstein's views. Page 1 of 6

2 Localism and Centralism in Europe: The Political and Legal Bases of Local Self-Government Edward C. Page Published in print: 1991 Published Online: October 2011 ISBN: eisbn: Item type: book DOI: / acprof:oso/ Why do some countries appear to be far more centralized than others? In some countries local government has responsibility for a wide range of public services, while in others these services are delivered by national and other non-local bodies. Moreover national government oversees the operation of local government with varying degrees of stringency. In addition, local politicians in some countries seem to have greater influence over their national counterparts than those in others. The answer to this question can be found in the distinctive patterns of development experienced in southern and northern Europe. Differences in national local relations also have direct implications for patterns of policy-making at the local level. This book examines the legal and political bases of relationships between national and local government in Britain, France, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Italy, and Spain, and assesses the causes and consequences of differences in such relationships. Knowledge Flows and Catching Up Industrialization in the Nordic Countries: The Roles of Patent Systems Kristine Bruland and Keith Smith in Intellectual Property Rights, Development, and Catch-Up: An International Comparative Study Published in print: 2010 Published Online: May 2010 ISBN: eisbn: DOI: / acprof:oso/ This chapter discusses the catch up experience of Nordic countries Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland which stretches back at least to the late eighteenth century, gathered force in the mid nineteenth century, and extended into the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The patent system began relatively early, which facilitated inward technology transfer in two ways: first, via foreign patenting in the Nordic region and, second, via patent systems ( imported patents ) that permitted Nordic citizens to appropriate foreign developed inventions. However, there were many methods of acquiring and developing intellectual property, including societies, foreign work experience, Page 2 of 6

3 immigration, exhibitions, and industrial espionage, and many ways to protect it. The chapter thus emphasizes the broader dimensions of learning and the creation of knowledge assets, and therefore the need to set IPRs within a wide context of knowledge creation. Social Mobility in Norway Kristen Ringdal in Social Mobility in Europe Published in print: 2004 Published Online: November 2004 ISBN: eisbn: DOI: / This chapter, based on four surveys covering the period from 1973 to 1995, focuses on changes in the Norwegian class structure, and on trends in absolute as well as in relative social mobility. The access to rewarded positions in Norway has become easier for all due to the expansion of the service class in the period studied. The pervasive sex segregation in work does, however, show few signs of weakening: women are still concentrated in the lower service class and in routine non-manual work. The analysis of both absolute and relative social mobility shows that, despite educational expansion, privileged social background is still important in Norway, although this study points to a weakening of the vertical barriers to social mobility between 1973 and Political Parties in Advanced Industrial Democracies Paul Webb, David Farrell, and Ian Holliday (eds) Published in print: 2002 Published Online: ISBN: eisbn: Item type: book DOI: / This book is one in a series (Comparative Politics) for students and teachers of political science that deals with contemporary issues in comparative government and politics. It examines political parties in contemporary democracies, asking how relevant and vital they are, whether they fulfill the functions that any stable and effective democracy might expect of them, or whether they are little more than moribund anachronisms, relics of a past age of political life, now superseded by other mechanisms of linkage between state and society. The book addresses these questions through a rigorous comparative analysis of political parties operating in the world's advanced industrial democracies. Drawing on the expertise of a team of internationally known specialists, Page 3 of 6

4 the book engages systematically with the evidence to show that, while a degree of popular cynicism towards them is often chronic, though rarely acute, parties have adapted and survived as organizations, remodelling themselves to the needs of an era in which patterns of linkage and communication with social groups have been transformed. This has enabled them, on the one hand, to remain central to democratic systems, especially in respect of the political functions of governance, recruitment and, albeit more problematically, interest aggregation. On the other hand, the challenges they face in respect of interest articulation, communication, and participation have pushed parties into more marginal roles within Western political systems. The implications of these findings for democracy depend on the observer's normative and theoretical perspectives. Those who understand democracy primarily in terms of popular choice and control in public affairs will probably see parties as continuing to play a central role, while those who place greater store by the more demanding criteria of optimizing interests and instilling civic orientations among citizens are far more likely to be fundamentally critical. After an introductory chapter the book has 13 chapters devoted to case studies of political parties in different countries/ regions (Britain, Italy, Germany, France, the Low Countries (Belgium and the Netherlands), Scandinavia (Finland, Denmark, Norway, Sweden), Ireland, Spain, Europe (parties at the European level), the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand; these are followed by a concluding chapter. Patterns of Movement Inclusion and Exclusion in the Four Countries John S. Dryzek, David Downes, Christian Hunold, David Schlosberg, and Hans Kristian Hernes in Green States and Social Movements: Environmentalism in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Norway Published in print: 2003 Published Online: ISBN: eisbn: DOI: / The experience of environmentalism in the US, UK, Germany, and Norway is introduced in detail, with special reference to the relationship between the state and the movement. The history of each country in the modern environmental era is sketched. The movement took a very different form in each country. The oppositional public sphere confronting the state in Germany looks very different from the well behaved set of interest groups in the US or the Norwegian organizations that are tightly integrated into government. The shape and fortunes of environmentalism Page 4 of 6

5 are heavily influenced by the state's orientation to societal interests, which can feature inclusion or exclusion, and be passive or active. Co optive or Effective Inclusion? Movement Aims and State Imperatives John S. Dryzek, David Downes, Christian Hunold, David Schlosberg, and Hans Kristian Hernes in Green States and Social Movements: Environmentalism in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Norway Published in print: 2003 Published Online: ISBN: eisbn: DOI: / Sometimes the inclusion of the environmental movement in the state that has occurred has been genuine, and sometimes it has involved cooption, i.e. access without real influence. We argue that inclusion can be genuine when the movement's defining interest can be attached to one of the core state imperatives; this explains why the US alone could prove such an environmental success story around Later in the 1970s, energy crisis meant that environmentalism was kept away from the state's core in all four countries, though there was substantial variation in how this was played out. More recent history reveals environmentalism generally kept away from the core, though there are exceptions (especially in Norway and, later, Germany). The Perils of Political Inclusion: Moderation and Bureaucratization John S. Dryzek, David Downes, Christian Hunold, David Schlosberg, and Hans Kristian Hernes in Green States and Social Movements: Environmentalism in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Norway Published in print: 2003 Published Online: ISBN: eisbn: DOI: / This chapter looks at the implications of inclusion in the state for the movement itself, especially in terms of moderation and bureaucratization. Groups themselves can change in two ways as a result of being included within the state. First, they may have to moderate their positions substantially in order to be more consistent with the political mainstream especially as conditioned by state imperatives. Second, Page 5 of 6

6 they may have to develop a much more professional and bureaucratic character, replete with a large full time staff, internal hierarchy, and division of labour, and specialists in fund raising, organizational maintenance, and management. Moderation and bureaucratization compromise the social movement character of environmental groups. Developments in the US, UK, Germany, and Norway are documented, and comparisons are made across time and space in their character and degree, and the possibility of movement resistance to them are considered. Norway: Reluctantly Carrying the Torch Oluf Langhelle in Implementing Sustainable Development: Strategies and Initiatives in High Consumption Societies Published in print: 2000 Published Online: ISBN: eisbn: DOI: / Analyses efforts of the Norwegian government to come to terms with sustainable development. It analyses the domestic reception of the Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development after Attention is paid to the positive role that Norway has played internationally with respect to many areas of the sustainable development agenda (for example, in encouraging the debate about sustainable production and consumption). But contradictions and inconsistencies in the Norwegian implementation effort are also explored. Page 6 of 6

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