# AQA Level 2 Certificate FURTHER MATHEMATICS

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1 AQA Qualifications AQA Level 2 Certificate FURTHER MATHEMATICS Level 2 (8360)

2 Our specification is published on our website ( We will let centres know in writing about any changes to the specification. We will also publish changes on our website. The definitive version of our specification will always be the one on our website, this may differ from printed versions. You can get further copies of this Teacher Resource from: The GCSE Mathematics Department AQA Devas Street Manchester M16 6EX Or, you can download a copy from our All About Maths website ( Copyright 2013 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. AQA retains the copyright on all its publications, including the specifications. However, registered centres for AQA are permitted to copy material from this specification booklet for their own internal use. AQA Education (AQA) is a registered charity (number ) and a company limited by guarantee registered in England and Wales (number ). Our registered address is AQA, Devas Street, Manchester M15 6EX.

3 Contents 1 Number Number Manipulation of surds, including rationalising the denominator 6 2 Algebra The basic processes of algebra Definition of a function Domain and range of a function Expanding brackets and collecting like terms Factorising Manipulation of rational expressions: Use of + for algebraic fractions with denominators being numeric, linear or quadratic Use and manipulation of formulae and expressions Use of the factor theorem for integer values of the variable, including cubics Completing the square Sketching of functions. Sketch graphs of linear and quadratic functions Solution of linear and quadratic equations Algebraic and graphical solution of simultaneous equations in two unknowns where the 16 equations could be either both linear or one linear and one second order 2.13 Solution of linear and quadratic inequalities Index laws, including fractional and negative indices Algebraic proof nth terms of linear and quadratic sequences. Limiting values of a sequence as n 19 3 Coordinate Geometry Know and use the definition of a gradient Know the relationship between the gradients of parallel and perpendicular lines Use Pythagoras theorem to calculate the distance between two points Use ratio to find the coordinates of a point on a line given the coordinates of two other 22 points 3.5 The equation of a straight line in the forms y = mx + c and y y 1 = m(x x 1 ) Draw a straight line from given information Understand that the equation of a circle, centre (0, 0), radius r is x 2 + y 2 = r Understand that (x a) 2 + (y b) 2 = r 2 is the equation of a circle with centre (a, b) and radius r 26 3

4 4 Calculus Know that the gradient function of change of y with respect to x dy dx gives the gradient of the curve and measures the rate 4.2 Know that the gradient of a function is the gradient of the tangent at that point Differentiation of kx n where n is a positive integer or 0, and the sum of such functions The equation of a tangent and normal at any point on a curve Use of differentiation to find stationary points on a curve: maxima, minima and points of 31 inflection 4.6 Sketch a curve with known stationary points 32 5 Matrix Calculations Multiplication of matrices The identity matrix, I Transformations of the unit square in the x - y plane Combination of transformations 36 6 Geometry Geometry Understand and construct geometrical proofs using formal arguments Sine and cosine rules in scalene triangles Use of Pythagoras theorem in 2D and 3D Be able to apply trigonometry and Pythagoras theorem to 2 and 3 dimensional problems Sketch and use graphs of y = sin x, y = cos x and y = tan x for 0 x Be able to use the definitions of sin, cos and tan for any positive angle up to Knowledge and use of 30, 60, 90 triangles and 45, 45, 90 triangles Use of tan sinθ cosθ and sin 2 + cos

5 1 Number 1.1 Number understand and use the correct hierarchy of operations understand and use decimals, fractions and percentages understand and use ratio and proportion understand and use numbers in index form and standard form understand rounding and give answers to an appropriate degree of accuracy. Knowledge, use and understanding of the numerical processes in the Key Stage 4 Programme of Study will be expected. Candidates will not be expected to use symbols for real numbers, natural numbers or integers. The symbol will be taken to mean the positive square root of a number, although candidates should be aware that a positive number has two distinct square roots. Questions will only be set in the context of other references within the specification. 1 x : y = 2 : 3 (a) Write y in terms of x. (b) Work out the ratio 2x : x + 2y Give your answer in its simplest form 2 a% of 2b = b% of 5c Work out c as a percentage of a. 3 A ship travels 15 km due South from A to B. It then travels 18 km due East from B to C. Work out the distance AC. Give your answer to an appropriate degree of accuracy. 5

