Phylum Nematoda the roundworms

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1 Phylum Nematoda the roundworms Diversity ~ 2,500 described species (most are free- living) < 10% of the total species in on the planet ~ several hundred of which are parasifc (plants, animals) Abundance Most abundant group of animals on the planet Live everywhere (marine, freshwater, soils, plants, animals) Example: 90,000 nematodes from a single rolng animal Example: 236 species from 10 cm 3 of beach sand

2 Nematode Parasi1sm the most varied form of animal parasifc transmission Diseases Soil- borne transmission Trichuriasis Strongylodiasis Hookworm disease Ascariasis Visceral larval migrans Toxocariasis dog /cat feces Food- borne transmission Anasakiasis salted uncooked fish Trichinosis uncooked pork Human- air- borne transmission Enterobiasis Vector- borne transmission Lympa9c filariasis mosquito Heartworm mosquito Loasis blackfly Onchocerciasis blackfly Water- borne transmission Dracunculiasis crustaceans

3 Characteris1cs of nematodes 1. Worm- like and round in cross secfon (roundworm) 2. Size: 0.1mm to more than a meter 3. Thick collagenous cufcle (extracellular skeleton) 4. No locomotory cilia all movement is muscular 5. Large body cavity (blastocoel) 6. Amphids cephalic sensory organs 7. Excretory- secretory system (removal of nitrogenous waste from the body) 8. No circulatory system or gas exchange system 9. Dioecious (separate sexes) 10. Oviparous 11. Grow by ecdysis (molfng their exoskeleton) 12. Four larval stages before becoming an adult

4 Func1ons of the nematode cu1cle 1. ProtecFon from abrasion during locomofon (soils as a larval stage) 2. ProtecFon from dehydrafon in the soils 3. ProtecFon from anfbodies/immune cells 4. ProtecFon from acids (stomach) 5. ProtecFon from enzymes (small intesfne)

5 Cu1cle as an exoskeleton prevents gradual growth Eggs through J1/L1 are generally in the environment The only infecfve stage of nematodes is the J3/L3 Stage Nematodes go through Incremental Growth L = Larval stage stasis stasis stasis L1 stasis L2 stasis L3 L4

6 Excretory- Secretory System 1. Produces enzymes for ecdysis 2. FuncFons in osmoregulafon 3. FuncFons to remove nitrogenous wastes 4. Produces anf- immune secrefons

7 A social faux- pas and a potenfally embarrassing health risk

8 Disease: Enterobiasis Cause: Pin Worms Species: Enterobius vermicularis (= human pin worm) General Characteris1cs of pin worms: 1. Endoparasites of the ileum, ascending colon and appendix 2. All stages are parasifc (not just L3) 3. Dioecious males are Fny (1-4 mm) and females larger (8-13 mm) 4. Only known parasites that are haplodiploids A. Males are haploids (N) and derived from unferflized eggs (N) B. Female are diploids (2N) and derived from ferflized eggs (2N) 5. Human pinworm infect ~ 1 billion people worldwide 6. Pathologies are never fatal or disfiguring

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11 Lifecycle of Enterobius vermicularis Ileum- Ascending Colon- Appendix Females & males mate and feed Females live to 90 days Males live to 50 days Eggs leave perianal region Retroinfec1on Eggs hatch (6 hours) and L1 migrate back to the colon Gravid females migrate to perianal region to deposit eggs (up to 11,000 eggs/ female) and die Eggs remain in perianal folds

12 Lifecycle of Enterobius vermicularis Ileum- Ascending Colon- Appendix Eggs hatch within stomach or duodenum (L1) L1 migrates and molts (4) to the ileum/colon where it becomes reproducfvely mature Eggs leave perianal region Retroinfec1on Eggs hatch (6 hours) and L1 migrate back to the colon Gravid females migrate to perianal region to deposit eggs (up to 11,000 eggs/ female) and die Eggs remain in perianal folds

13 4 Routes of Transmission 1. RetroinfecFon 2. AutoinfecFon (via fingernails scratching perianal region and then contaminafon of the mouth) 3. Contaminated clothing and bed linens (hand to mouth) 4. Airborne eggs present in airborne dust Examples of dust- contaminated infec1ons from the literature School Hall 119 eggs/sq. foot Class room 305 eggs/sq. foot Bathroom 5,000 eggs/sq. foot

14 Symptoms & Pathologies Most common symptom 1. Perianal itching Pathology 1. Irritated and inflamed Fssue due to the death of the female worms in the perianal region More Rare Symptoms 1. Upper abdominal pain, nausea, vomifng Pathology 1. AppendiciFs inflamed appendix with granulamotous lesions

15 Ectopic Infec1ons Worms migrate outside the colon (through perforafons of the intesfnal wall) to other organs: Liver Lungs Kidney Female reproducfve anatomy (uterus, fallopian tubes) Symptoms highly variable and generally accompanied by pain

16 Diagnosis, Treatment & Prophylaxis 1 Diagnosis Place sellotape over the anus at night and check in the morning 2 Diagnosis Check feces (5-15% of people have worms in their feces) 3 Diagnosis Colonoscopy usually performed for other reasons (e.g., hemorrhoids)

17 Treatment 1. Albendazole Diagnosis, Treatment & Prophylaxis Prophylaxis 1. Wash everything in the washer to remove eggs 2. Destroy potenfally infected clothing What doesn t work? 1. Bleach and anf- bacterials do not work against eggs

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