Beekeeping in the Tropics

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Beekeeping in the Tropics"

Transcription

1 Beekeeping in the Tropics Dr. Peter Rosenkranz University of Hohenheim Apicultural State Institute

2 Content 1. What are Bees? 2. Social Evolution in Bees : From Solitary to Eusociality 3. Economic value of bees 4. Pollination/ use of non-apis bees 5. Honey bee species of economic importance 6. Specific traits of tropical honey bees 7. Honey hunting 8. Requirements for advanced Beekeeping Techniques 9. Specific problems of tropical beekeeping The Cape bee problem in South Africa Plant protection Honey bee diseases 10. Economic aspects Honey quality Marketing Rural development

3 Systematic of Bees Class Insecta Order Hymenoptera Aculeata Family Apidae Stingless bees (Melipona spec.) Bumble bees (Bombus spec.) Honey bees (Apis spec.) Worldwide about Bee species In Germany about 600 Bee species (most of them solitary) In Brazil about Bee species! Tropics: higher biodiversity Biologie der Honigbienen

4 Pecularities of Bees Use of Pollen and nectar for nutrition Visiting plants during foraging Social communities Biologie der Honigbienen

5 Social Community and Evolution Darwin s enigma... I will confine myself to one special difficulty which at first appeared to me insuperable, and actually fatal to the whole theory (of evolution). I allude to the neuters or sterile females in insect communities In other words: How can sterile females be explained within the framework of an evolutionary theory based on survival of the fittest? C. Darwin, 1859

6 Darwin s enigma This difficulty (of sterile workers), though appearing insuperable, is lessened, or, as I believe, disappears, when it is remembered that selection may be applied to the family, as well as to the individual, and may thus gain the desired end C. Darwin, 1859

7 Social Evolution Solitary Eusocial Communal Semisocial

8 Eusocial Bees Overlap of generations Division of labor Occurrence of castes (reproductive and worker castes)

9 Eusocial Bees Stingless bees in Africa, South America and Australia Honey bees in Africa and Asia Scaptotrigona spec. in Brazil Apis mellifera in Ethiopia

10 Social organization of a Honeybee colony Female castes: Queen and workers fertilized eggs, genetically identical Males: Drones derived from unfertilized eggs. Only task: mating with the queen.

11 Original and today's distribution of eusocial bees Honey bees Honey bees & Stingless bees Stingless bees Stingless bees

12 Economic value of bees Products provided by Bees Honey Wax Pollen Propolis Royal Jelly Bee venom Pollination

13 Economic value of bees Products provided by Bees Honey Wax Pollen Propolis Royal Jelly Bee venom Pollination

14 Economic value of bees Products provided by Bees Honey! Honey bees, stingless bees Wax! Honey bees Pollen! Honey bees Propolis! Honey bees Royal Jelly! Honey bees Bee venom! Honey bees Pollination! Honey bees, stingless bees, solitary bees

15 Pollination All Bees use pollen as the exclusive source of protein! All Bees are Pollinators!

16 Pollination stigma anther Bees are the most effective pollinators among the insects. They perform about 50% of insect pollination. The economic value for the US is calculated with Billion US$ (Morse 2001)!

17 Pollination Great challenge for most intensive agricultural systems Use of many bee species (including solitary bees and bumble bees) Preservation of Nature Agricultural Biodiversity International Initiative for the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Pollinators

18 Pollination Private pollination service: Pollination of greenhouses Problem: Pollination of legumes in North India! Agricultural Revolution without pollination doesn't work!

19 Pollination with Bumble bees Tomatoes and other crops in glass houses

20 Pollination with solitary bees Alfalfa leaf cutting bee (Megachile rotundata)

21 Pollination Pollination Project at Jordan (Strawberry)

22 Pollination Knowledge required! Pollination of Passion fruits by Carpenter Bees

23 Beekeeping with stingless bees Genus Melipona and Trigona Advantages Harmonious relationship between man and indigenous bees Including in Indian culture, for instance the Maya at Yucatan or the Yanomani at Amazonia Provision of pollen and honey for private use High prices Medical use? Disadvantages Relatively low honey yields (1 max. 10 kg/colony/year) Handling difficult, difficult for professional use Lack of knowledge on domestication and techniques of Meliponiculture

24 Honey Bee beekeeping (Apis spec.) Production of Honey and Bees Wax

25 Honey bee species of the world (Honey bee = Apis) Apis mellifera *(Europe, Africa, Asia Minor) Apis cerana * (Asia) Apis koschevnikovi (Asia) Apis nicrocincta (Asia) Apis dorsata *(Asia) Apis laboriosa * (Asia) Apis florea (Asia) Apis andreniformis (Asia) * economic importance free building single combs hive bees

26 Tropical beekeeping Asia: Apis dorsata, Apis cerana, Apis mellifera Africa: Apis mellifera: African bee, the Cape honey bee South America: Apis mellifera: Africanized Honeybees (AHB)

27 Specific traits of tropical honey bees

28 Specific traits of tropical honey bees 1. High reproductive rates 2. Swarming and absconding 3. Defensive behavior 4. No winter cluster (population dynamic)

29 High reproductive rate: Example of Africanized Honeybees Spread of Africanized honeybees in South America

30 Swarming and absconding Africanized honeybees in Brazil: By the use of swarm boxes the beekeeper can reach an equilibrium of loss and gain of swarms. Swarm boxes are also used to prevent establishing of swarms within cities.