6 1.2 Manipulation of surds, including rationalising the denominator simplify expressions by manipulating surds expand brackets which contain surds rationalise the denominator, including denominators in the form a b + c d where a, b, c and d are integers understand the concept of using surds to give an exact answer. Questions may be set in the context of other references within the specification. 1 Work out the exact value of Solve = 50 x 3 Express (4 + 3 )(1 2 3 ) in the form a + b 3 4 In the diagram AB = 7 cm, BC = 2 cm and CD = 3 cm Show that AD = 4 CD C Not drawn accurately D B A 6

7 12 Algebra 2.1 The basic processes of algebra understand and use commutative, associative and distributive laws understand and use the hierarchy of operations recall and apply knowledge of the basic processes of algebra, extending to more complex expressions, equations, formulae and identities. Knowledge and understanding of the algebraic processes in the Key Stage 4 Programme of Study will be expected. Questions which require these processes may be set as a single problem or with structure given. 1 Simplify fully 6a a 4a 2a 2 Solve 3(x + 2) 4 = 2(5 x) 3 (a) Factorise 25x 2 16 (b) Factorise 15x 2 7x 4 (c) Simplify 25x 15x x 4 7

8 2.2 Definition of a function understand that a function is a relation between two sets of values understand and use function notation, for example f(x) substitute values into a function, knowing that, for example f(2) is the value of the function when x = 2 solve equations that use function notation. Questions requiring explicit knowledge of composite functions and inverse functions will not be set. 1 Given that f(x) = 4x 5 work out (a) (b) f(6) f(0.5) 2 f(x) = 3x + 2 Solve f(x) = 0 3 f(x) = x 2 + 3x 6 (a) Write down an expression for f(2x) (b) Solve f(2x) = 0 Give your answer to 2 decimal places. 8

9 2.3 Domain and range of a function define the domain of a function work out the range of a function express a domain in a variety of forms, for example x > 2, for all x except x = 0, for all real values express a range in a variety of forms, for example f(x) 0, for all f(x) except f(x) = 1. Candidates will not be expected to use or the symbols for real numbers, natural numbers or integers. 1 Given that f(x) = x 2 and that x > 3, state the range of f(x). 2 Given that f(x) = 3x + 4 and that f(x) < 0, state the largest possible integer value of x. 3 f(x) = 2x + 3 and x > 6 (a) (b) Write down an expression for f(3x) State the domain and range of the function f(3x) 9

10 2.4 Expanding brackets and collecting like terms expand two or more brackets simplify expressions by collecting like terms. Brackets may contain polynomials of any degree. Terms may include negative or fractional powers. Candidates should understand the phrases descending order and ascending order. Knowledge of Pascal s triangle and binomial expansions are not required. 1 Expand and simplify (x 4 + 5x 3 4x 2 + 7x)(x 4) 2 Expand and simplify (2x + 5) 3 3 Expand and simplify (y 2 + 5y 2)(y 2 + 7) 3(y 3 2y) 1 4 Expand x 2 (x + 5) 5 Expand and simplify (x + x 1 )(x x 1 ) 10

11 2.5 Factorising factorise by taking out common factors from expressions factorise expressions given in the form of a quadratic factorise a difference of two squares. Candidates will be expected to give answers in simplest form. 1 Factorise 4x Factorise 12x 2 + xy y 2 3 Factorise fully 8x 3 72x 4 Factorise (3x + 7) 2 (2x 3) 2 11

12 2.6 Manipulation of rational expressions: Use of + for algebraic fractions with denominators being numeric, linear or quadratic Factorising use a combination of the skills required for sections 2.1, 2.4 and 2.5 in order to manipulate and simplify rational algebraic expressions. Questions may involve more than one variable. Questions may involve polynomials of degree greater than 2 but these will either factorise to a polynomial of degree no greater than 2 multiplied by a common factor or be in the form of a quadratic. 1 Simplify fully 6x 2 7 x 3 16x x 3x 4x Simplify fully ( x 5x 1)( x 4) 4 ( x 4) 3 Simplify fully x x 4 4 5x 3 13x 2 6x

