# Grades K 5 Scope and Sequence. Your #1 Choice for World-Class Mathematics! Deep Math Understanding. Real-World Problem Solvers.

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1 Grades K 5 Scope and Sequence Your #1 Choice for World-Class Mathematics! Deep Math Understanding. Real-World Problem Solvers.

2 Grade K Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Math in Focus : Singapore Math by Marshall Cavendish is the U.S. Edition of Singapore s most widely used program. 2

4 Number and Operations Sets and Numbers Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Use concrete models to create a set with a given number of objects (up to 20). Use concrete and pictorial models to create a set with a given number of objects (up to 100). Group objects and numbers up to 100 in tens and ones. Use concrete and pictorial models to create a set with a given number of objects (up to 1,000). Group objects and numbers up to 1,000 into hundreds, tens, and ones. Group objects into equal sized groups. Use cardinal and ordinal numbers. Use cardinal numbers up to 100 and ordinal numbers up to 10 th. Number Representation Use numbers to represent quantities up to 20. Use number bonds to represent number combinations. Use place value models to create equivalent representations of numbers. Represent numbers to 100 on a number line. Represent numbers to 1,000 on a number line. Count Count up to 20 objects in a set. Count to 100. Count to 1,000. Count on and back to 20. Count by 1s, 2s, 5s, and 10s forward and backward to 100. Count by multiples of ones, tens, and hundreds. Count in 2s and 5s up to 20. Compare and Order Compare and order sets and numbers up to 20. Compare and order whole numbers to 100. Compare and order whole numbers to 1,000. Compare and order using the terms fewer, more, and less. Compare and order using the terms same, more, fewer, greater than, less than, equal to, greatest, and least. Use <, >, and = to compare whole numbers. Place Value Use place value models and place value charts to represent numbers to 100. Use base-ten models and place value charts to represent numbers to 1,000. 4

5 Number and Operations Sets and Numbers Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Explore negative numbers in context. Number Representation Represent numbers to 10,000 in different equivalent forms. Represent numbers to 100,000 in various contexts. Understand place value concepts through millions. Count Count to 10,000. Count by hundreds and thousands. Count by thousands and ten thousands. Count by hundred thousands and millions. Compare and Order Compare and order whole numbers to 10,000. Compare and order whole numbers to 100,000. Compare and order whole numbers to 10,000,000. Place Value Use place value models to read, write, and represent numbers to 10,000. Express numbers to 100,000 in standard, expanded, and word forms. Express numbers to 10,000,000 in various forms. 5

6 Number and Operations (continued) Place Value (continued) Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Express numbers to 100 in standard and word forms. Express numbers to 1,000 in terms of place value. Compose and decompose multi-digit numbers (including expanded form). Fraction Concepts Connect geometric concepts with unit fractions halves, thirds, and fourths. Understand the relationship between a fraction and a whole. Compare and order halves, thirds, and fourths using bar models. Money Identify and relate coin values (penny, nickel, dime, quarter). Identify and relate coin values (penny, nickel, dime, quarter). Identify \$1, \$5, \$10, and \$20 bills. Count and make coin combinations. Count and make coin combinations. Count and make combinations of coins and bills. Compare money amounts. Decimal Concepts Use the dollar sign and decimal point. 6

7 Number and Operations (continued) Place Value (continued) Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Fraction Concepts Understand the meanings and uses of fractions including fraction of a set. Recognize, write, name, and illustrate mixed numbers and improper fractions. Convert fractions to decimals. Understand that the size of a fractional part is relative to the size of the whole. Find a fraction of a set. Relate fractions and division expressions. Compare fractions using models and number lines. Generate equivalent fractions. Identify equivalent fractions through the use of models, multiplication, division, and number lines. Convert among mixed numbers and improper fractions. Add and subtract like fractions. Money Add and subtract money. Solve real-world problems involving addition and subtraction of money. Decimal Concepts Use the dollar sign and decimal point in money amounts. Model decimals using tenths and hundredths. Model decimals using thousandths. 7

9 Number and Operations (continued) Decimal Concepts (continued) Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Understand decimal notation through hundredths as an extension of the base-ten system. Read and write decimals that are greater than or less than 1. Compare and order decimals. Identify equivalent decimals. Understand place value concepts through thousandths. Ratio, Proportion, and Percent Connect equivalent fractions and decimals. Convert decimals to fractions. Use ratios to solve problems. Find equivalent ratios. Solve problems with percent. Convert fractions to percents. Find a percent of a number. Whole Number Computation: Addition and Subtraction Model regrouping in addition and subtraction with place value. Add and subtract whole numbers to 10,000. 9

