A.P. Biology Plant Notes

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1 A.P. Biology Plant Notes Basic Characteristics: Multicellular Eukaryotes, photosynthetic autotrophs, cell walls contain cellulose, food reserve that is starch stored in plastids, chloroplasts with photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids), gas exchange via stomata, waxy cuticle to prevent desiccation Overview of Groups Nonvascular Plants: (Bryophytes) haploid gametophytes is dominant generation, gametangia protect developing gametes, lack woody tissue Division Bryophyta Mosses Division Hepatophyta Liverworts Division Anthocerophyta Hornworts Vascular Plants: Seedless Vascular Plants: sporophyte (diploid) dominated life cycle, is the familiar leafy part of the plant, small gametophytes that grow beneath surface of soil, formed the coal forests of the carbinoferous period Division Lycophyta Lycophytes, club mosses, ground pines Division Sphenophyta Horsetails Division Pterophyta Ferns Seed Plants: seeds replaced the spore as the main means of dispersing offspring; pollen is vesicle for sperm cells, Gymnosperms: lack enclosed chambers (ovaries) in which seeds develop Division Coniferophyta Conifers Division Cycadophyta Cycads Division Ginkgophyta Ginkgo Division Gnetophyta Gnetae Angiosperms: most widespread and diverse, 250,000 species, refined vascular tissue, flowers, fruit Division Anthophyta Dicotyledons Origin and Evolution Monocotyledons Flowering Plants 2 cotyledons (storage tissue), netted leaf veins, flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5, circled vascular bundle, taproot 1 cotyledon, parallel veins, flower parts in multiples of 3, scattered vascular bundles, fibrous root system -Evolved from green algae -Alternation of generations in plants may have originated by delayed meiosis -Adaptation to shallow water pre-adapted plants for living on land (waxy cuticles, protection of gametes, and protection of embryos)

2 -Eventually, accumulated adaptations (regional specialization of plant body (roots and plant body), structural support, vascular system, pollen, seeds) allowed terrestrial plants to live above water line on dry land which opened new adaptive zone with: -Sunlight unfiltered by water and algae -Soil rich in minerals -Absence of terrestrial herbivores Vascular Seed Plants: Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Plant tissues Ground Tissues: the general cells of the plant cell wall, function in photosynthesis, storage, and support Parenchyma Cells: most common, least specialized, lack secondary walls (thin walls), where photosynthesis takes place, food storage Collenchyma Cells: thick flexible cell walls, lack secondary walls, grouped in cylinders to support young growth, elongate as the stems and leaves they support grow Sclerenchyma Cells: main function is support, thick secondary cell walls strengthened by lignin Dermal Tissues: single layer of tightly packed cells covering and protecting the young parts of the plant Root hairs: specialized for water and mineral absorption near root tips Cuticle: waxy, helps retain water Vascular Tissues: xylem and phloem that function in transport and support, is continuous throughout the plant, found in bundles Xylem: conduction of water and minerals, primary and secondary cell wall for strength, pits (absent 2 o cell wall) for water movement, dead a maturity, made up of two types of cells Tracheids: long, thin, tapered, lignin hardened with pits, water flows from cell to cell through pits, support Vessel Elements: wide, short, thin walled, aligned end to end, end of cell is pitted for end to end transmission of water, efficient, more found in flowering plants Phloem: conduction of sugars, living at maturity Sieve Tube members: chains of phloem cells that transport sucrose, organic compounds, and some minerals, in angiosperms: sieve tube has pores and is called sieve plate to facilitate movement between cells The Seed Embryo: Epicotyl: top portion of embryo, becomes the shoot tip Plummule: attached to epicotyl, young leaves Hypocotyl: below epicotyl, attached to cotyledons, young shoot Radicle: develops below the hypocotyl, develops into root Coleoptile: in monocots, protects epicotyl

3 Seed Coat: formed from integuments of ovule, outer layer of seed Endosperm or Cotyledons: cotyledons formed by digesting storage material in endosperm Monocots: most of storage tissue is endosperm, single cotyledon to transfer nutrients from endosperm to embryo Dicots: two fleshy cotyledons (most of what you see when you look at two halves of pea seed), remainder is a small embryo Germination and Development: after a seed reaches maturity, it remains dormant until environmental cues such as water, fire, temperature, light cause germination to begin Germination: begins with absorption of water, seed swells, seed coat cracks, radicle produces roots, elongation of hypocotyl to form young shoot Primary Growth: in young seedling, growth at roots and shoots called apical meristems, meristematic cells (actively dividing) create the primary growth Root Growth: Root cap protects apical meristem, dividing cells in apical meristem from zone of cell division, behind is zone of maturation where cells mature into xylem, phloem. Primary Growth vs Secondary Growth: Primary growth occurs in monocots and occurs in primary tissues (xylem and phloem) that originate from apical meristem and occurs vertically. Secondary Growth (conifers and woody dicots) in addition to primary growth extends laterally and is origin of woody tissue. Lateral meristems, vascular cambium, and cork cambium, is origin of secondary growth Vascular cambium produce secondary xylem and secondary phloem. Cork cambium gives rise to periderm (protective material that lines outside of woody plants. Plant Morphology Primary Structure of Roots: leads to formation of the following tissues: Epidermis: lines outside surface of root, root hairs (from zone of maturation) increase absorptive surface area, constantly grow Cortex: bulk of root, storage of starch Endodermis: ring of tightly packed cells that control water movement and confine to vascular bundle, has casparian strip (water-impenetrable) strip on outside of cells Vascular Cylinder: (stele), tissue inside endodermis, pericycle (outer part of vascular cylinder, form lateral roots) Monocots: xylem cells alternate with phloem cells in groups in rings around the center tissue area called the pith Dicots: Xylem cells form a big X across center, Phloem occupy regions between the lines of the X Primary Structure of Stems: similar to root, except most lack endodermis and casparian strip because they are designed for water absorption. Other differences from roots: Epidermis: with a waxy cutin to protect cuticle