13 2.7 Use and manipulation of formulae and expressions change the subject of a formula, where the subject appears on one or both sides of the formula manipulate formulae and expressions show how one side of an identity can be manipulated to obtain the other side of the identity. Candidates will be expected to show all steps of working using a systematic approach. Candidates will be expected to give answers in simplest form. 1 Make x the subject of 5y = 4 3x 2 Make y the subject of 3y + 7 = 8xy 1 3 Make z the subject of 1 x + z 2y = x 4 Show that 1 x x 5 simplifies to x 2 5x 7 2x 15 13

14 2.8 Use of the factor theorem for integer values of the variable, including cubics understand and use the factor theorem to factorise polynomials up to and including cubics show that x a is a factor of the function f(x) by checking that f(a) = 0 solve equations up to and including cubics, where at least one of the roots is an integer. Cubic equations will have three real solutions unless there are repeated roots. When the factor theorem is needed to factorise a given cubic, the coefficient of x 3 will always be 1. 1 Factorise x 3 + x 2 5x Show that x 3 is a factor of x 3 4x 2 + x Solve x 3 4x 2 + x + 6 = 0 14

15 2.9 Completing the square complete the square for any quadratic function of the form ax 2 + bx + c where a, b and c are integers solve quadratic equations by completing the square equate coefficients to obtain unknown values. The identity symbol should be known and understood. 1 Work out the values of a, b and c such that 4x 2 + 8x 1 a(x + b) 2 + c 2 Work out the values of a, b and c such that 3x 2 + bx + 4 a(x + 2) 2 + c 3 Work out the values of p and q such that 6 4x x 2 p (x + q) 2 4 (a) Work out the values of a, b and c such that 3x 2 + 4x 1 a(x + b) 2 + c (b) Hence or otherwise, solve the equation 3x 2 + 4x 1 = 0, giving your answers to 3 significant figures. 15

16 2.10 Sketching of functions Sketch graphs of linear and quadratic functions draw or sketch graphs of linear and quadratic functions with up to 3 domains label points of intersection of graphs with the axes understand that graphs should only be drawn within the given domain identify any symmetries on a quadratic graph and from this determine the coordinates of the turning point. Axes and / or labels may or may not be given in the question. Graphs may or may not be continuous. Graphs of cubic functions are covered in section A function f(x) is defined as f(x) = 1 0 x < 1 = 4 1 x < 2 = x 2 2 x 3 Draw the graph of y = f(x) on the grid. y x 16

17 2 (a) Sketch the graph of y = 2x 2 x 3 Label clearly any points of intersection with the axes. (b) Work out the equation of the line of symmetry of the graph of y = 2x 2 x 3 for all real values of x. 3 Here is a graph of y = f(x). y O x Define f(x), stating clearly the domain for each part. 17

18 2.11 Solution of linear and quadratic equations solve linear equations solve quadratic equations by factorisation, by graph, by completing the square or by formula. Questions may require the setting up of linear or quadratic equations from a variety of contexts. Questions may require the solutions to be interpreted, for example give the positive answer as it represents a length. 1 The length of a rectangle is (2x + 1) cm. The width of the rectangle is (x + 7) cm. The area of the rectangle is 444 cm 2. Set up an equation in x. Solve your equation and hence work out the perimeter of the rectangle. 2 The length of the base of a triangle is double the length of the perpendicular height. The area of the triangle is 150 cm 2. Work out the length of the base of the triangle to two significant figures. 18

19 3 The graph of y = 4 x 2 is shown. y O x By drawing a suitable linear graph on the grid work out approximate solutions to x 2 + x 4 = 0 Give solutions to one decimal place. 19

20 2.12 Algebraic and graphical solution of simultaneous equations in two unknowns where the equations could be both linear or one linear and one second order solve two linear simultaneous equations using any valid method solve simultaneous equations where one is linear and one is second order using substitution or any other valid method. Questions may require the setting up of linear or quadratic equations from a variety of contexts. 1 Solve the simultaneous equations 3x + 5y = 34 and 5x + 3y = 30 2 Solve the simultaneous equations x 2 + y 2 = 45 and x + 2y = 9 3 Solve the simultaneous equations xy = 6 and 5x 2y = 7 20

21 2.13 Solution of linear and quadratic inequalities solve linear inequalities solve quadratic inequalities. Questions may require factorisation of quadratics. Questions may require solution by completing the square for a quadratic expression or using a graphical method. Questions may require integer values that satisfy the inequalities. Questions may ask for the smallest or largest integer value that satisfies the inequality. 1 Solve 8(x 7) < 3(x + 2) 2 Solve 5x x Work out the integer values that satisfy the inequality 4x 2 + 7x 15 < 0 21