10 Number and Operations (continued) Whole Number Computation: Addition and Subtraction Real-World Problems Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Represent addition and subtraction stories. Formulate addition and subtraction stories. Solve addition and subtraction problems using basic facts. Solve multi-digit addition and subtraction problems by using a bar model. Whole Number Computation: Multiplication and Division Concepts Count by 2s and 5s up to 20. Count by 2s, 5s, and 10s. Multiply and divide with 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10. Adding the same number to multiply. Represent multiplication as repeated addition. Whole Number Computation: Multiplication and Division Algorithms Represent sharing equally and making equal groups. Represent division as repeated subtraction. Use the,, and = symbols to represent multiplication and division situations. 10

11 Number and Operations (continued) Whole Number Computation: Addition and Subtraction Real-World Problems Whole Number Computation: Multiplication and Division Concepts Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Solve addition and subtraction problems with greater numbers by using a bar model. Multiply and divide with 6, 7, 8, and 9. Represent multiplication in different ways. Apply understanding of models for multiplication and division. Represent division in different ways. Recall multiplication facts and related division facts. Whole Number Computation: Multiplication and Division Algorithms Multiply 1s, 10s, and 100s with and without regrouping. Develop fluency in multiplying multi-digit numbers. Multiply multi-digit numbers. Use addition and multiplication properties to multiply. Divide 10s and 1s with and without regrouping, no remainder. Divide by a 1-digit number, with a remainder. Find quotients involving multidigit dividends. 11

12 Number and Operations (continued) Whole Number Computation: Multiplication and Division Real-World Problems Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Use bar models to represent multiplication and division situations. Solve multiplication and division fact problems. Fraction Computation Add and subtract like fractions (halves, thirds, fourths). Decimal Computation Add and subtract money. Solve addition and subtraction money problems. Estimation and Mental Math Use mental math strategies to add and subtract. Use mental math strategies to add and subtract. 12

14 Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Number and Operations (continued) Estimation and Mental Math (continued) Estimate quantity by using referents. Round to the nearest ten to estimate sums and differences. Algebra Patterns Describe and extend repeating shape patterns. Identify, describe, and extend two- and three-dimensional shape patterns. Describe, extend, and create two-dimensional shape patterns. Count by 2s and 5s. Skip count by 2s, 5s, and 10s. Skip count by 2s, 3s, 4s, 5s, and 10s. Describe a rule for sorting objects. Find missing terms in repeating patterns. Identify a rule for sorting objects. Identify and extend growing and repeating patterns. Identify rules for number patterns. Find missing terms in growing and repeating patterns. Find missing terms in table patterns. Properties Identify 0 as the identity element for addition and subtraction. Use the Associative and Commutative Properties of Addition. Understand that addition and subtraction are inverse operations. Apply properties of addition. Use the Distributive Property as a multiplication strategy. Number Theory Identify odd and even numbers. 14

15 Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Number and Operations (continued) Estimation and Mental Math (continued) Use front-end estimation and rounding to estimate sums and differences. Decide whether an estimate or exact answer is needed. Use estimation in determining relative sizes of amounts or distances. Estimate sums and differences with fractions and decimals. Algebra Round and estimate with decimals. Estimate products and quotients with decimals. Patterns Create and analyze multiplication and division patterns. Identify, describe, and extend numeric and non-numeric patterns. Identify, describe, and extend numeric patterns involving all operations. Skip count by 6s, 7s, 8s, and 9s. Analyze number and counting patterns. Use a rule to describe a sequence of numbers or objects. Find rules to complete number patterns. Properties Understand that multiplication and division are related. Represent division as the inverse of multiplication. Create and analyze multiplication and division patterns. Model, define, and explain properties of multiplication. Number Theory Identify odd and even numbers. Find the greatest common factor and least common multiple. Identify prime and composite numbers. 15

