Fueling the Future through Chemical Energy of Fuel Cells, Solar Cells, and More

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Fueling the Future through Chemical Energy of Fuel Cells, Solar Cells, and More"

Transcription

1 University of Massachusetts - Amherst Amherst Clean Energy Connections Fueling the Future through Chemical Energy of Fuel Cells, Solar Cells, and More DV Venkataraman University of Massachusetts Amherst - Center for Fueling the Future Justin Fermann University of Massachusetts Amherst - Center for Fueling the Future Follow this and additional works at: Venkataraman, DV and Fermann, Justin, "Fueling the Future through Chemical Energy of Fuel Cells, Solar Cells, and More" (2008). Clean Energy Connections. Paper 10. This Article is brought to you for free and open access by Amherst. It has been accepted for inclusion in Clean Energy Connections by an authorized administrator of Amherst. For more information, please contact

2 Fueling the Future through Chemical Energy of Fuel Cells, Solar Cells, and More Prof. Justin Fermann Prof. D. Venkataraman (DV) Department of Chemistry UMass Amherst

3 Center for Fueling the Future 2 Supported by the National Science Foundation through Center for Chemical Innovations Program Research Investigators from Chemistry, Physics and Polymer Science & Engineering The Center for Fueling the Future carries out research that addresses fundamental aspects of proton transport, the molecular-level process that underlies the functioning of a central component of fuel cells.

4 Hydrogen as an Energy Source 3 H 2 (g) + ½ O 2 (g) H 2 O (l) + Energy

5 Fuel Cells and Automobiles 4

6 Need for Better Membranes 5 Nafion Expensive Breaks down at high temps Bleeds Fuel

7 What Controls Proton Transfer? 6

8 What Controls Proton Transport? 7

9 8

10 Hydrogen Economy: Fundamental Questions 9 Efficient, Cost effective, Environmentally Friendly, Storage and Transport How to break H-O-H bonds at lower temperatures? How to break C-H bonds at lower temperatures? How to reversibly convert H- to H 2? Can H 2 be physisorbed on surfaces? Efficient Fuel Cells for Energy Generation What is the structure of H + ions in water? How to design membranes that could transport H + ions? How to stop methanol or hydrogen from moving across the membrane?

11 Photovoltaic Cells 10 Efficiency of Photovoltaic Cells Depend on Absorption in Solar Spectrum Charge Separation Efficiency Charge Mobility

12 Elusive Heterojunctions 11

13 PV Cells: Fundamental Questions 12 PV Cells: Efficient, cost effective, environmentally friendly energy production How to assemble semiconductors for efficient charge separation and mobility? How to assemble heterojunctions without macrophase segregation (interplay of intermolecular forces)? Design of molecules and macromolecules for efficient capture of solar energy. Strategies to capture Solar Energy Design and synthesis of transparent semiconductors to replace expensive Indium tin oxide

14 National Chemical Energy Research Network (NCERN) 13 National Chemical Energy Research Network (NCERN) is designed to facilitate communication between energy researchers and the public, and provides enhanced public understanding, visibility, and publicity to chemical energy research. It is a public portal for educators, students and public to get accurate information on topics related to chemical energy. NCERN is also a dynamic interface between research centers engaged in chemical energy and the surrounding community that is impacted by that research.

15 National Chemical Energy Research Network (NCERN) 14 Education and Outreach Energy Blogs Energy Wiki Research Technology

16 Contact Info:

17 16 New Membrane Materials at Centre for Fueling the Future H N N 1. Controlling distance between the sites 2. Controlling the assembly of molecules 3. Creating new molecules for proton transport H N N H N N Benzimidazole

18 Efficiency of Current Photovoltaics Devices 17 Source: Basic Research Energy Needs for Solar Energy Utilization, US Department of Energy

19 Fuel Cells in Develpment 18 Fuel Cell Type Electrolyte Cond. Ion Temp. (ºC) Features Polymer Fuel: H 2 CF(CF 2 ) n OCF 2 SO 3 NAFION H + hydrated 0 80 High power density, Pt catalyst, must be kept wet, poisoned by CO, S, Cl Alkaline Fuel: H 2 Phosphoric acid Fuel: H 2 Molten carbonate Fuel: H 2 KOH gel OH 90 High power density, cannot tolerate CO 2, impurities (NASA) H 3 PO 4 H Medium power density, Pt catalyst, sensitive to CO, poisoned by S, Cl Li 2 CO 3 / K 2 CO 3 CO Low power density, Ni catalyst, needs CO 2 recycle Solid oxide Zr 0.92 Y 0.08 O 1.96 O ,000 Medium-to-high power Fuel: CH 4, H 2 density, much less sensitive to impurities Direct methanol Fuel: CH 3 OH CF(CF 2 ) n OCF 2 SO 3 - NAFION H + hydrated 0 80 Medium power density, low efficiency, high Pt content. Sensitive to S and Cl impurities