22 2.14 Index laws, including fractional and negative indices simplify expressions involving fractional and negative indices which may be written in a variety of forms solve equations involving expressions involving fractional and negative indices understand that, for example x n 1 is equivalent to the nth root of x understand that, for example x n is equivalent to 1 n. x Questions may be set in index notation or using roots and reciprocals. 1 Solve x 2 3 = Simplify x x 2 3 Solve x 3 = 3 3 Give your answer as a power of 3. 22

23 2.15 Algebraic proof show that an expression can be manipulated into another given form prove given conditions for algebraic expressions. Candidates will be expected to give elegant solutions to problems following standard mathematical conventions. The presentation of algebraic proofs should be rigorous. 1 Prove algebraically that the sum of three consecutive integers is always a multiple of 3. 2 (a) Show that 2x x 2 1 simplifies to 13x 7 6 (b) Hence solve 2x x 2 1 = 8 3 Prove that (2x + 3) 2 3x(x + 4) is always positive. 23

24 2.16 n th terms of linear and quadratic sequences. Limiting value of a sequence as n write down the value of the nth term of a sequence for any given value of n work out a formula for the nth term of a sequence, which may contain linear or quadratic parts work out the limiting value for a given sequence or for a given nth term as n approaches infinity. Sequences may use a combination of linear and quadratic sequences, for example when the 2 n 1 sequence involves fractions such as 3n 2 1 The nth term of a sequence is 7 n n 2 1 (a) Which term in the sequence is the first one that has a negative value? (b) Work out the value of this term. 2 Work out the limiting value of n 5n 1 as n 3 Work out the formula for the nth term of the quadratic sequence

25 3 1 Coordinate Geometry (2 dimensions only) 3.1 Know and use the definition of a gradient work out the gradient of a line given two points on the line select two points on a given line to work out the gradient use the gradient of a line and a known point on the line to work out the co-ordinates of a different point on the line. Candidates will be expected to give exact values for gradients in their simplest form. 1 Work out the gradient of the line that passes through (1, 2) and (1, 5) 2 Work out the gradient of the line shown. y O x A line has gradient 3 and passes through the points (6, 1 ) and (a, 2a). Work out the value of a. 25

26 3.2 Know the relationship between the gradients of parallel and perpendicular lines work out the gradients of lines that are parallel and perpendicular to a given line show that two lines are parallel or perpendicular using gradients. Candidates may be required to use angle properties listed in section 6.1 and section 3.7. Solution by accurate drawing will not be acceptable. 1 Here are the equations of two straight lines y = 2 3x 6x + 2y = 1 Show that the lines are parallel. 2 Work out the gradient of a line that is perpendicular to the line 2x + 5y = 6 3 A is (2, 3), B is (5, 8), C is (7, 6) and D is (1, 4). Show that ABCD is a trapezium. 26

27 3.3 Use Pythagoras theorem to calculate the distance between two points recall the formula or use a sketch diagram to obtain the appropriate lengths of sides. Candidates may be required to give an exact answer. Candidates may be required to use mensuration formulae listed in section 6.1. Solution by accurate drawing will not be acceptable. 1 Work out the distance PQ where P is (2, 3) and Q is (4, 1) Give your answer in the form a b where a and b are integers. 2 A is (4, 1), B is (5, 3) and C is (8, 1). (a) (b) Show that AB is perpendicular to AC. Work out the area of triangle ABC. 27

28 3.4 Use ratio to find the coordinates of a point on a line given the coordinates of two other points use the formula for the coordinates of the midpoint use a given ratio to work out coordinates of a point given two other points. A formula can be used when the ratio is not 1 : 1 but any appropriate method will be acceptable. Solution by accurate drawing will not be acceptable. 1 C is (6, 2). The midpoint of CD is (8, 4). Work out the coordinates of D. 2 A is (4, 15) and B is (10, 6). Point C is such that AC : CB is 4 : 3 Work out the coordinates of C. 28