4 Cortex: ground tissue that contains chloroplasts Vascular Cylinder: differing arrangements of xylem and phloem Secondary Structure of Roots and Stems: Vascular cambium between xylem and phloem becomes a cylinder of meristematic cells on inside and outside of cambium cylinder. Cells on inside become secondary xylem (increases girth of stem and root as accumulates), outside become secondary phloem. This growth pushes outside tissues as xylem girth continues, they break apart as separate from root or stem. Periderm: cells produced by cork cambium to cover epidermis Wood: dead xylem tissue, sapwood is new xylem is for water transportation, heartwood is old xylem for support Annual Rings: alternation of growth and dormancy, number and size of rings is related to age and amount of water Structure of the Leaf: Epidermis: protective covering, covered by cuticle (cutin) to reduce transpiration Palisade mesophyll: parenchyma cells with chloroplasts for photosynthesis tightly packed near upper surface Spongy mesophyll: loosely arranged parenchyma cells below palisade cells, spaces for CO 2 to cells Guard Cells: specialized epidermal cells that control stomata (gas exchange) Vascular Bundles: xylem and phloem contained within bundle sheath Plant Hormones: 5 classes of plant hormones: Auxin (IAA): indoleacetic acid, promotes growth by elongation, influences phototropism and geotropism, is also active in leaves, fruits and germinating seeds Gibberellins: gibberellic acid, 60 types, promote shoot growth, fruit development, and seed germination, inhibits aging of leaves Cytokinins: stimulate cyotkinesis, growth of lateral buds, and organ development, produced in roots Ethylene (CH 2 ): gas promotes ripening of fruit, production of flowers, and leaf abscission (aging and dropping of leaves) Abscisic acid (ABA): growth inhibitor, maintains dormancy in winter, and seeds Functions in the Plant Life: Transport of Water: Enters root by osmosis in root hairs, then to center or root by either: Apoplast: path of water through nonliving cell walls without leaving cells Symplast: path of water through living portion of cytoplasm through plasmodesmata (tubes that connect cytoplasm of adjacent cells) Mechanisms of Water and dissolved minerals in plants:

5 Osmosis: from soil through root into xylem due to concentration gradient from water that is constantly leaving the root xylem up the plant, force is called root pressure Capillary Action: results from adhesion force of water Cohesion-tension theory: explains most of water movement: Transpiration causes a negative pressure (tension), to cause the cohesive water in the column to bulk flow through the xylem cells as the water is pulled by evaporation, so the sun is the driving force for water movement Control of Stomata: controls gas exchange, transpiration, sap and photosynthesis, controlled by guard cells as water diffuses into and out of cells controlling the shape. Controlled by the some of the following: Stomata: close when temperatures are high, reduces loss of water, no photosynthesis Stomata: open when CO 2 are low inside leaf Stomata: close at night, open during day in response to CO2 fluctuation due to photosynthesis Stomata: open when K+ ions diffuse into guard cells, this gradient causes water to move into guard cell Transport of Sugars: translocation is movement of carbohydrates through phloem from source to sink, is described by a pressure flow hypothesis: Sugars enter sieve-tube members: from palisade mesophyll by active transport, creates a higher concentration of sugars at source Water enters sieve-tube members: as a result of movement of solutes to move water down concentration gradient Pressure in sieve-tube members at source moves water and sugars to sieve-tube members at the sink though sieve tubes: by bulk flow Pressure is reduced in sieve-tube members at the sink as sugars are removed for utilization by nearby cells: pressure relieved as sugars are used in sink, and water is removed by diffusion Sugars stored as starches (water insoluable) Plant Responses to Stimuli: Tropism: a growth pattern to an environmental stimuli Phototropism: response to light, controlled by auxin Gravitropism (Geotropism): response to gravity, controlled by auxin and gibberellins Thigmotropism: response to touch Photoperiodism: changes in the plant to the length of light and darkness controlled by circadian rhythm, controlled by phytochrome (P t or 660 or P fr or 730 ) that is photoreversible depending on the red light (wavelength 660 nm) or far red (wavelength 730 nm) P fr appears to reset the circadian-rhythm clock

6 P r is the form of phytochrome synthesized in plant cells (in the leaves) P r and P fr are in equilibrium during daylight: P r accumulates at night At daybreak, light rapidly converts the accumulated P r and P fr Night length is responsible for resetting the circadian-rhythm clock Flowering plants initiate flowering according to changes in photoperiod as follows: Long-Day Plants: flower in the spring and early summer when daylight is increasing Short-Day Plants: flower in late summer and early fall when daylight is decreasing Day-Neutral Plants: flower in response to temperature, or water

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