20 Efficiency and Cost 19 Source: Basic Research Energy Needs for Solar Energy Utilization, US Department of Energy

21 Solar Insolation 20 6E Photons per square meter per second per nm of bandwidth 5E+18 4E+18 3E+18 2E+18 AM 0 Integrated Photon Flux 20 1E+18 AM 1.5G 10 4 ev 3 ev 2 ev 1.5 ev 1 ev 0E Wavelength (nm)

22 Shockley-Queisser Limit: Better Photon Management 21 Source: Basic Research Energy Needs for Solar Energy Utilization, US Department of Energy

23 P-N junctions and Photovoltaic Cells 22 Conventional Solar Cell Organic Heterojunction Solar Cell Light electrons Light holes Anode Cathode h + n-type Donor e - p-type exciton Acceptor Cathode Anode Spanggaard, H.; Krebs, F. C. "A brief history of the development of organic and polymeric photovoltaics," Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 2004, 83,

24 Templated-Directed Electrodeposition 23 a simple, high throughput, and cost effective procedure... to create 1D nanostructures Xia, Y. N.; Yang, P. D.; Sun, Y. G.; Wu, Y. Y.; Mayers, B.; Gates, B.; Yin, Y. D.; Kim, F.; Yan, Y. Q. "One-Dimensional Nanostructures: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications," Advanced Materials 2003, 15,

25 24 Templated-Directed Cadmium Selenide Electrodeposition

26 UMass Researchers Focus on Efficient PV Cells 25 Prof. Thayumanavan, Chemistry Prof. Thomas Russell, PSE

27 UMass Researchers Focus on Efficient Morphologies 26

28 Hydrogen Production from Carbon Sources 27 Methane CH 4 (g) + H 2 O (g) CO 2 (g) + 4 H 2 At 650 C, the reaction is spontaneous. Water- Gas Shift Reaction CO + H 2 O CO 2 + H 2 From Coal C + H 2 O CO + H 2 Expected H 2 Demand in Mtons Current Production 10 Mtons C + 2 H 2 O CO 2 + 2H 2 1 ton of H 2 = 5 tons of CO 2

29 Breaking Water Using Enzymes UMass at the Forefront 28 Hydrogenase Clostridium pasteuianum Fe-Fe H2ase-I and Desulfovibrio gigas NiFe H2ase.

30 Hydrogenase as a catalyst of H 2 Production 29 Figure 4: A plot of the amount of hydrogen produced with respect to time in a hydrogenase encapsulated in a solgel glass. Maroney (UMass Amherst) and Elgren (Hamilton College)

31 Hydrogen Generation through Nanobiotechnology 30 D. Venkataraman and Maroney Chart 1

32 Hydrogen Storage and Transport : Sodium Borohydride 31 Hydrogen on demand 30% NaBH 4 3% NaOH 67% Water

33 Hydrogen Storage and Transport 32 Source: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, USA

The Physics of Energy sources Renewable sources of energy. Solar Energy

The Physics of Energy sources Renewable sources of energy. Solar Energy The Physics of Energy sources Renewable sources of energy Solar Energy B. Maffei Bruno.maffei@manchester.ac.uk Renewable sources 1 Solar power! There are basically two ways of using directly the radiative

More information

Energy from Electron Transfer

Energy from Electron Transfer Energy from Electron Transfer Batteries and Fuel Cells Energy from Electron Transfer 1 / 29 Outline of Topics 1 Renewable Energy Overview Biomass Energy Geothermal Energy Solar/PV Energy Hydroelectric

More information

A metal-free polymeric photocatalyst for hydrogen production from water under visible light

A metal-free polymeric photocatalyst for hydrogen production from water under visible light A metal-free polymeric photocatalyst for hydrogen production from water under visible light Xinchen Wang, Kazuhiko Maeda, Arne Thomas, Kazuhiro Takanabe, Gang Xin, Johan M. Carlsson, Kazunari Domen, Markus

More information

From Nano-Electronics and Photonics to Renewable Energy

From Nano-Electronics and Photonics to Renewable Energy From Nano-Electronics and Photonics to Renewable Energy Tom Smy Department of Electronics, Carleton University Questions are welcome! OUTLINE Introduction: to EE and Engineering Physics Renewable Energy

More information

Control of High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cells for Long Life, Low Power Applications Part I

Control of High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cells for Long Life, Low Power Applications Part I Control of High Efficiency PEM Fuel Cells for Long Life, Low Power Applications Part I Jekanthan Thangavelautham Postdoctoral Associate Field and Space Robotics Laboratory Motivation Conventional Power

More information

Fuel Cell as a Green Energy Generator in Aerial Industry

Fuel Cell as a Green Energy Generator in Aerial Industry Civil Aviation Technology College Fuel Cell as a Green Energy Generator in Aerial Industry Presented by: Mehdi Saghafi 16 April, 2012 Table of Content Introduction Principle & Performance of Fuel Cell

More information

Lecture 15 - application of solid state materials solar cells and photovoltaics. Copying Nature... Anoxygenic photosynthesis in purple bacteria

Lecture 15 - application of solid state materials solar cells and photovoltaics. Copying Nature... Anoxygenic photosynthesis in purple bacteria Lecture 15 - application of solid state materials solar cells and photovoltaics. Copying Nature... Anoxygenic photosynthesis in purple bacteria Simple example, but still complicated... Photosynthesis is