29 3.5 The equation of a straight line in the forms: y = mx + c and y y 1 = m(x x 1 ) work out the gradient and the intercepts with the axes of a given equation or graph work out the equation of a line using the gradient and a known point on the line work out the equation of a line using two known points on the line give equations in a particular form when instructed to do so work out coordinates of the point of intersection of two lines. Any correct form will be acceptable if a particular form is not asked for. 1 A straight line has equation 3x + 2y = 8 (a) (b) (c) Work out the gradient of the line. Work out the coordinates of where the line intersects the x-axis. Work out the coordinates of where the line intersects the y-axis. 2 Work out the equation of the straight line that passes through (2, 3) and (1, 5). Give your answer in the form y = mx + c. 3 Work out the coordinates of the point of intersection of the lines y = 2x 1 and y = 7 3x 29

30 3.6 Draw a straight line from given information draw a straight line using a given gradient and a given point on the line draw a straight line using two given points on the line. Candidates may need to make their own table of values. 1 Draw the line y = 3x 5 for values of x from 3 to 3. 2 Draw the line that has gradient 2 1 and intersects the y-axis at 5. Use x values from 0 to 8. 30

31 3.7 Understand that the equation of a circle, centre (0, 0), radius r is x 2 + y 2 = r 2 recognise the equation of a circle, centre (0, 0), radius r write down the equation of a circle given centre (0, 0) and radius work out coordinates of points of intersection of a given circle and a given straight line. Candidates are expected to know the definitions of common words associated with circles. Candidates may need to apply circle geometry facts. 1 The equation of a circle is x 2 + y 2 = 2 (a) (b) Write down the coordinates of the centre of the circle. Write down the exact value of the radius of the circle. 2 Write down the equation of a circle, centre (0, 0) and radius 5. 3 The circle x 2 + y 2 = 10 and the line y = x 2 intersect at points A and B as shown. y A x B Work out the length of the chord AB. 31

32 3.8 Understand that (x a) 2 + ( y b) 2 = r 2 is the equation of a circle with centre (a, b) and radius r recognise the equation of a circle, centre (0, 0), radius r write down the equation of a circle given centre (0, 0) and radius work out coordinates of points of intersection of a given circle and a given straight line. Candidates are expected to know the definitions of common words associated with circles. Candidates may need to apply circle geometry facts. Candidates are expected to write equations in the form (x a) 2 + (y b) 2 = r 2 and will not be expected to expand the brackets but will be expected to evaluate r 2. Translations should be described using a vector. 1 The equation of a circle is (x 3) 2 + (y + 2) 2 = 16 (a) (b) Write down the coordinates of the centre of the circle. Write down the radius of the circle. (c) Describe the transformation that maps this circle to the circle x 2 + y 2 = 16 2 Write down the equation of a circle, centre ( 1, 4) and radius 5. 3 P is (2, 3) and Q is (4, 5). PQ is a diameter of a circle. Work out the equation of the circle. 32

33 14 Calculus dy 4.1 Know that the gradient function gives the gradient of the dx curve and measures the rate of change of y with respect to x understand and use the notation dy dx understand the concept of the gradient of a curve understand the concept of a rate of change use the skills of 4.3 to work out gradients of curves and rates of change. The notation x, y and δy δx will not be used in questions. 1 A curve has the gradient function d y = 4x dx (a) What is the gradient of the curve when x = 2? (b) Work out the values of x for which the rate of change of y with respect to x is 4. 2 Work out the gradient of the curve y = 4x 2 2x + 3 at the point ( 2 1, 3). 3 Given that y = 3x x 2 Work out the coordinates of the point at which the gradient of the curve is 5. 4 Given that y = x(4 + x) Work out the rate of change of y with respect to x when x = 3. 33

34 4.2 Know that the gradient of a function is the gradient of the tangent at that point understand the concept of the gradient of a curve state the gradient of a curve at a point given the gradient or equation of the tangent at that point state the gradient of the tangent at a point given the gradient of the curve at that point use the skills of 4.1 and 4.3 to work out gradients of curves and tangents. The notation x, y and δy δx will not be used in questions. 1 The diagram shows the point P on the curve y = f(x) By drawing a suitable line estimate the gradient of the curve at P. y P X 1 O x 2 Q is the point (1, 3) and O is the origin. (a) Show that Q lies on the curve y = 2x 2 x + 2 (b) Show that the line through O and Q is a tangent to the curve y = 2x 2 x The tangent at the point R on the curve y = 5x 2 + 6x + 1 is parallel to the line y = 7 4x. Work out the coordinates of R. 34