31 Swarming and absconding Africanized honeybees in Brazil: Extreme swarming and absconding tendency

32 Swarming and absconding An Apis cerana colony in Thailand absconded from a log hive because of disturbance by experiments

33 Defensive behavior

34 Defensive behavior African bees and Africanized honeybees (Brazil): Lower threshold for defense behavior (a result of honey hunting in the tropics by man?) Long-lasting attacks (even several hours after disturbing the colony!) Attacks over a range of several hundreds meters around the hive Disturbed bees follow the beekeeper up to 2 km

35 Defensive behavior Africanized honeybees in Brazil: Intensive use of smoke, long-lasting defensive behavior of the bees of a disturbed colony

36 Defensive behavior Africanized honeybees in Brazil: Single colonies to prevent mutual disturbance and the use of poor food sources

37 Specific foraging strategy of African bees Foraging at night (Apis melliera adansoni in Togo)

38 Population dynamic No. of bees/ broodcells Bees Brood cells Brood cells Schwäbische Alb Worker bees März 2. April 26. April 17. Mai 5. Juni 26. Juni 19. Juli 6. Aug 28. August 20. Sept 10. Okt Seasonal course of colony development in temperate climates

39 Population dynamic worker brood drone brood bees number of adult bees/ brood ce Seasonal course of colony development in tropical climates (Uruguay)

40 Winter cluster

41 Honey hunting

42 Honey hunting Apis dorsata (giant honey bee) in India

43 Honey hunting Natural nesting site of a honeybee colony (Togo, West Africa)! Honey hunting

44 Uganda: log hives Honey hunting

45 Honey hunting Traditional hives Ethiopia: Baskets as a bee hive and a Honey bee tree

46 Requirements for more advanced Tropical Beekeeping 1. Suitable Bee hives 2. Protected area for the apiary 3. Protection clothes: Gloves, Boots, masks, Smoker 4. Devices for honey extraction and processing 5. Possibilities for honey storage 6. Knowledge

47 Types of bee hives Uganda: Top bar hive (moveable frames)

48 Traditional hives: Hanging or installing on a stand? Advantages 1. It is easier to place the hive on the stand and remove it. 2. It is easy to move both hive and stand to another spot. 3. The beehive does not swing about even if the beekeeper is working. 4. Honey collection and brood-nest control can easily be carried out. Disadvantages 1. Grazing animals can knock the hive over. 2. The legs of the stand can easily be used by lizards to reach the hive unless they are protected by lizard guards. 3. It is more expensive and tedious to make a reliable stand than to buy a metallic wire for hanging a hive. 4. Easy movement facilitates easy stealing.

49 South Africa: Top bar hive Types of bee hives

50 Honey production with the eastern honey bee Apis cerana Apis cerana in India and extraction of a small honey harvest

51 Modern Hives Moveable and stable frames

52 Modern Hives Research project in Ethiopia: The use of modern Polyurethane Standard hives.

53 Modern Hives Research project in Ethiopia: In the field a protection against ants and lizards are required.

54 Honey harvesting Tropical bees don t like honey harvest Isolated apiary recommended To much smoke influences honey quality Harvesting at night - bees are disorientated (less stings) - additional lamp is required Problems with robbering of bees from other colonies

55 Honey harvesting South Africa A.m. scutellata European method Honey extraction from top bars: Pressing of honey combs or use of special nets

56 Honey harvesting Method for small scale beekeeping 1. The beekeeper brings with him to the site an empty hive and a container with a lid for carrying the harvested honey. 2. He smokes the hive heavily from the outside to force the "security guards" and any other bees of the colony who are waiting outside the hive to return to it. It is important to continue smoking until the bees have lost all their aggressivity. 3. The hive is then carried away from the site, in the direction opposite to the flight runway, and placed on a platform (or on the ground) at least 50 meters from the nearest hive in the apiary. The empty hive is left at the hive site to serve as a temporary home for any returning foragers or for any bees that escape from the moved hive. 4. Working as quickly as possible in order to avoid robber bees, which can otherwise cause trouble, the beekeeper carries out his harvesting or control operations in the normal manner. 5. When the work is completed, the hive is closed and carried back to its original position, and the empty hive is removed. Any bees in it, or members of the colony waiting outside, will then rejoin the hive.