16 Algebra (continued) Functional Relationships Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Understand the relationships between the numbers in fact families. Recognize how bar models show relationships between numbers and unknowns in number sentences. Expressions/ Models Use a variety of concrete, pictorial, and symbolic models for addition and subtraction. Use a variety of concrete, pictorial, and symbolic models for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Number Sentences and Equations Model addition and subtraction stories with addition and subtraction number sentences. Model addition and subtraction situations by writing addition and subtraction number sentences. Model multiplication and division situations by writing multiplication and division number sentences. Use bar models and number sentences to represent realworld problems. Determine the value of missing quantities in number sentences. Equality and Inequality Understand the meaning of the = sign in number sentences. Understand the difference between equality and inequality. Use and create models that demonstrate equality or inequality. Use <, >, and = to write number sentences. Geometry Size and Position Understand big, middle- sized, and small. Describe position with left and right. 16

17 Alegbra (continued) Functional Relationships Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Understand the relationships between the numbers in multiplication and division fact families. Describe number relationships in context. Understand the relationships between the numbers and symbols in formulas for area and perimeter. Describe number relationships in context. Understand the relationships between the numbers and symbols in formulas for surface area and volume. Describe number relationships in context. Expressions/ Models Use a variety of concrete, pictorial, and symbolic models for multi-digit addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Use a variety of concrete, pictorial, and symbolic models for multiplication and division; and addition and subtraction with fractions and decimals. Use letters as variables. Simplify algebraic expressions. Use the order of operations in numeric expressions with two or more operations. Number Sentences and Equations Write multiplication and division number sentences. Write and solve number sentences for one-, two-, and three-step real-world problems. Write and solve number sentences and equations for one- and two-step real-world problems. Write and solve number sentences for one- and twostep real-world problems. Use bar models and number sentences for one-, two-, and three-step real-world problems. Write and solve equations. Determine the missing parts (quantities or symbols) in number sentences. Determine the missing parts (quantities or symbols) in number sentences. Graph linear equations. Equality and Inequality Understand equality and inequality. Understand equality and inequality. Understand equality and inequality. Write and solve inequalities. Geometry Size and Position 17

18 Geometry (continued) Size and Position (continued) Lines and Angles Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Describe and compare objects by position. Use positional words to describe location. Identify parts of lines and curves. Two- Dimensional Shapes Identify similarities and differences. Name flat shapes that make up real-world objects. Identify, describe, sort, and classify two-dimensional shapes. Identify real-world twodimensional shapes. Identify and describe attributes and properties of twodimensional shapes. Identify, describe, sort, and classify two-dimensional shapes. Sort and classify twodimensional shapes. Identify parts of lines and curves. Make flat shape pictures. Compose and decompose twodimensional shapes. Compose and decompose twodimensional shapes. Compare areas using non-standard units. Develop foundations for understanding area. Three- Dimensional Shapes Name and sort solid shapes. Identify real-world threedimensional shapes. Understand that threedimensional shapes are made up of two-dimensional shapes. Identify two-dimensional shapes in three-dimensional shapes. Identify, describe, sort, and classify three-dimensional shapes. 18

19 Geometry (continued) Size and Position (continued) Lines and Angles Two- Dimensional Shapes Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Identify perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify right angles and compare angles to right angles. Draw perpendicular and parallel lines. Construct and measure angles. Work with angles on a straight line. Work with angles at a point. Three- Dimensional Shapes Describe, analyze, compare, and classify two-dimensional shapes by their sides and angles. Classify and sort polygons and quadrilaterals by attributes and properties. Investigate composing and decomposing two-dimensional shapes. Use attributes and properties to solve problems. Find and compare the area of plane figures in different square units. Apply the properties of squares and rectangles. Find unknown angle measures and side lengths of squares and rectangles. Identify figures that form tessellations. Understand the relationships between the numbers and symbols in formulas for area and perimeter. Apply the properties of right, isosceles, and equilateral triangles. Apply the sum of the angle measures of a triangle. Apply the properties of a parallelogram, rhombus, and trapezoid. Demonstrate that the sum of any two side lengths of a triangle is greater than the length of the third side. Find the area of a triangle. Identify and classify prisms and pyramids. Identify the solid that can be made from a net. 19