35 4.3 Differentiation of kx n where n is a positive integer or 0, and the sum of such functions find d y, where y = kx n where k is a constant and n is a positive integer or 0 dx simplify expressions before differentiating if necessary. Other rules of differentiation (eg the product rule) are not expected. Questions will not be set which require differentiation from first principles. 1 Work out dy dx (a) y = 5x 3 + 6x 3 (b) y = x 2 (x + 2) (c) y = (x + 8)(x 4) (d) y = x (e) y = (3x + 2) 2 35

36 4.4 The equation of a tangent and normal at any point of a curve use the skills of 4.2, 4.3 and 3.5 to work out the equation of a tangent to a curve use the skills of 4.2, 4.3, 3.2 and 3.5 to work out the equation of a normal to a curve. Questions may require answers to be given in the form y = mx + c 1 Work out the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x 2 3x + 5 at the point (1, 3) 2 Work out the equation of the normal to the curve y = x 3 + x 2 at the point where x = 1 Give your answer in the form y = mx + c 3 (a) Work out the equation of the normal to the curve y = 6 x 2 at the point P (1, 5) (b) The normal intersects the curve again at Q. Work out the coordinates of Q. 36

37 4.5 Use of differentiation to find stationary points on a curve: maxima, minima and points of inflection understand that stationary points are points at which the gradient is zero use the skills of 4.3 to work out stationary points on a curve understand the meaning of increasing and decreasing functions understand the meaning of maximum points, minimum points and points of inflection prove whether a stationary point is a maximum, minimum or point of inflection. It is expected that in questions which ask for a maximum, minimum or inflection point, candidates will prove the nature of the point they have found. Questions will not use the term turning points and the distinction between turning points and stationary points is not expected. Knowledge of the second derivative is not expected but may be used. Applications of maxima and minima in real life situations will not be set. Questions may require candidates to work out the values of x for which a function is increasing or decreasing. 1 Prove that the curve y = x 3 + 3x 2 + 3x 2 has only one stationary point. Show that the stationary point is a point of inflection. 2 Show that the curve y = 4x x 4 has only 1 stationary point. Determine the nature of this point. 3 Show that y = 3 1 x 3 3x x 2 is an increasing function for all values of x. 4 For what values of x is y = x 3 3x a decreasing function? 37

38 4.5 Sketch a curve with known stationary points draw a sketch graph of a curve having used the skills of 4.5 to work out the stationary points. Candidates will be expected to sketch curves which have more than one stationary point. Candidates will be expected to label the stationary points and where appropriate the intercepts with the x and y axes. Candidates should take care in sketching a stationary point which is a point of inflection. 1 (a) Solve the equation x 3 + 3x 2 = 0 (b) Work out the coordinates of the stationary points on the curve y = x 3 + 3x 2 (c) Sketch of the curve y = x 3 + 3x 2 2 (a) Show that the curve y = 4x x 4 has only 1 stationary point. (b) Sketch the curve y = 4x x 4 38

39 15 Matrix Transformations 5.1 Multiplication of matrices multiply a 2 2 matrix by a 2 1 matrix multiply a 2 2 matrix by a 2 2 matrix multiply 2 2 and 2 1 matrices by a scalar understand that, in general, matrix multiplication is not commutative understand that matrix multiplication is associative. Questions will involve finding the image (or object) point under a given transformation matrix. Elements of matrices could be numerical or algebraic. Questions may be set using index notation. Candidates will be expected to be familiar with the process of equating elements of equal matrices. Candidates will not be expected to find the inverse of a 2 2 matrix 1 A = B = C = 4 Work out (a) 3A (b) AB (c) 2BA (d) BC (e) A 2 2 Matrix A = Work out the image of the point (1, 2) using the transformation represented by A The image of a point P (x, y) is (9, 1) using the transformation represented by 1 3 Work out x and y Given b = a1 3b Work out a and b. 39

40 5.2 Identify the matrix, I understand that AI = IA = A The identity matrix, I, will be used in the context of matrix transformations. Candidates will not be expected to find the inverse of a 2 2 matrix A = 1 0 Show that A 2 = I 2 A = B = Show that AB = 24I 40