More information

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Cells

Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Cells Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Cells A supplement topic to: Mi ti l S Micro-optical Sensors - A MEMS for electric power generation Science of Silicon PV Cells Scientific base for solar PV electric power generation

More information

Photovoltaic and Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells

Photovoltaic and Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells Photovoltaic and Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells EDDIE FOROUZAN, PH.D. ARTIN ENGINEERING AND CONSULTING GROUP, INC. 7933 SILVERTON AVE. #715 SAN DIEGO, CA 92128 PSES San Diego Chapter 2012-02-10 History

More information

Chapter 6 Student Reading

Chapter 6 Student Reading Chapter 6 Student Reading What is a chemical reaction? There are many common examples of chemical reactions. For instance, chemical reactions happen when baking cookies and in your digestive system when

More information

SOLAR ELECTRICITY: PROBLEM, CONSTRAINTS AND SOLUTIONS

SOLAR ELECTRICITY: PROBLEM, CONSTRAINTS AND SOLUTIONS SOLAR ELECTRICITY: PROBLEM, CONSTRAINTS AND SOLUTIONS The United States generates over 4,110 TWh of electricity each year, costing $400 billion and emitting 2.5 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide (Yildiz,

More information

Development of large-scale H 2 storage and transportation technology with Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC)

Development of large-scale H 2 storage and transportation technology with Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) Development of large-scale storage and transportation technology with Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) Yoshimi Okada 1, Mitsunori Shimura 2 Principal researcher, Technology Development Unit, Chiyoda

More information

Crystalline solids. A solid crystal consists of different atoms arranged in a periodic structure.

Crystalline solids. A solid crystal consists of different atoms arranged in a periodic structure. Crystalline solids A solid crystal consists of different atoms arranged in a periodic structure. Crystals can be formed via various bonding mechanisms: Ionic bonding Covalent bonding Metallic bonding Van

More information

Chem101: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases

Chem101: General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases : General Chemistry Lecture 9 Acids and Bases I. Introduction A. In chemistry, and particularly biochemistry, water is the most common solvent 1. In studying acids and bases we are going to see that water

More information

Electrochemical Approaches to Modular Power Generation

Electrochemical Approaches to Modular Power Generation Electrochemical Approaches to Modular Power Generation C-H Bond Activation Breakout Session June 6, 2013 Question on piece of paper before breakout starts 2CH 4 + O 2 2CH 3 OH How did I get here? Draw

More information

Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table Learning Outcomes

Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table Learning Outcomes Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table Learning Outcomes (a) Electronic structure (i) Electromagnetic spectrum and associated calculations Electromagnetic radiation may be described in terms of waves.

More information

Electrolysis and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Powered Car

Electrolysis and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Powered Car Electrolysis and Hydrogen Fuel Cell Powered Car Permission to Copy - This document may be reproduced for non-commercial educational purposes Copyright 009 General Electric Company Definitions we need to

More information

PHOTOVOLTAIC'S TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW

PHOTOVOLTAIC'S TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW PHOTOVOLTAIC'S TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW Associated Professor, Mechanical Engineering Department Frederick University. 29-30 May 2014 Aphrodite Hills Hotel, Paphos IRENA CYPRUS EVENT CONTENTS Available Technologies

More information

Fuel Cells and Their Applications

Fuel Cells and Their Applications Karl Kordesch, Giinter Simader Fuel Cells and Their Applications VCH Weinheim New York Basel Cambridge Tokyo Contents 1. Introduction 1 1.1. Fuel Cell Technology: a Dream, Challenge or a Necessity? 1 1.2.

More information

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Solid Oxide Fuel Cells RedHawk Energy Systems, LLC 10340 Palmer Rd., S.W. Pataskala, OH 43062 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - P250i Copyright 2016 All Rights Reserved RedHawk Energy Systems, LLC Ph: 740-964-4000

More information

CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY. Section A: The Principles of Energy Harvest

CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY. Section A: The Principles of Energy Harvest Section A: The Principles of Energy Harvest 1. Cellular respiration and fermentation are catabolic, energy-yielding pathways 2. Cells recycle the ATP they use for work 3. Redox reactions release energy

More information

Chemistry B11 Chapter 6 Solutions and Colloids

Chemistry B11 Chapter 6 Solutions and Colloids Chemistry B11 Chapter 6 Solutions and Colloids Solutions: solutions have some properties: 1. The distribution of particles in a solution is uniform. Every part of the solution has exactly the same composition

More information

Nanoparticle Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells

Nanoparticle Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells Nanoparticle Enhanced Thin Film Solar Cells Solar Cells Solar cells convert visible light to electricity. It is one of the clean sources of energy. In theory a 100 square mile area covered with solar panels

More information

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs.