20 Geometry (continued) Three- Dimensional Shapes (continued) Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Sort and classify threedimensional shapes. Recognize shapes from different perspectives. Identify surfaces that slide, stack, and roll. Compose and decompose three-dimensional shapes. Congruence and Symmetry Develop initial understanding of congruence and symmetry. Transformations Coordinate Geometry Measurement Length and Distance Compare lengths and heights using non-standard units. Compare two lengths by comparing each with a third length (transitivity). Demonstrate linear measure as an iteration of units. Compare and order lengths (long, short, longest, shortest). Use a start line to measure length. Use rulers to measure length. Develop a background for measurement using non-standard units. Measure lengths, using non-standard units. Measure lengths in meters, centimeters, feet, and inches. Explain the need for equallength units to measure. 20

21 Geometry (continued) Three- Dimensional Shapes (continued) Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Identify cylinders, spheres, and cones. Describe cylinders, spheres, and cones by the number of and types of faces, and the number of edges and vertices. Build solids using unit cubes. Congruence and Symmetry Transformations Identify symmetrical figures and one line of symmetry. Solve problems involving congruency. Identify pairs of shapes that show a flip, slide, and turn. Identify line and rotational symmetry. Relate rotational symmetry to turns and congruency. Use transformations to form tessellations. Coordinate Geometry Measurement Length and Distance Demonstrate that figures and their flip, slide, and turn images are congruent. Select appropriate units and tools to estimate and measure length. Use meter sticks, 12-inch rulers, and yardsticks to measure length. Measure length to the nearest half inch and inch. Develop coordinate readiness with tables and line graphs. Plot points on a coordinate grid. Use referents to estimate distance. 21

22 Measurement (continued) Length and Distance (continued) Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Explain the need for equallength units to measure. Count length units in groups of 10s and 1s. Compare and measure lengths using customary and metric units. Compare measurements made using different units. Understand the inverse relationship between the size of a unit and the number of units. Weight/Mass Order objects by weight. Compare and measure weights using non-standard units. Demonstrate partitioning and transitivity in relation to length. Solve problems involving estimating, measuring, and computing length. Compare and measure masses. Compare weights using nonstandard units. Compare two masses by comparing each with a third mass (transitivity). Solve weight problems. Solve mass problems. Capacity/ Volume Compare capacities using nonstandard units. Measure volume (capacity) in liters. Solve volume problems. 22

23 Measurement (continued) Length and Distance (continued) Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Estimate and measure length, distance, and height in meters, centimeters, and kilometers. Convert among metric units of length. Weight/Mass Solve one- and two-step real-world problems in measurement. Select appropriate units and tools to estimate and measure weight. Use referents to estimate weight. Estimate and find masses of objects. Convert among units of mass. Capacity/ Volume Select appropriate tools and units to estimate and measure volume and capacity. Determine the volume and capacity of a container. Relate the units of customary capacity to one another. Use referents to estimate capacity. 23

24 Measurement (continued) Capacity/ Volume (continued) Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Time Name and order the days of the week and the months of the year. Compare durations of events. Read a calendar to identify the days of the week, months, and seasons of the year. Recognize the correct way to write the date. Tell time to the hour and half hour. Use A.M. and P.M. to write time. Tell time to five minutes. Find elapsed time. Temperature Angles Perimeter 24

25 Measurement (continued) Capacity/ Volume (continued) Time Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Estimate and measure capacity in liters and milliliters. Convert among metric units of capacity. Read time on a digital clock. Convert between hours and minutes. Determine elapsed time. Add and subtract units of time. Temperature Read a Fahrenheit thermometer. Choose the appropriate tool and unit to measure temperature. Use referents to estimate temperature. Angles Compare angles to right angles. Estimate and measure angles with a protractor. Apply the idea that the sum of angles on a straight line is 180. Classify angles by angle measure. Apply the idea that vertical angles are equal in measure. Relate 1/4-, 1/2-, 3/4-, and full turns to the number of right angles. Apply the idea that the sum of angles at a point is 360. Perimeter Measure perimeter of plane figures. Find the perimeter of composite figures. 25

26 Measurement (continued) Perimeter (continued) Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Area Compare areas using non-standard units. Compose and decompose twodimensional shapes (foundation for understanding area). Develop foundations for understanding area. Surface Area and Volume Data Analysis Classifying and Sorting Understanding similarities and differences in objects and shapes. Sort and classify geometric shapes. Sort and classify two- and threedimensional shapes by properties. Sorting and classifying objects using one or two attributes. Sorting and classifying data in order to make graphs. Collect and organize data in picture graphs. 26