57 Many specific techniques and tricks are available! long term experience and learning from generation to generation is required

58 Specific problems of tropical Beekeeping

59 The Cape bee problem The Cape honey bee (Apis mellifera capensis) is able to perform thelytokous parthenogenesis Capensis workers invade as pseudo queens neighboring colonies, especially when introduced to the territory of Apis mellifera scutellata and vice versa Meanwhile, a clone of parasitic Capensis bees create huge problems for beekeeping in South Africa

60 The Cape bee problem Cape bee (Apis mellifera capensis) removing an egg from a host colony of Apis mellifera scutellata Cape bee intruder (Apis mellifera capensis) is fed by a worker of Apis mellifera scutellata (photos: F. Ratnieks)

61 Plant protection Risk of residues and poisoning of foraging bees

62 Honeybee diseases Varroosis (Varroa destructor): Parasitic mite, sucks hemolymph from adult bees and brood stages, vector for secondary infections (Viruses). Most tropical bees are tolerant toward Varroosis!

63 Honeybee diseases American Foulbrood (Paenibacillus larvae larvae): Bacteria, destroys brood cells shortly after cell capping, in Europe considered as epidemic, not present in central Africa and Brazil, distributed via spores dead larvae and honey (spores are very resistant)

64 Honeybee diseases Small hive beetle (Aethina tumida) in South Africa In Africa a minor problem Meanwhile also in USA and Australia! destroys weak colonies and storage combs

65 Chemical treatment of bee diseases Varroa control with pyrethroids in Uruguay Foulbrood control by antibiotic food supply in Thailand

66 Honey: Quality control Residue analysis: Pesticides from plant protection Acaricides (treatment against Varroosis) Antibiotics (treatment against foulbrood)!! Zero tolerance for residue of Antibiotics in honey in the EU!

67 Economic aspects

68 World Honey market World Honey production in tons Africa Asia China South America Central America North America Europe Germany ~ 25 Source:

69 World Honey prices per kg (2003) In bulk: ~1.00 US$ (China) - ~2.00 US$ (America) Retail: US$ (Germany: 3,00-8,00 US$)

70 Honey Local honey market in Ethiopia Value for human nutrition: Source for carbohydrates Traditional harvesting and extraction : contains pollen, brood, beeswax and honey! Protein, minerals, vitamins (and some alcohol)

71 Honey market Local honey market in Thailand Problem: Quality standard required for access to the regional and global honey market

72 Honey market Professional honey marketing in Ethiopia

73 Honey: Quality control Pollen analysis: Sort and origin! Declaration European (German) Honigverordnung

74 Honey: Quality control Chemical/ physical analysis: Sediment Taste Water content (< 20%!) Enzymes (Invertase, Diastase) ph, electric conductivity, amino acids

75 Honey market Honey has an excellent position on the local market and, depending on the quality, on the regional or global market Organic production offers additional possibilities: Tropical bees are more resistant to diseases, therefore, chemical treatments are not necessary and residue free honey (and beeswax!) can more easily been produced as in temperate climates, The production and marketing of honey offers an additional income, therefore, beekeeping contribute to rural development Problems: Access to regional and global market Knowledge about beekeeping (beekeeping tradition is very important!) Investment for the start of beekeeping Honey quality Storage of honey

76 Additional bee products Pollen trap Beeswax factory in Thailand (Increasing market for organic beeswax in Europe!)

77 Cooperation is essential! Courses for beginners and extension work Construction of hives Making of protection clothes Providing of extraction devices Bee products: - Private use/ Local market - Regional market! quality control Cooperation project at Uganda as an example

78 Summary Economics of tropical Beekeeping and rural development Chances Honey is a high price product in all countries Enormous resources in tropical countries are available Honey can be stored over long periods Beekeeping does not require own land Beekeeper and Bee products are highly respected Alternative bee products! Medical use Beekeeping offers additional income (Rural development, gender aspects) Problems Knowledge and tradition of stakeholder Start investment (bee hives, protection clothes, honey harvest) Extension needed Quality control of Honey Bee Products Access to the market

79

2016 Bee College Tentative Short Course Descriptions

2016 Bee College Tentative Short Course Descriptions 2016 Bee College Tentative Short Course Descriptions A Beekeeper s Year For starting beekeepers, the first year could be the hardest since you are trying to figure out all the quirks of beekeeping. Come

More information

Tackling Europe s bee decline The role veterinarians can play. Federation of Veterinarians of Europe

Tackling Europe s bee decline The role veterinarians can play. Federation of Veterinarians of Europe Tackling Europe s bee decline The role veterinarians can play Federation of Veterinarians of Europe Bees : minute animals, massive importance Bees have a lot of responsibility on their tiny striped backs.