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs. 1. An autotroph is an organism that a. extracts energy from organic sources b. converts energy from sunlight into chemical energy c. relies on the energy produced by other organisms as an energy source

More information

UNIT 2 PRACTICE EXAM (Part 1: General Chemistry)

UNIT 2 PRACTICE EXAM (Part 1: General Chemistry) UIT 2 PRACTICE EXAM (Part 1: General Chemistry) 1. Which would be the best definition of an ionic bond? a. The attraction between the partial positive region of one molecule and the partial negative region

More information

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. Stored Energy

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. Stored Energy Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Stored Energy What is Photosynthesis? plants convert the energy of sunlight into the energy in the chemical bonds of carbohydrates sugars and starches. SUMMARY EQUATION:

More information

Name period AP chemistry Unit 2 worksheet Practice problems

Name period AP chemistry Unit 2 worksheet Practice problems Name period AP chemistry Unit 2 worksheet Practice problems 1. What are the SI units for a. Wavelength of light b. frequency of light c. speed of light Meter hertz (s -1 ) m s -1 (m/s) 2. T/F (correct

More information

Carbon Dioxide Membrane Separation for Carbon Capture using Direct FuelCell Systems

Carbon Dioxide Membrane Separation for Carbon Capture using Direct FuelCell Systems Carbon Dioxide Membrane Separation for Carbon Capture using Direct FuelCell Systems DFC Technology Used as Electrochemical Membrane for CO 2 Purification and Capture during Power Generation FCE s Direct

More information

Fuel Cell Activities at TU Graz

Fuel Cell Activities at TU Graz Fuel Cell Activities at TU Graz Viktor Hacker Institute of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology Graz University of Technology IEA Workshop TU Graz September 1 st, 2010 Content Lifetime and

More information

TiO 2. : A New Kind of Water Treatment. Registered charity number 207890

TiO 2. : A New Kind of Water Treatment.  Registered charity number 207890 TiO 2 : A New Kind of Water Treatment www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry Registered charity number 207890 3: A new kind of water treatment What is solar disinfection with titanium dioxide and how does it work?

More information

Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry

Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry Redox Reactions and Electrochemistry Problem Set Chapter 5: 21-26, Chapter 21: 15-17, 32, 34, 43, 53, 72, 74 Oxidation/Reduction & Electrochemistry Oxidation a reaction in which a substance gains oxygen

More information

Hydrogen: It s compounds and Selected Uses

Hydrogen: It s compounds and Selected Uses Hydrogen: It s compounds and Selected Uses 380 Hydrogen is a very important element. Not only does it combine with carbon to give numerous organic compounds, but also serves as a fuel and as a reducing

More information

Chapter 7: Chemical Energy

Chapter 7: Chemical Energy Chapter 7: Chemical Energy Goals of Period 7 Section 7.1: To describe atoms, chemical elements and compounds Section 7.2: To discuss the electromagnetic force and physical changes Section 7.3: To illustrate

More information

Sketch the model representation of the first step in the dissociation of water. H 2. O (l) H + (aq) + OH- (aq) + H 2. OH - (aq) + H 3 O+ (aq)

Sketch the model representation of the first step in the dissociation of water. H 2. O (l) H + (aq) + OH- (aq) + H 2. OH - (aq) + H 3 O+ (aq) Lesson Objectives Students will: Create a physical representation of the autoionization of water using the water kit. Describe and produce a physical representation of the dissociation of a strong acid

More information

APPENDIX B: EXERCISES

APPENDIX B: EXERCISES BUILDING CHEMISTRY LABORATORY SESSIONS APPENDIX B: EXERCISES Molecular mass, the mole, and mass percent Relative atomic and molecular mass Relative atomic mass (A r ) is a constant that expresses the ratio

More information

Paper 1 (7405/1): Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Mark scheme

Paper 1 (7405/1): Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Mark scheme AQA Qualifications A-level Chemistry Paper (7405/): Inorganic and Physical Chemistry Mark scheme 7405 Specimen paper Version 0.5 MARK SCHEME A-level Chemistry Specimen paper 0. This question is marked

More information

Redox and Electrochemistry

Redox and Electrochemistry Name: Thursday, May 08, 2008 Redox and Electrochemistry 1. A diagram of a chemical cell and an equation are shown below. When the switch is closed, electrons will flow from 1. the Pb(s) to the Cu(s) 2+

More information

Organic semiconductors

Organic semiconductors Plastic (Organic) Solar Cells: Accomplishments, Challenges, and Strategies Sumit Chaudhary Assistant Professor Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Materials Science and Engineering Iowa State

More information

Chemistry 151 Final Exam

Chemistry 151 Final Exam Chemistry 151 Final Exam Name: SSN: Exam Rules & Guidelines Show your work. No credit will be given for an answer unless your work is shown. Indicate your answer with a box or a circle. All paperwork must

More information

Solar Energy. Outline. Solar radiation. What is light?-- Electromagnetic Radiation. Light - Electromagnetic wave spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation

Solar Energy. Outline. Solar radiation. What is light?-- Electromagnetic Radiation. Light - Electromagnetic wave spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation Outline MAE 493R/593V- Renewable Energy Devices Solar Energy Electromagnetic wave Solar spectrum Solar global radiation Solar thermal energy Solar thermal collectors Solar thermal power plants Photovoltaics

More information

Correlation of Nelson Chemistry Alberta 20 30 to the Alberta Chemistry 20 30 Curriculum