27 Measurement (continued) Perimeter (continued) Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Choose the appropriate tool, unit, and strategy to measure perimeter. Estimate the perimeter of surfaces and objects. Solve problems involving the perimeter of squares, rectangles, and composite figures. Area Find and compare the area of plane figures in different square units. Explain area as an attribute of two-dimensional figures. Make different plane figures with the same area. Estimate area of small and large surfaces. Compare the area and perimeter of two plane figures. Find the area of rectangles and composite figures. Connect area measure to the area model for multiplication; use it to justify the formula for the area of a rectangle. Estimate and measure area in square units. Select appropriate units, strategies, and tools to solve area problems. Explain the relationships among area formulas of different polygons. Find the area of triangles. Surface Area and Volume Decompose solid figures to find the surface area. Estimate and measure volume in cubic units. Data Analysis Classifying and Sorting Classify and sort polygons and quadrilaterals by attributes and properties. Collect and organize data in bar graphs and line plots. Construct line plots, stemand-leaf plots, tables, and line graphs. Represent data in a double bar graph. 27

28 Data Analysis (continued) Collect and Organize Data Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Organize data for a picture graph. Collect and organize data in different ways. Collect and organize data in different ways. Represent Data Represent data in pictographs. Represent measurements and data in picture graphs, tally charts, and bar graphs. Represent data in picture graphs. Interpret/ Analyze Data Interpret data in tally charts and pictographs. Interpret data in picture graphs, tally charts, and bar graphs. Interpret picture graphs with scales. Read bar graphs with scales. Solve problems involving data. Solve real-world problems using picture graphs. Probability Outcomes Expressing Probability Problem Solving Build Skills Through Problem Solving Build skills in addition and subtraction through problem solving. Build skills in addition, subtraction, and measurement through problem solving. Build skills in addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and measurement through problem solving. 28

29 Data Analysis (continued) Collect and Organize Data Represent Data Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Interpret/ Analyze Data Interpret picture and bar graphs with scales. Interpret tally charts, bar graphs, picture graphs, tables, and line graphs. Analyze data in a double bar graph. Use frequency tables, bar graphs, picture graphs, and line plots to solve real-world problems. Find the mean (average), median, mode, and range of a data set. Probability Outcomes Decide whether an outcome is certain, more likely, equally likely, less likely, or impossible. Determine experimental probability of an outcome. Expressing Probability Express the probability of an event as a fraction. Compare the results of an experiment with theoretical probability. Find all possible combinations by listing, making a tree diagram, and multiplying. Problem Solving Build Skills Through Problem Solving Build skills in addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and measurement through problem solving. Build skills in multiplication, division, fraction concepts, data analysis, and measurement through problem solving. Build skills in multiplication; division; fraction concepts, decimals, ratios, and percents; data analysis; and measurement through problem solving. 29

32 Problem Solving (continued) Identify, Demonstrate, and Explain Mathematical Proof (continued) Use a Variety of Reasoning Skills Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Interpret data in tally charts and pictographs. Identify and extend repeating shape patterns. Sort and classify using attributes. Interpret picture graphs, tally charts, and bar graphs. Identify and extend growing number patterns and repeating shape patterns. Recognize shapes from different perspectives. Interpret picture graphs with scales. Identify rules for number patterns. Identify surfaces that slide, stack, and roll. Identify similarities and differences. Use the Commutative and Associative properties, and 10s and 1s to solve two-digit addition and subtraction problems. Explore the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction. Communication Consolidate Mathematical Thinking Consolidate thinking in independent activities. Present mathematical thinking through Math Journal activities. Present mathematical thinking through Math Journal activities. Communicate with Peers, Teachers, and Others Discuss mathematical ideas in paired and small-group activities. Discuss mathematical ideas in Let s Explore activities. Discuss mathematical ideas in Let s Explore activities. Work together in pairs or groups in Let s Explore, Games, and other activities. Work together in pairs or groups in Let s Explore, Games, and other activities. Share Mathematical Thinking Share mathematical ideas in paired and small-group activities. Share mathematical ideas with others during Let s Explore and Hands-On activities. Share mathematical ideas with others during Let s Explore and Hands-On activities. 32