41 5.3 Transformations of the unit square in the x y plane work out the image of any vertex of the unit square given the matrix operator work out or recall the matrix operator for a given transformation Transformations will be limited to transforming the unit square. y C O B A x Transformations of the unit square will be restricted to rotations through 90, 180 and 270 about the origin, reflections in the axes and the lines y = x and y = x, and enlargements centred on the origin. For enlargements the term scale factor should be known. Both positive and negative scale factors will be used. Candidates will be expected to understand the notation A to mean the image of a point A under a transformation. Candidates will not be expected to understand the phrase invariant point. The knowledge and use of unit vectors i and j is not required. 1 A (1, 0) and C (0, 1) are opposite vertices of the unit square OABC. The square is mapped to OA'B'C' under transformation matrix Work out the coordinates of A', B', and C'. 2 The matrix M represents a reflection in the line y = x. Work out M The matrix M = 3I Describe geometrically the transformation represented by M. 41

42 5.4 Combination of Translations understand that the matrix product PQ represents the transformation with matrix Q followed by the transformation with matrix P use the skills of 5.1 to work out the matrix which represents a combined transformation. Transformations will be limited to transforming the unit square. Transformations will be restricted to those listed in 5.3. A combined transformation may be referred to as a composite transformation The matrix M = 1 0 Describe geometrically the transformation represented by (a) M (b) M 2 2 Here are two transformations in the x - y plane: A: Reflection in the x-axis B: Rotation clockwise about the origin through 90º. (a) (b) Work out the single matrix which represents the composite transformation A followed by B. Does the composite transformation B followed by A give the same image of a shape as A followed by B? Explain your answer. 3 The matrix A is such that A 2 = I and A I By considering transformations in the x - y plane, work out a possible matrix for A. 4 Here are three transformations in the x - y plane: A: Reflection in the x-axis B: Reflection in the y-axis C: Rotation about O through 180. Use matrix multiplication to prove that C is the same as A followed by B. 42

43 16 Geometry 6.1 Geometry understand perimeter recall and use the formula for area of a rectangle recall and use the formula 2 1 base height for area of a triangle use the formula 2 1 absinc for area of a triangle recall and use formulae for circumference and area of a circle recall and use formulae for volume of a cube, a cuboid, prisms and pyramids use formulae for volume of a cone and of a sphere understand and use angle properties of parallel and intersecting lines understand and use angle properties of triangles and special types of quadrilaterals and polygons understand and use circle theorems. Candidates will be expected to use exact values in terms of π in some questions. Questions involving surface areas of 3D shapes may also be set. Knowledge and understanding of the circle theorems in the Key Stage 4 Programme of Study will be expected. 1 The area of a circle of radius r is equal to the area of a semicircle of radius R. Show that R = r 2 2 The diagram shows a circle. PQR is a tangent. Angle SQR = 53 QT = 8 cm TS = 10 cm P T S Not drawn accurately Q 53 Work out the area of the triangle QST. R 43

44 6.2 Understand and construct geometrical proofs using formal arguments construct formal proofs using correct mathematical notation and vocabulary. The use of angle facts and theorems listed in sections 3.7 and 6.1 are expected. Angle facts used must always be accompanied by a reason. Proofs of standard theorems will not be set. 1 ABCD, CDEF and BCFG are cyclic quadrilaterals. ABG and ADE are straight lines. A B G Not drawn accurately C D F E Prove that EFG is a straight line. 44

45 2 In the diagram, PQRS is a cyclic quadrilateral. XPY is a tangent to the circle. 2x R Not drawn accurately Q y S x X P Y Prove that y = x. 45

46 6.3 Sine and cosine rules in scalene triangles understand and use the formulae for sine rule and cosine rule. Knowledge and use of trigonometry in right-angled triangles is expected. Trigonometry questions may be set on the non-calculator paper. Angles will always be in degrees 1 In this triangle angle PQR is obtuse. P Not drawn accurately 15 cm Work out angle QPR. 6.2 cm Q 24 R 2 Triangle ABC is isosceles with AB = AC. A Not drawn accurately 12 m 12 m B Work out angle BAC. 16 m C 46

47 3 Here is a triangle. 60 Not drawn accurately y cm x cm 45 Work out the exact value of y x. 47