More information

BIOSECURITY OR DISEASE RISK MITIGATION STRATEGY FOR THE AUSTRALIAN HONEY BEE INDUSTRY

BIOSECURITY OR DISEASE RISK MITIGATION STRATEGY FOR THE AUSTRALIAN HONEY BEE INDUSTRY BIOSECURITY OR DISEASE RISK MITIGATION STRATEGY FOR THE AUSTRALIAN HONEY BEE INDUSTRY Australian Honey Bee Industry Council Postal Address: PO Box R838 ROYAL EXCHANGE NSW 1225 Phone: 61 2 9221 0911\ Fax:

More information

Host a Learning Bee Hive!

Host a Learning Bee Hive! Host a Learning Bee Hive! Frequently Asked Questions Honeybees are incredibly important for two main reasons: pollination and honey creation! Pollination: According to the USDA Agricultural Research Service,

More information

Background Honeybees are declining throughout the world Colony Collapse Disorder Complex Many factors compounded over time Media hype

Background Honeybees are declining throughout the world Colony Collapse Disorder Complex Many factors compounded over time Media hype Potential Solutions to Honey Bee Decline: Hygienic i Behavior Alicia Moulton USU Extension Ag/4-H Agent Wasatch County Background Honeybees are declining throughout the world Colony Collapse Disorder Complex

More information

honey bee By Henry Touray

honey bee By Henry Touray honey bee By Henry Touray Introduction For my project I have chosen to research Bees. I chose to find out about the bee because bees have been in the news lately. Lots of hives have died out and scientists

More information

Organic Honey Production

Organic Honey Production Organic Honey Production Debbie Roos North Carolina Cooperative Extension Can We Produce Organic Honey??? National Honey Board lists 33 organic honey suppliers in the US I only found a few that were producing

More information

Social Insects. Social Insects. Subsocial 4/11/10. More widespread 13 orders of insects no reproductive division of labor

Social Insects. Social Insects. Subsocial 4/11/10. More widespread 13 orders of insects no reproductive division of labor Social Insects Sociality evolved multiple times in insects Much of Earth s fauna consists of social insects They play major roles in entire ecosystems Proliferation of ants and termites associated with

More information

Class Insecta - The insects

Class Insecta - The insects A Introduction 1. Very species rich 2. Characteristics a. 3 pairs of legs b. 2 pairs of wings (most) except flies (1 pair of wings - Diptera) B. Distribution 1. All habitats except saltwater - replaced

More information

INTERMEDIATE BEEKEEPING WEEK 1 CAROL COTTRILL

INTERMEDIATE BEEKEEPING WEEK 1 CAROL COTTRILL INTERMEDIATE BEEKEEPING WEEK 1 CAROL COTTRILL BEE BIOLOGY WHY IT MATTERS There is a spectrum there are different ways to try to do things. I once thought you could do it all by a cookbook, and now I think

More information

Honey Bee Background Information

Honey Bee Background Information Honey Bee Background Information Honey bees are very important. Honey bees are the strongest link in the chain between the people who grow the food and the people who eat the food. Without honey bee pollination,

More information

University Western Sydney

University Western Sydney Locked Bag 1797 Penrith South DC NSW 1797 Australia Centre for Plant & Food Science University Western Sydney vof V Bringing knowledge to life The Secretary Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries House of

More information

What is a Honey Bee? What is an Africanized Honey Bee?

What is a Honey Bee? What is an Africanized Honey Bee? What is a Honey Bee? Honey bees are not native to the North America Honey bees currently pollinate about 90 agricultural crops (accounting for 80% of the pollination in the US): ~ $10 billion pollination

More information

Second Grade Insects Assessment

Second Grade Insects Assessment Second Grade Insects Assessment 1a. The stiff shell that covers an insect s body is called an: a. outer shell b. exoskeleton 1b. The stiff shell that covers and insect s body is called an: a. outer shell

More information

Managing Varroa Mites in Honey Bee Colonies

Managing Varroa Mites in Honey Bee Colonies Managing Varroa Mites in Honey Bee Colonies The varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is the most serious pest of honey bee colonies worldwide. This parasite was first detected in North Carolina in 1990, having

More information

EU s Apiculture Programme in Finland 1 September 2013-31 August 2016. 1. Background

EU s Apiculture Programme in Finland 1 September 2013-31 August 2016. 1. Background EU s Apiculture Programme in Finland 1 September 2013-31 August 2016 2 Contents 1. Background 3 1.1. Number of hives in production 4 2. Aim 4 3. Methods 4 A) Technical assistance 4 Electronic communication

More information

Contact us: Beehavin Apiary 225 Douglas Pike Smithfield, RI 02917. (401) 885-5172 everett@beehavin.com

