5. The overall reaction in a electrochemical cell is. Zn(s) + Cu 2+ (aq) Zn 2+ (aq) + Cu(s).

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1 1. Which process occurs in an operating voltaic cell? A) Electrical energy is converted to chemical energy. B) Chemical energy is converted to electrical energy. C) Oxidation takes place at the cathode. D) Reduction takes place at the anode. 2. During the operation of a voltaic cell, the cell produces A) electrical energy spontaneously B) chemical energy spontaneously C) electrical energy nonspontaneously D) chemical energy nonspontaneously 3. A battery consists of which type of cells? A) electrolytic B) electrochemical C) electroplating D) electromagnetic 4. Base your answer to the following question on the equation and diagram below represent an electrochemical cell at 298 K and 1 atmosphere. 5. The overall reaction in a electrochemical cell is Zn(s) + Cu 2+ (aq) Zn 2+ (aq) + Cu(s). As the reaction in this cell takes place, the A) mass of the Zn(s) electrode decreases B) mass of the Cu(s) electrode decreases C) Cu 2+ (aq) concentration remains the same D) Zn 2+ (aq) concentration remains the same 6. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below which represents a chemical cell at 298 K and 1 atmosphere. Which species represents the cathode? A) Zn B) Zn 2+ C) Cu D) Cu In a chemical cell composed of two half-cells, ions are allowed to flow from one half-cell to another by means of A) electrodes B) a voltmeter C) an external conductor D) a salt bridge 8. Given the overall cell reaction: Which species is oxidized when the switch is closed? A) Mg(s) B) Mg 2+ (aq) C) Ag(s) D) Ag + (aq) Zn(s) + 2 Ag + (aq) Zn 2+ (aq) + 2 Ag(s) Which will occur as the cell operates? A) The amount of Zn(s) will increase. B) The amount of Ag(s) will decrease. C) The concentration of Zn +2 (aq) will increase. D) The concentration of Ag + (aq) will increase.

2 Base your answers to questions 9 and 10 on the information below and on your knowledge of chemistry. An operating voltaic cell has zinc and iron electrodes. The cell and the unbalanced ionic equation representing the reaction that occurs in the cell are shown below. 9. Explain, in terms of Zn atoms and Zn ions, why the mass of the Zn electrode decreases as the cell operates. 10. Identify the subatomic particles that flow through the wire as the cell operates.

3 Base your answers to questions 11 and 12 on the information below. The diagram and balanced ionic equation below represent a voltaic cell with copper and silver electrodes and the reaction that occurs when the cell is operating. 11. State the purpose of the salt bridge in this voltaic cell. 12. Describe the direction of electron flow in the external circuit in this operating cell. Base your answers to questions 13 and 14 on the information below. 14. Identify the anode in this cell. The diagram below represents an operating voltaic cell at 298 K and 1.0 atmosphere in a laboratory investigation. The reaction occurring in the cell is represented by the balanced ionic equation below. 13. Write a balanced half-reaction equation for the reduction that occurs in this cell.

4 15. Base your answer to the following question on the information below. Aluminum is one of the most abundant metals in Earth's crust. The aluminum compound found in bauxite ore is Al2O3. Over one hundred years ago, it was difficult and expensive to isolate aluminum from bauxite ore. In 1886, a brother and sister team, Charles and Julia Hall, found that molten (melted) cryolite, Na3AlF6, would dissolve bauxite ore. Electrolysis pf the resulting mixture caused the aluminum ions in the Al2O3 to be reduced to molten aluminum metal. This less expensive process is known as the Hall process. Write the oxidation state for each of the elements in cryolite.

5 Answer Key HW # B 2. A 3. B 4. A 5. A 6. C 7. D 8. C 9. Zinc atoms from the electrode are oxidized to zinc ions in the solution, decreasing the mass of the electrode. Zinc atoms become Zn 2+ (aq). The atoms become ions dissolved in the water. Zn atoms lose electrons, producing ions in solution. 10. electrons e e 11. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to: The salt bridge allows for the migration of ions between the half-cells. The salt bridge prevents polarization of the half-cells maintains electrical neutrality 12. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to: Electrons flow from the copper electrode to the silver electrode through the wires and voltmeter. The e - flow is from Cu to Ag in the external circuit from anode to cathode 13. Ag + + e - Ag or 2Ag + + 2e - 2Ag 14. Ni(s) or the nickle electrode 15. Na: +1 Al: +3 F: 1

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