Correlation of Nelson Chemistry Alberta 20 30 to the Alberta Chemistry 20 30 Curriculum Correlation of Nelson Chemistry Alberta 20 30 to the Alberta Chemistry 20 30 Curriculum Unit 5 Organic Chemistry General Outcomes Students will: 1. explore organic compounds as a common form of matter

More information

Reaction Engineering of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

Reaction Engineering of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells Reaction Engineering of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells A new approach to elucidate the operation and control of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cells is being developed. A global reactor

More information

Vincenzo Esposito. Università di Roma Tor Vergata

Vincenzo Esposito. Università di Roma Tor Vergata Vincenzo Esposito Università di Roma Tor Vergata What is a fuel cell? It is an electrochemical device with a high energetic conversion yield. It convert indirectly the chemical energy of a fuel into electric

More information

CHAPTER 9. ANS: a. ANS: d. ANS: c. ANS: a. ANS: c

CHAPTER 9. ANS: a. ANS: d. ANS: c. ANS: a. ANS: c CHAPTER 9 1. Which one of the following is the acid in vinegar? a. acetic acid b. citric acid c. muriatic acid d. ascorbic acid 2. Which is a basic or alkaline substance? a. gastric fluid b. black coffee

More information

Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations

Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations Chapter 2 - Chemical Foundations I. Introduction By weight, cells are about 70% water, about 1% ions, about 6% small organic molecules (including amino acids, sugars, nucleotides), and about 23% macromolecules.

More information

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson

Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Properties of Compounds in Water Electrolytes and nonelectrolytes Water soluble compounds

More information

Chemical Reactions in Water

Chemical Reactions in Water Chemical Reactions in Water Ron Robertson r2 f:\files\courses\1110-20\2010 possible slides for web\waterchemtrans.doc Acids, Bases and Salts Acids dissolve in water to give H + ions. These ions attach

More information

Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases

Chapter 17. How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties. Base. Explaining the difference in properties of acids and bases Chapter 17 Acids and Bases How are acids different from bases? Acid Physical properties Base Physical properties Tastes sour Tastes bitter Feels slippery or slimy Chemical properties Chemical properties

More information

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes?

Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes. 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control

More information

Evolution of Metabolism. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7 & 8

Evolution of Metabolism. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7 & 8 How ells Harvest Energy hapter 7 & 8 Evolution of Metabolism A hypothetical timeline for the evolution of metabolism - all in prokaryotic cells!: 1. ability to store chemical energy in ATP 2. evolution

More information

INSTITUTE OF HEAT ENGINEERING

INSTITUTE OF HEAT ENGINEERING INSTITUTE OF HEAT ENGINEERING IHE WARSAW UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY OG Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Fuelled by Jarosław MILEWSKI PhD Janusz LEWANDOWSKI Full Professor -1-18 th November, Palm Springs, California,

More information

Ch 20 Electrochemistry: the study of the relationships between electricity and chemical reactions.

Ch 20 Electrochemistry: the study of the relationships between electricity and chemical reactions. Ch 20 Electrochemistry: the study of the relationships between electricity and chemical reactions. In electrochemical reactions, electrons are transferred from one species to another. Learning goals and

More information

Understanding the p-n Junction by Dr. Alistair Sproul Senior Lecturer in Photovoltaics The Key Centre for Photovoltaic Engineering, UNSW

Understanding the p-n Junction by Dr. Alistair Sproul Senior Lecturer in Photovoltaics The Key Centre for Photovoltaic Engineering, UNSW Understanding the p-n Junction by Dr. Alistair Sproul Senior Lecturer in Photovoltaics The Key Centre for Photovoltaic Engineering, UNSW The p-n junction is the fundamental building block of the electronic

More information

7. 2. KOH (you need an acid or a base, this is a base) 8. 1. 76. All gold atoms have 79 protons and electrons, this is a +3 cation.

7. 2. KOH (you need an acid or a base, this is a base) 8. 1. 76. All gold atoms have 79 protons and electrons, this is a +3 cation. IB/SL Chemistry Name ANSWERS Test; Past Chemistry Regents Exams Most Frequently Missed Questions 1. 1. A HIGH PROBABLITY OF FINDING AN ELECTRON 2. 3. +8 (every atom of oxygen in the universe) 3. 2. LOW

More information

NiMH Batteries for Energy Storage Applications. John J.C. Kopera Cobasys

NiMH Batteries for Energy Storage Applications. John J.C. Kopera Cobasys NiMH Batteries for Energy Storage Applications John J.C. Kopera Cobasys Who Is Cobasys? An independently managed 50-50 joint venture to further develop and advance the commercialization of Ovonic Nickel

More information

HOW TO PREDICT WHETHER A REDOX REACTION WILL BE SPONTANEOUS:

HOW TO PREDICT WHETHER A REDOX REACTION WILL BE SPONTANEOUS: Chemistry 12 UNIT 5 OXIDATION AND REDUCTION PACKAGE #2 HOW TO PREDICT WHETHER A REDOX REACTION WILL BE SPONTANEOUS: Looking at the table in the data booklet on page 8, INCREASING TENDENCY TO REDUCE = INCREASING