Contact us: Beehavin Apiary 225 Douglas Pike Smithfield, RI 02917. (401) 885-5172 everett@beehavin.com Contact us: Beehavin Apiary 225 Douglas Pike Smithfield, RI 02917 (401) 885-5172 everett@beehavin.com ! Beekeepers who work towards goal typically have the best success! First Year Beekeeper Goals! Learn

More information

Quick Start Guide to Natural Beekeeping with the Warre Hive

Quick Start Guide to Natural Beekeeping with the Warre Hive Quick Start Guide to Natural Beekeeping with the Warre Hive How you can use the Warre Top Bar Hive to Create a Smart, Simple and Sustainable Beekeeping Experience BY NICK HAMPSHIRE FREE REPORT FROM DIYBEEHIVE.COM

More information

Queen Management Notes New Hampshire Bee Meeting October 28, 2006

Queen Management Notes New Hampshire Bee Meeting October 28, 2006 Queen Management Notes New Hampshire Bee Meeting October 28, 2006 By Dan Conlon Warm Colors Apiary South Deerfield, Massachusetts warmcolors@verizon.net 413-665-4513 www.warmcolorsapiary.com Understanding

More information

LEARNING HOW TO KEEP BEES In today s world of Beetles and Mites

LEARNING HOW TO KEEP BEES In today s world of Beetles and Mites LENING HOW TO KEEP BEES In today s world of Beetles and Mites by Jerry Freeman Hamburg, rkansas jfreeman1944@yahoo.com Compared to today, beekeeping in the 1970 s was easy! Back then I ran 25 to 30 hives

More information

HOUSEHOLD POVERTY REDUCTION THROUGH BEEKEEPING AMONGST UGANDA RURAL WOMEN

HOUSEHOLD POVERTY REDUCTION THROUGH BEEKEEPING AMONGST UGANDA RURAL WOMEN HOUSEHOLD POVERTY REDUCTION THROUGH BEEKEEPING AMONGST UGANDA RURAL WOMEN Margaret OGABA Chairperson, Kitgum Women Beekeepers Association (KITWOBEE), P.O.Box 120, Kitgum, UGANDA, c/o E-mail: oxfam.kitgum@wfp.org

More information

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management Chapter 2 Integrated Pest Management In This Chapter Keywords After learning the information in this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define Integrated Pest Management (IPM). 2. List and describe the 5

More information

STANDARDS FOR HIVE PRODUCTS. Demeter International e.v. Table of Contents. - to be implemented by each member country by the 31 st December 2007 -

STANDARDS FOR HIVE PRODUCTS. Demeter International e.v. Table of Contents. - to be implemented by each member country by the 31 st December 2007 - STANDARDS FOR BEEKEEPING AND HIVE PRODUCTS June 2004 - to be implemented by each member country by the 31 st December 2007 - Demeter International e.v. Table of Contents Page 1. Validity and Basis...1

More information

What farmers can do for pollinators

What farmers can do for pollinators What farmers can do for pollinators Email: bees@nfu.org.uk Search on Twitter for #farming4bees Provide habitats and food for wild insect pollinators Finding food and sites for nesting and hibernation is

More information

Raspberry Pollinators and Visitors: Focus on Bees

Raspberry Pollinators and Visitors: Focus on Bees Raspberry Pollinators and Visitors: Focus on Bees Introduction Raspberry flowers are visited by many insects and pollinators in Manitoba, including native and managed bees. Bees rely on flowers for nectar

More information

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners Utah State University DigitalCommons@USU All PIRU Publications Pollinating Insects Research Unit 1965 Beekeeping for Beginners William P. Nye Utah State University G. F. Knowlton Follow this and additional

More information

Meliponas in Yucatan, Mexico. Luis Medina Medina Department of Apiculture Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University Autonomous of Yucatan

Meliponas in Yucatan, Mexico. Luis Medina Medina Department of Apiculture Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University Autonomous of Yucatan Meliponas in Yucatan, Mexico Luis Medina Medina Department of Apiculture Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University Autonomous of Yucatan Before A. mellifera introduction = ethnic groups in the Americas

More information

MBA Annual Convention Advanced Technology Center Jones County Junior College Ellisville, MS November 6 7, 2015

MBA Annual Convention Advanced Technology Center Jones County Junior College Ellisville, MS November 6 7, 2015 MBA Annual Convention Advanced Technology Center Jones County Junior College Ellisville, MS November 6 7, 2015 Go to Exit 85 on Interstate 59 (intersection with Highway 590; approximately 10 miles south

More information

Index to: Practical Beekeeper. The. Volumes I, II & III. by Michael Bush

Index to: Practical Beekeeper. The. Volumes I, II & III. by Michael Bush Index to: The Practical Beekeeper Volumes I, II & III by Michael Bush Index to: The Practical Beekeeper Volume I, II & III This index is valid for all three separate volumes and the complete book. Copyright

More information

The impact of Caucasus honeybee research of ANG Foundation to Turkish Beekeeping

The impact of Caucasus honeybee research of ANG Foundation to Turkish Beekeeping The impact of Caucasus honeybee research of ANG Foundation to Turkish Beekeeping Gökyiğit AN 1, Gürses UY 1, İnci A 1, Kandemir İ 2 1 ANG foundation, Istanbul-Turkey 2 Department of Biology, Ankara University,

More information

Beneficial Microflora in Honey Bee Colonies

Beneficial Microflora in Honey Bee Colonies Beneficial Microflora in Honey Bee Colonies Diana Sammataro, Ph.D. USDA-ARS Carl Hayden Bee Research Center Tucson, AZ Our Website: http://gears.tucson.ars.ag.gov Lactobacillus spp. Bifidobacterium spp.