48 6.4 Use of Pythagoras theorem in 2D and 3D work out any unknown side using two given sides identify appropriate right-angled triangles in 2 and 3 dimensional shapes and apply Pythagoras theorem recognise and use Pythagorean triples. Candidates will be expected to know the Pythagorean triples; 3, 4, 5; 5, 12, 13; 8, 15, 17; 7, 24, 25 and simple multiples of these. 1 Here is a triangle. 11 cm Not drawn accurately 16 cm x Work out the value of x. 2 A box is a cuboid measuring 30 cm by 10 cm by 4 cm. Will a knitting needle of length 32 cm fit in the box? You must show your working. 48

49 3 y Not drawn accurately 3 cm 12 cm 4 cm Work out the value of y. 49

50 6.5 Be able to apply trigonometry and Pythagoras theorem to 2 and 3 dimensional problems identify appropriate right-angled triangles in 2 and 3 dimensional shapes and apply Pythagoras theorem identify appropriate triangles in 2 and 3 dimensional shapes and apply trigonometry work out the angle between a line and a plane work out the angle between two planes understand and use bearings. Candidates should understand angles of elevation and angles of depression. Angles will always be in degrees. Questions on ratio using trig methods will be set, but candidates may use similar triangles where appropriate. 1 A ship travels 15 km due North from port C. It then travels 18 km due East to port D. Work out the bearing of D from C. 50

51 2 A pyramid has a square base ABCD of side 5 metres. The vertex V is directly above the centre of the base X. The height of the pyramid is 9 metres. V 9 m D C X A 5 m B Work out the angle between the planes ABCD and VAB. 3 The diagram shows a tower AB. The angle of elevation of the top of the tower from point C, due South of the tower, is 38 The angle of elevation of the top of the tower from point D, due East of the tower, is 29 The distance from C to D is 50 metres. A Not drawn accurately B 29 D 38 C Work out the height of the tower, AB. 51

52 6.6 Sketch and use graphs of: y = sin x, y = cos x and y = tan x for 0 x 360 understand and use the properties of the graphs of y = sin x, y = cos x and y = tan x for 0 x 360 sketch and use the graphs to solve problems. Candidates should be familiar with the asymptotes on the graph of y = tan x but the word asymptote will not be used in a question. 1 Sketch the graph of y = cos x for 0 x 360 (a) State the coordinates of the points of intersection with the axes. (b) Write down the minimum value of y. 2 A sketch of y = tan x for 0 x 360 is shown. y O x (a) How many solutions to tan x = 2 are between 0 and 180? (b) How many solutions to tan x = 0.4 are between 0 and 270? (c) Write down the solutions of tan x = 0 for 0 x

53 6.7 Be able to use the definitions of sin, cos and tan for any positive angle up to 360 understand and use the properties of the graphs of y = sin x, y = cos x and y = tan x for 0 x 360 sketch and use the graphs to solve problems. Angles measured anticlockwise will be taken as positive. Questions may be set on the non-calculator paper. (both non-calculator) 1 Given that cos 30 = 3, work out a value of x between 90 and 360 for which cos x = Given that sin 210 = 2 1, work out the value of sin

54 6.8 Knowledge and use of 30, 60, 90 triangles and 45, 45, 90 triangles recall or work out the exact values of the trigonometric ratios for angles 30, 45 and 60. The exact values may be quoted unless the question specifically asks for a derivation. 1 Here is a triangle. Not drawn accurately y 12 cm 30 Show that y is an integer. 2 Here is an isosceles triangle. PQ = QR Q P R Explain why tan 45 = 1. 54

55 sin 6.9 Use of tan and sin 2 + cos 2 1 cos use the identities to simplify expressions use the identities to prove other identities use the identities in solution of equations. The identity symbol should be known and understood. (both non-calculator) 1 Given that sin = 3 1 and is obtuse, work out the exact value of cos. 2 Solve 2sin x = cos x for 0 x 90 3 Prove 1 2 cos x tan 2 x 1 55

56 6.10 Solution of simple trigonometric equations in given intervals work out all solutions in a given interval rearrange equations including the use of the identities from section 6.9 use factorisation. Questions will always use single angles. Solutions less than 0 or greater than 360 will not be required, but as calculators may give negative solutions, candidates should use the cyclic properties of the trigonometric graphs in 6.6 to give solutions in the range Angles will always be in degrees. Questions may be set on the non-calculator paper but solutions will involve angles from section Solve sin x = 0.5 for 0 x Solve tan 2 2 tan = 0 for Solve 4cos x = 3 for 0 x

57

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