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Electronic Supplementary Material (ESI) for RSC Advances. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016 Supporting Information Nanosilver Rainbow: A rapid and facile method to tune different colors

More information

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry

Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry AP Chemistry A. Allan Chapter 4 Notes - Types of Chemical Reactions and Solution Chemistry 4.1 Water, the Common Solvent A. Structure of water 1. Oxygen's electronegativity is high (3.5) and hydrogen's

More information

Question Bank Electrolysis

Question Bank Electrolysis Question Bank Electrolysis 1. (a) What do you understand by the terms (i) electrolytes (ii) non-electrolytes? (b) Arrange electrolytes and non-electrolytes from the following substances (i) sugar solution

More information

Chemistry Diagnostic Questions

Chemistry Diagnostic Questions Chemistry Diagnostic Questions Answer these 40 multiple choice questions and then check your answers, located at the end of this document. If you correctly answered less than 25 questions, you need to

More information

midterm1, 2009 Name: Class: Date:

midterm1, 2009 Name: Class: Date: Class: Date: midterm1, 2009 Record your name on the top of this exam and on the scantron form. Record the test ID letter in the top right box of the scantron form. Record all of your answers on the scantron

More information

TiO 2. : Manufacture of Titanium Dioxide. www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry Registered charity number 207890

TiO 2. : Manufacture of Titanium Dioxide. www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry Registered charity number 207890 TiO 2 : Manufacture of Titanium Dioxide www.rsc.org/learn-chemistry Registered charity number 207890 5: Manufacture of titanium dioxide Titanium dioxide has many uses. It is now the common white pigment

More information

The Properties of Water

The Properties of Water 1 Matter & Energy: Properties of Water, ph, Chemical Reactions EVPP 110 Lecture GMU Dr. Largen Fall 2003 2 The Properties of Water 3 Water - Its Properties and Its Role in the Fitness of Environment importance

More information

BALANCING REDOX EQUATIONS EXERCISE

BALANCING REDOX EQUATIONS EXERCISE +5 6 1. Ag + NO3 Ag 1+ + NO 0 +5 2 +1 +2 2 4 +4 +2 2 2. N2H4 + H2O2 N2 + H2O 2 +1 +1 1 0 +1 2 +6 6 +4 4 3. CO + Fe2O3 FeO + CO2 +2 2 +3 2 +2 2 +4 2 +5 6 +4 4 +4 4 4. NO3 + CO CO2 + NO2 +5 2 +2 2 +4 2 +4

More information

Photovoltaics photo volt Photovoltaic Cells Crystalline Silicon Cells Photovoltaic Systems

Photovoltaics photo volt Photovoltaic Cells Crystalline Silicon Cells Photovoltaic Systems 1 Photovoltaics Photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices convert sunlight into electrical energy, and PV cells are commonly known as solar cells. Photovoltaics can literally be translated as light-electricity.

More information

Potassium ion charge would be +1, so oxidation number is +1. Chloride ion charge would be 1, so each chlorine has an ox # of -1

Potassium ion charge would be +1, so oxidation number is +1. Chloride ion charge would be 1, so each chlorine has an ox # of -1 Chapter 18-1 1. Assign oxidation numbers to each atom in: Ni Nickel ion charge would be +2, so oxidation number is +2 Chloride ion charge would be 1, so each chlorine has an ox # of -1 Mg 2 Ti 4 Magnesium

More information

FUEL CELL FUNDAMENTALS

FUEL CELL FUNDAMENTALS FUEL CELL FUNDAMENTALS RYAN P. O'HAYRE Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Colorado School of Mines [PhD, Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University] SUK-WON CHA School of

More information

INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking

INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking INTRODUCTORY CHEMISTRY Concepts and Critical Thinking Sixth Edition by Charles H. Corwin Chapter 13 Liquids and Solids by Christopher Hamaker 1 Chapter 13 Properties of Liquids Unlike gases, liquids do

More information

Future directions in PEMFC and SOFC research

Future directions in PEMFC and SOFC research Physics E19 Interfaces and Energy Conversion Bavarian Centre for Applied Energy Research Division 1: Technology for Energy Systems and Renewable Energies Future directions in PEMFC and SOFC research Matthias

More information

Chemical Reactions Practice Test

Chemical Reactions Practice Test Chemical Reactions Practice Test Chapter 2 Name Date Hour _ Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The only sure evidence for a chemical reaction

More information

SECTION 14 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

SECTION 14 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 1-1 SECTION 1 CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM Many chemical reactions do not go to completion. That is to say when the reactants are mixed and the chemical reaction proceeds it only goes to a certain extent, and

More information

This value, called the ionic product of water, Kw, is related to the equilibrium constant of water

This value, called the ionic product of water, Kw, is related to the equilibrium constant of water HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION - ph VALUES AND BUFFER SOLUTIONS 1. INTRODUCTION Water has a small but definite tendency to ionise. H 2 0 H + + OH - If there is nothing but water (pure water) then the concentration

More information

Practical Examples of Galvanic Cells

Practical Examples of Galvanic Cells 56 Practical Examples of Galvanic Cells There are many practical examples of galvanic cells in use in our everyday lives. We are familiar with batteries of all types. One of the most common is the lead-acid

More information

Research Advances Towards Low Cost, High Efficiency PEM Electrolysis

Research Advances Towards Low Cost, High Efficiency PEM Electrolysis 10.1149/1.3484496 The Electrochemical Society Research Advances Towards Low Cost, High Efficiency PEM Electrolysis K. E. Ayers, E. B. Anderson, C. B. Capuano, B. D. Carter, L. T. Dalton, G. Hanlon, J.