More information

Characteristics of Races of Honeybees

Characteristics of Races of Honeybees Characteristics of Races of Honeybees There are several popular races of honey bees raised in North American for honey. There are others around the world but this paper only covers the ones that are here.

More information

SEASONAL APLICATION OF JENTER S METHOD FOR A SUCCESSFUL QUEEN BEES REARING IN ALBANIA

SEASONAL APLICATION OF JENTER S METHOD FOR A SUCCESSFUL QUEEN BEES REARING IN ALBANIA SEASONAL APLICATION OF JENTER S METHOD FOR A SUCCESSFUL QUEEN BEES REARING IN ALBANIA L. Sena, S. Sena, F. Gjurgji and M. Nikolla Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Environment,

More information

10-1 ORGANIC BEEKEEPING

10-1 ORGANIC BEEKEEPING African Organic Agriculture Training Manual A Resource Manual for Trainers 10-1 ORGANIC BEEKEEPING Draft Version 1.0 June 2011 Ready for field testing African Organic Agriculture Training Manual IMPRINT

More information

The 10 Essential Steps to Better Beekeeping

The 10 Essential Steps to Better Beekeeping The 10 Essential Steps to Better Beekeeping BEEKEEPING SECRET #1: GETTING READY FOR YOUR NEW HOBBY Beekeeping is truly a hobby for everyone because bees are not dependent on foraging material that is found

More information

University of Florida Florida Master Beekeeper Program Requirements and General Information

University of Florida Florida Master Beekeeper Program Requirements and General Information 1 University of Florida Florida Master Beekeeper Program Requirements and General Information I) Apprentice Beekeeper: A: must be a Florida registered beekeeper or a registered beekeeper in home state

More information

BEEKEEPING IN HUNGARY

BEEKEEPING IN HUNGARY BEEKEEPING IN HUNGARY When people who are working in the honey or beekeeping sector hear the name of Hungary, automatically think to acacia honey. The cause of this is the fact that Hungary produces the

More information

Honey bee nutrition and supplementary feeding

Honey bee nutrition and supplementary feeding Honey bee nutrition and supplementary feeding DAI/178, July 2000 Doug Somerville Apiary Officer Goulburn INTRODUCTION This agnote is written to give beekeepers an overview of honeybee nutritional requirements

More information

Montgomery County Beekeepers Association (M.C.B.A.) Mentor Program

Montgomery County Beekeepers Association (M.C.B.A.) Mentor Program Montgomery County Beekeepers Association (M.C.B.A.) Mentor Program 1 Table of Contents Page 1. Mentor----------- 3 2. Mentee----------- 9 3. Program Director--- 18 2 Beekeeping Mentor New beekeepers frequently

More information

Experience with Thermosolar Hive

Experience with Thermosolar Hive Experience with Thermosolar Hive We have got 10 years of experience with thermotherapy and working with the Thermosolar Hive. There is also a university research that confirms high efficiency of our hive.

More information

How do you keep your bees? Alternative hive configurations

How do you keep your bees? Alternative hive configurations How do you keep your bees? Alternative hive configurations (By Wally Shaw Anglesey BKA) Introduction The most important part of any honey bee colony is that beneath the queen excluder. The boxes that make

More information

Promoting Pollination Farming for Native Bees

Promoting Pollination Farming for Native Bees Promoting Pollination Farming for Native Bees Overview Pollination, the transfer of pollen grains to fertilize the ovules of flowers to produce seeds and fruits, is essential to agriculture and natural

More information

Pumpkin Pollinators. By Alex Surcică, Penn State Cooperative Extension

Pumpkin Pollinators. By Alex Surcică, Penn State Cooperative Extension Pumpkin Pollinators By Alex Surcică, Penn State Cooperative Extension Pumpkin fruit set can be affected by a number of production and environmental factors. For example, high plant densities can limit

More information

Cloake Board Method of Queen Rearing and Banking

Cloake Board Method of Queen Rearing and Banking Cloake Board Method of Queen Rearing and Banking Rearing your own queens is one of the more interesting and rewarding aspects of beekeeping. It provides a means to maintain young, vigorous queens in colonies