33 Problem Solving (continued) Identify, Demonstrate, and Explain Mathematical Proof (continued) Use a Variety of Reasoning Skills Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Interpret bar graphs with scales. Create and analyze multiplication and division patterns. Model, define, and explain properties of multiplication. Explore the inverse relationship between multiplication and division. Analyze a data set by finding its mean, median, mode, and range. Identify, describe, and extend numeric and non-numeric patterns. Use properties of squares and rectangles to solve problems about area and perimeter. Compare the results of an experiment to validate the use of theoretical probability. Identify, describe, and extend numeric patterns involving all operations. Explore the relationship among lists, tree diagrams, and multiplication to calculate combinations. Use properties of multiplication (including the Distributive Property) in estimation and mental math. Communication Consolidate Mathematical Thinking Communicate with Peers, Teachers, and Others Share Mathematical Thinking Use estimation to check reasonableness. Present mathematical thinking through Math Journal activities. Discuss mathematical ideas in Let s Explore activities. Work together in pairs or groups in Let s Explore, Games, and other activities. Share mathematical ideas with others during Let s Explore and Hands-On activities. Use estimation to check reasonableness (wholenumber addition, subtraction, multiplication and division). Present mathematical thinking through Math Journal activities. Discuss mathematical ideas in Let s Explore activities. Work together in pairs or groups in Let s Explore, Games, and other activities. Share mathematical ideas with others during Let s Explore and Hands-On activities. Present mathematical thinking through Math Journal activities. Discuss mathematical ideas in Let s Explore activities. Work together in pairs or groups in Let s Explore, Games, and other activities. Share mathematical ideas with others during Let s Explore and Hands-On activities. 33

34 Communication (continued) Express Mathematical Ideas Connections Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Express ideas in paired and small group activities. Express ideas in Math Journal activities, using lesson vocabulary. Use chapter and lesson vocabulary correctly. Express ideas in Math Journal activities, using lesson vocabulary. Use chapter and lesson vocabulary correctly. Recognize Connections in Mathematical Ideas Understand the connection between quantities and written numerals. Understand the relationship between counting and addition and subtraction. Examine and apply the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction. Understand the relationships among the numbers in fact families. Connect geometric concepts with unit fractions. Connect addition and multiplication (repeated addition). Connect subtraction and division (repeated subtraction). Recognize and apply different strategies for adding and subtracting one- and two-digit numbers. Recognize and apply different strategies for multiplication and division facts. Understand How Concepts Build on One Another Explore relationships among counting, ordering, and ordinal numbers. Learn how place value concepts apply to regrouping in addition and subtraction. Understand how patterns can be described using numbers, operations, and data displays. Recognize the relationship between bar models, number sentences, and number patterns. 34

35 Communication (continued) Express Mathematical Ideas Connections Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Express ideas in Math Journal activities, using lesson vocabulary. Use chapter and lesson vocabulary correctly. Express ideas in Math Journal activities, using lesson vocabulary. Use chapter and lesson vocabulary correctly. Express ideas in Math Journal activities, using lesson vocabulary. Use chapter and lesson vocabulary correctly. Recognize Connections in Mathematical Ideas Apply the inverse relationship between multiplication and division. Demonstrate that decimal notation is an extension of the base-ten system. Relate fractions and division. Understand that the size of a fractional part is relative to the size of the whole. Examine the relationship between fractions and decimals. Understand the connection among fractions, decimals, ratios, and percents as ways to represent parts of a whole. Connect the units of customary capacity to one another. Make connections among multiplication, division, factors, and multiples. Examine the relationships between three-dimensional figures and the two-dimensional figures that form them. Understand the relationships between the numbers in multiplication-division fact families. Convert among mixed numbers and improper fractions. Relate fractions and division. Understand How Concepts Build on One Another Understand the meanings and uses of fractions including fraction of a set. Describe number relationships in context. Explain the relationships among area formulas of different polygons. Connect equivalent fractions and decimals. Connect equivalent fractions, decimals, and percents. Use addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division to construct and analyze graphs, frequency tables, and line plots. Make connections among the greatest common factor, least common multiple, and operations with fractions. 35