More information

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs)

Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) Docent Jinliang Yuan November, 2008 Department of Energy Sciences Lund Institute of Technology (LTH), Sweden Four PEMFC stacks illustrating developments through

More information

IB Chemistry 1 Mole. One atom of C-12 has a mass of 12 amu. One mole of C-12 has a mass of 12 g. Grams we can use more easily.

IB Chemistry 1 Mole. One atom of C-12 has a mass of 12 amu. One mole of C-12 has a mass of 12 g. Grams we can use more easily. The Mole Atomic mass units and atoms are not convenient units to work with. The concept of the mole was invented. This was the number of atoms of carbon-12 that were needed to make 12 g of carbon. 1 mole

More information

Solid-State Physics: The Theory of Semiconductors (Ch. 10.6-10.8) SteveSekula, 30 March 2010 (created 29 March 2010)

Solid-State Physics: The Theory of Semiconductors (Ch. 10.6-10.8) SteveSekula, 30 March 2010 (created 29 March 2010) Modern Physics (PHY 3305) Lecture Notes Modern Physics (PHY 3305) Lecture Notes Solid-State Physics: The Theory of Semiconductors (Ch. 10.6-10.8) SteveSekula, 30 March 2010 (created 29 March 2010) Review

More information

13.1 Alcohols and Phenols. Nomenclature. Nomenclature. Nomenclature. Alcohols possess a hydroxyl group ( OH). Hydroxyl groups in natural compounds.

13.1 Alcohols and Phenols. Nomenclature. Nomenclature. Nomenclature. Alcohols possess a hydroxyl group ( OH). Hydroxyl groups in natural compounds. 13.1 Alcohols and Phenols Alcohols possess a hydroxyl group ( OH). 13.1 Alcohols and Phenols Hydroxyl groups in natural compounds. Hydroxyl groups are extremely common in natural compounds. 13-1 13-2 13.1

More information

5.111 Principles of Chemical Science

5.111 Principles of Chemical Science MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 5.111 Principles of Chemical Science Fall 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms. Page 1 of 10 pages

More information

Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 8

Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis. Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 8 Alkynes: An Introduction to Organic Synthesis Based on McMurry s Organic Chemistry, 6 th edition, Chapter 8 Alkynes! Hydrocarbons that contain carbon-carbon triple bonds! Acetylene, the simplest alkyne

More information

Discovering Electrochemical Cells

Discovering Electrochemical Cells Discovering Electrochemical Cells Part I Electrolytic Cells Many important industrial processes PGCC CHM 102 Cell Construction e e power conductive medium What chemical species would be present in a vessel

More information

HYDROGEN: FUEL OF THE FUTURE

HYDROGEN: FUEL OF THE FUTURE ppm HYDROGEN: FUEL OF THE FUTURE Rachel Chamousis Abstract Hydrogen is an energy carrier that can transform our fossil-fuel dependent economy into a hydrogen economy, which can provide an emissions-free

More information

Chemical Bonds. Chemical Bonds. The Nature of Molecules. Energy and Metabolism < < Covalent bonds form when atoms share 2 or more valence electrons.

Chemical Bonds. Chemical Bonds. The Nature of Molecules. Energy and Metabolism < < Covalent bonds form when atoms share 2 or more valence electrons. The Nature of Molecules Chapter 2 Energy and Metabolism Chapter 6 Chemical Bonds Molecules are groups of atoms held together in a stable association. Compounds are molecules containing more than one type

More information

Features of the formation of hydrogen bonds in solutions of polysaccharides during their use in various industrial processes. V.Mank a, O.

Features of the formation of hydrogen bonds in solutions of polysaccharides during their use in various industrial processes. V.Mank a, O. Features of the formation of hydrogen bonds in solutions of polysaccharides during their use in various industrial processes. V.Mank a, O. Melnyk b a National University of life and environmental sciences

More information

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points:

The Discussion of this exercise covers the following points: Exercise 2 The Solar Panel (Photovoltaic Panel) EXERCISE OBJECTIVE When you have completed this exercise, you will be familiar with the operation of the silicon photovoltaic (PV) cell. You will be introduced

More information

Like The Guy From Krypton Photosynthesis: Energy from Sunlight What Is Photosynthesis?