37 Connections (continued) Solve Real-World Problems in Contexts Outside of Mathematics Representation Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Solve real-world problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and measurement. Solve real-world problems related to money. Solve real-world problems involving multiplication, division, fraction concepts, data analysis, and measurement. Solve real-world problems involving multiplication; division; fraction, decimal, ratio, and percent concepts; data analysis; and measurement. Compare experimental results and theoretical probability. Use Representations to Model, Organize, and Record Use place value models to read, write, and represent numbers to 10,000. Represent numbers to 100,000 in various contexts. Explore negative numbers in context. Represent numbers in different equivalent forms. Express numbers to 100,000 in standard, expanded, and word forms. Express numbers to 10,000,000 in various forms. Use the dollar sign and decimal point in money amounts. Model decimals to tenths and hundredths. Find equivalent ratios. Solve addition and subtraction problems with greater numbers by using a bar model Write addition and subtraction number sentences for realworld problems with fractions and decimals. Explore the use of letters as variables in expressions and inequalities. Represent multiplication and division in different ways. Use models to show relationships between improper fractions and mixed numbers. Convert fractions and decimals to percents. Use a variety of representations for multiplication and division, such as arrays, area models, number lines, grouping, and sharing. Apply understanding of models for multiplication and division. Represent combinations with lists, tree diagrams, and multiplication. 37

38 Representation (continued) Use Representations to Model, Organize, and Record (continued) Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Represent multiplication with skip counting, dot paper arrays, and bar models. Represent division as repeated subtraction sentences. Describe and extend shape patterns. Identify, describe, and extend two- and three-dimensional shape patterns. Describe, extend, and create two-dimensional shape patterns. Describe a rule for sorting objects. Identify a rule for sorting objects. Identify and extend growing and repeating patterns. Identify rules for number patterns. Select and Apply Representations to Model Problems Represent quantities with objects, number cubes, and numerals. Use number bonds to represent number combinations. Use place value models to create equivalent representations of numbers. Use a variety of concrete, pictorial, and symbolic models for addition and subtraction. Use a variety of concrete, pictorial, and symbolic models for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Represent multiplication with skip counting and arrays. Interpret Phenomena through Representations Show understanding of big, middle-sized, small, and same size. Measure and compare lengths and weights using nonstandard units. Use metric and customary units to measure length, volume (capacity), weight, and mass. Describe and compare objects by position. Use positional words to describe location. 38

39 Representation (continued) Use Representations to Model, Organize, and Record (continued) Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Determine the missing parts (quantities or symbols) in number sentences. Write addition and subtraction number sentences for realworld problems with fractions and decimals. Write and solve equations. Create and analyze multiplication and division patterns. Identify a rule for number and counting patterns. Use a rule to describe a sequence of numbers or objects. Find rules to complete number patterns. Select and Apply Representations to Model Problems Use a variety of models to represent fractions and equivalent fractions. Translate between equivalent improper fractions and mixed numbers. Translate between fractions and percents. Use a variety of concrete, pictorial, and symbolic models for multi-digit addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Use a variety of models for multi-digit multiplication and division of whole numbers. Select the most useful form of the quotient. Use customary units (including fractions) to measure length, weight, and capacity. Use a variety of models for addition and subtraction of fractions and decimals. Use a net to find the surface area of a prism. Interpret Phenomena through Representations Use referents to estimate length, capacity, and weight. Measure perimeter and area in customary and metric units. Measure volume of a rectangular prism. 39

40 Representation (continued) Interpret Phenomena through Representations (continued) Kindergarten Grade 1 Grade 2 Name flat shapes that make up real-world objects. Represent measurements and data in picture graphs and bar graphs. Identify real-world two- and three-dimensional shapes. Represent data in picture graphs. Represent data in bar graphs and picture graphs. Order a number of objects according to length, height, or weight. Use one-to-one correspondence. Solve problems about sharing equally and making equal groups. Use a variety of models for adding and subtracting. Solve real-world problems about social phenomena. Use bar models to represent addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division situations. Use technology (virtual manipulatives and computers) to model and draw. Use technology (virtual manipulatives and computers) to model and draw. 40

41 Representation (continued) Interpret Phenomena through Representations (continued) Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Use frequency tables, bar graphs, picture graphs, and line plots to solve problems. Collect data and organize it in a table. Create a line graph from data in a table. Represent data in a double bar graph. Represent an equation as a graphed line. Solve real-world problems involving social situations. Solve real-world problems related to money. Use technology (virtual manipulatives and computers) to model and draw. Use a calculator to model, compute, and solve problems. Use measures of central tendency to describe typical values of data sets (social). Solve real-world problems involving multiplication, division, fraction concepts, data analysis, and measurement. Use technology (virtual manipulatives and computers) to model and draw. Solve real-world problems involving social situations. Use technology (virtual manipulatives and computers) to model and draw. 41

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