Like The Guy From Krypton Photosynthesis: Energy from Sunlight What Is Photosynthesis? Like The Guy From Krypton Photosynthesis: Energy from Sunlight What Is Photosynthesis? Photosynthesis: synthesis from light The broad outline: Plants take in CO 2 and release water and O 2 Light is required

More information

I. Definitions: Name: Period: Date: 1. Arrhenius (1887)- produce in aqueous solutions produce in aqueous solutions

I. Definitions: Name: Period: Date: 1. Arrhenius (1887)- produce in aqueous solutions produce in aqueous solutions Name: Period: Date: I. Definitions: 1. Arrhenius (1887)- produce in aqueous solutions produce in aqueous solutions 2. Bronsted-Lowry (1923) 3. Lewis (1923), so only allows for aqueous solutions only protic

More information

Molecular Models in Biology

Molecular Models in Biology Molecular Models in Biology Objectives: After this lab a student will be able to: 1) Understand the properties of atoms that give rise to bonds. 2) Understand how and why atoms form ions. 3) Model covalent,

More information

New materials for PV Mirjam Theelen

New materials for PV Mirjam Theelen New materials for Mirjam Theelen 2 A little bit about myself Born in Eindhoven 2001-2007 Study chemistry in Nijmegen Solid State Chemistry Physical Chemistry 2007-present Scientist at TNO (Eindhoven) Research

More information

CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solutions (continued) Lect-07

CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solutions (continued) Lect-07 CHEM 101/105 Aqueous Solutions (continued) Lect-07 aqueous acid/base reactions a. a little bit more about water Water is a polar substance. This means water is able to "solvate" ions rather well. Another

More information

High Efficiency Black Polymer Solar Cells November 2012 Annual Report

High Efficiency Black Polymer Solar Cells November 2012 Annual Report High Efficiency Black Polymer Solar Cells November 2012 Annual Report PI: Dr. Franky So External Collaborators: John Reynolds, Georgia Tech Industry Partner: Sestar Technologies, LLC Students: Cephas Small

More information

Corrosion. Chemistry. Grade 10-12 LEARNING OUTCOMES DESCRIPTION MATERIALS READINESS ACTIVITIES. Science

Corrosion. Chemistry. Grade 10-12 LEARNING OUTCOMES DESCRIPTION MATERIALS READINESS ACTIVITIES. Science Science Grade 10-12 Classroom Individual reading DESCRIPTION The characteristic red color of Prince Edward Island soil can be explained by a chemical reaction. The process is known as corrosion or rusting.

More information

AC 2010-229: TEACHING RENEWABLE ENERGY THROUGH HANDS-ON PROJECT-BASED LEARNING FOR ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS

AC 2010-229: TEACHING RENEWABLE ENERGY THROUGH HANDS-ON PROJECT-BASED LEARNING FOR ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS AC 2010-229: TEACHING RENEWABLE ENERGY THROUGH HANDS-ON PROJECT-BASED LEARNING FOR ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS Rongrong Chen, IUPUI David Goodman, Indiana University Purdue Unversity Indianapolis (IUPUI)

More information

ENERGY CARRIERS AND CONVERSION SYSTEMS Vol. I - Alkaline Water Electrolysis - Isao Abe

ENERGY CARRIERS AND CONVERSION SYSTEMS Vol. I - Alkaline Water Electrolysis - Isao Abe ALKALINE WATER ELECTROLYSIS Isao Abe Office Tera, Chiba, Japan Keywords: Water electrolysis, alkaline, hydrogen, electrode, diaphragm, high pressure high temperature electrolyser, cell, electrocatalyst

More information

Q1. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be made by the reaction of hydrogen (H 2) with chlorine (Cl 2).

Q1. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be made by the reaction of hydrogen (H 2) with chlorine (Cl 2). Q. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) can be made by the reaction of hydrogen (H 2) with chlorine (Cl 2). (a) The diagrams represent molecules of hydrogen and chlorine. Draw a similar diagram to represent a molecule

More information

Supporting Information

Supporting Information Supporting Information Wiley-VCH 2007 69451 Weinheim, Germany Methanol Behavior in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells Younkee Paik, Seong-Soo Kim, and Oc Hee Han * Experimental Section Preparation of MEA: Standard

More information

Inside the Nickel Metal Hydride Battery

Inside the Nickel Metal Hydride Battery Inside the Nickel Metal Hydride Battery John J.C. Kopera Cobasys 5 June 004 Inside the NiMH Battery Introduction The Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) battery has become pervasive in today s technology climate,

More information

Chapter 3 Applying Your Knowledge- Even Numbered

Chapter 3 Applying Your Knowledge- Even Numbered Chapter 3 Applying Your Knowledge- Even Numbered 2. Elements in a specific compound are always present in a definite proportion by mass; for example, in methane, CH 4, 12 g of carbon are combined with

More information

Exciton dissociation in solar cells:

Exciton dissociation in solar cells: Exciton dissociation in solar cells: Xiaoyang Zhu Department of Chemistry University of Minnesota, Minneapolis t (fs) 3h! E, k h! Pc Bi e - 1 Acknowledgement Organic semiconductors: Mutthias Muntwiler,

More information

Module: 3 Lecture: 12

Module: 3 Lecture: 12 Module: 3 Lecture: 12 SODIUM HYDROXIDE INTRODUCTION Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye and caustic soda is a highly caustic metallic base which is a white solid available in pellets, flakes, granules,

More information