More information

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1. Tom Moriarty Office of Pesticide Programs U. S. Environmental Protection Agency.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1. Tom Moriarty Office of Pesticide Programs U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1 Tom Moriarty Office of Pesticide Programs U. S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2 Bee Health Multiple federal reports have

More information

L Hermitage du mont Bogdo Bees to revive ci3es

L Hermitage du mont Bogdo Bees to revive ci3es L Hermitage du mont Bogdo Bees to revive ci3es Christophe RENARD Cellphone: +33 6 60 36 93 93 @mail: crbogdo@yahoo.fr Green Initiatives Talk @ Haworth Furniture, Shanghai 2015.09.29 Preamble Human & Apiculture

More information

Today we will talk about the importance of our environment: what it is and how do we use it.

Today we will talk about the importance of our environment: what it is and how do we use it. In the previous presentation on Human Health and Pesticides, we discussed some of the negative consequences associated with pesticide use. In this presentation we will focus on environmental degradation

More information

National Bee Unit. Best Practice Guideline No. 7 Feeding Bees

National Bee Unit. Best Practice Guideline No. 7 Feeding Bees Best Practice Guideline No. 7 Feeding Bees Feeding is usually carried out when a honey bee colony is short of stores and there is no or little nectar flow. This often coincides with the removal of a honey

More information

ISSN Second edition

ISSN Second edition ISSN 1810-0775 Beekeeping and sustainable livelihoods Second edition Diversification booklet number 1 Second edition Beekeeping and sustainable livelihoods Martin Hilmi, Nicola Bradbear and Danilo Mejia

More information

Estimating Income and Costs: Calculating a Price

Estimating Income and Costs: Calculating a Price Estimating Income and Cost: Calculating a Price Estimating Income and Costs: Calculating a Price Karen Mundy, Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Virginia Tech S. Gary Bullen, Department

More information

The Small Hive Beetle

The Small Hive Beetle The Small Hive Beetle Eric Smith Beekeepers of the Susquehanna Valley September 16, 2008 www.thebeeyard.org The Small Hive Beetle (SHB) Aethina tumida family Nitidulidae, most of which are scavengers or

More information

Organic beekeeping in Mexico

Organic beekeeping in Mexico Organic beekeeping in Mexico 27. 08. 2010, Sunny Beach Bulgaria Dr. Salvador V. Garibay (FiBL), Peter Gänz (Naturland), Dr. Remy Vandame (ECOSUR) Contents - Introduction - Conditions for organic beekeeping

More information

Crop Profile for Honey Bees in Texas

Crop Profile for Honey Bees in Texas Prepared: June, 2003 Crop Profile for Honey Bees in Texas State Ranking General Production Information Texas National Rank (number colonies) = 7 Texas National Rank (Honey production) = 7 Texas Honey value

More information

Discover Entomology. Discover Entomology. A Science, a Career, a Lifetime. A Science, a Career, a Lifetime

Discover Entomology. Discover Entomology. A Science, a Career, a Lifetime. A Science, a Career, a Lifetime Discover Entomology A Science, a Career, a Lifetime Discover Entomology A Science, a Career, a Lifetime What is Entomology? Entomology is the study of insects. Entomologists study bees, ants, beetles,

More information

UNOFFICIAL COPY: THE BEE LAW

UNOFFICIAL COPY: THE BEE LAW UNOFFICIAL COPY: THE BEE LAW The following is an unofficial copy of the Bee Law (Act of December 12, 1994, P.L. 903, No. 131)(3 Pa.C.S.A. 2101 2117). The document reflects the current version of this statute.

More information

MODEL BEEKEEPING ORDINANCE

MODEL BEEKEEPING ORDINANCE MODEL BEEKEEPING ORDINANCE For Florida (Local and Municipal) Governments Whereas, honey bees are beneficial to mankind and to Florida in particular, by providing agricultural fruit and vegetable pollination

More information

How to make a Solitary Bee Box

How to make a Solitary Bee Box How to make a Solitary Bee Box **Note: The following instructions include the use of tools that may be dangerous. Ensure there is adult supervision with children. Time: 1 hour People: 1-2+ Materials: Wood

More information

Toby and the Bees. Dear parents,

Toby and the Bees. Dear parents, Dear parents, At Bayer, we have been committed to animal health and protection of the environment for many years. This book is intended to help children understand the role that honey bees play in conserving

More information

IPM Elements for Honey Bees in the Mid-Atlantic States

IPM Elements for Honey Bees in the Mid-Atlantic States IPM Elements for Honey Bees in the Mid-Atlantic States The purpose of this document is to consolidate current integrated approaches to honey bee pest management in the mid-atlantic region. The goals are:

More information

STUDENT VERSION INSECT COLONY SURVIVAL OPTIMIZATION

STUDENT VERSION INSECT COLONY SURVIVAL OPTIMIZATION STUDENT VERSION INSECT COLONY SURVIVAL OPTIMIZATION STATEMENT We model insect colony propagation or survival from nature using differential equations. We ask you to analyze and report on what is going

More information

Biology and life cycle of OE

Biology and life cycle of OE Biology and life cycle of OE What is OE? Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (OE) Protozoan parasite that infects monarch and queen butterflies What is OE? Protozoans: single celled organisms Share many characteristics

More information

1. Cooperative care of the young involving more individuals than just the mother.

1. Cooperative care of the young involving more individuals than just the mother. Eusociality Animals must have three features to be called eusocial 1. Cooperative care of the young involving more individuals than just the mother. 2. Specialized castes that are sterile a. Facultatively

More information

Practice Questions 1: Evolution

Practice Questions 1: Evolution Practice Questions 1: Evolution 1. Which concept is best illustrated in the flowchart below? A. natural selection B. genetic manipulation C. dynamic equilibrium D. material cycles 2. The diagram below

More information

CONTROL OF VARROA A Guide for New Zealand Beekeepers

CONTROL OF VARROA A Guide for New Zealand Beekeepers CONTROL OF VARROA A Guide for New Zealand Beekeepers CONTROL OF VARROA A Guide for New Zealand Beekeepers has been published by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry as part of its on-going assistance

More information

Beekeeping PARASITIC MITES OF HONEY BEES. Greg Hunt, Bee Specialist, Purdue University

Beekeeping PARASITIC MITES OF HONEY BEES. Greg Hunt, Bee Specialist, Purdue University Beekeeping PURDUE EXTENSION E-201-W Department of Entomology PARASITIC MITES OF HONEY BEES Greg Hunt, Bee Specialist, Purdue University VARROA MITES Varroa mites (Varroa destructor) can be seen on the

More information

Castes in Social Insects

Castes in Social Insects Castes in Social Insects Module Chemical Ecology, Ayasse Outline Castes in Social Insects 1. definition 2. castes in social insects 3. caste determination A. psychophysiological caste determination B.

More information

Impact of beekeeping on forest conservation, preservation of forest ecosystems and poverty reduction Charlotte Lietaer 1

Impact of beekeeping on forest conservation, preservation of forest ecosystems and poverty reduction Charlotte Lietaer 1 Impact of beekeeping on forest conservation, preservation of forest ecosystems and poverty reduction Charlotte Lietaer 1 Thematic subject: Forestry sector: development opportunities Keywords: Forest conservation

More information

Complete and Incomplete Metamorphosis. Let s look at the difference!

Complete and Incomplete Metamorphosis. Let s look at the difference! Complete and Incomplete Metamorphosis Let s look at the difference! What is metamorphosis? Metamorphosis refers to the way that certain organisms develop, grow, and change form. Metamorphosis actually

More information

ABSTRACT. Of the PhD thesis:,, Etiopathogenic, clinical and therapeutic investigations in American foulbrood in honey bees

ABSTRACT. Of the PhD thesis:,, Etiopathogenic, clinical and therapeutic investigations in American foulbrood in honey bees ABSTRACT Of the PhD thesis:,, Etiopathogenic, clinical and therapeutic investigations in American foulbrood in honey bees Key words: bees, American foulbrood, Paenibacillus larvae, hydro alcoholic plant

More information

GCSE BITESIZE Examinations

GCSE BITESIZE Examinations GCSE BITESIZE Examinations General Certificate of Secondary Education AQA SCIENCE A BLY1B Unit Biology B1b (Evolution and Environment) AQA BIOLOGY Unit Biology B1b (Evolution and Environment) FOUNDATION

More information

Types of Bee Hives British Standard National using 14 12 brood box. Member John Farrow s Double Brood Hive. using double brood box

Types of Bee Hives British Standard National using 14 12 brood box. Member John Farrow s Double Brood Hive. using double brood box Types of Bee Hives British Standard National using 14 12 brood box Summary: Increasingly popular as the brood chamber is large enough for a colony and there are half as many brood frames to inspect compared

More information

FAQs: Gene drives - - What is a gene drive?

FAQs: Gene drives - - What is a gene drive? FAQs: Gene drives - - What is a gene drive? During normal sexual reproduction, each of the two versions of a given gene has a 50 percent chance of being inherited by a particular offspring (Fig 1A). Gene

More information

Honey Bee Biology. Dr. Debbie Delaney

Honey Bee Biology. Dr. Debbie Delaney Honey Bee Biology Dr. Debbie Delaney Morphology of the Honey Bee The honey bee has three body divisions Head Thorax Abdomen Head Drawing modified from R. E. Snodgrass Exoskeleton Body Hairs Morphology

More information

Beekeeping Economics Uniting Beekeeping, Economics, Business, and Mathematics

Beekeeping Economics Uniting Beekeeping, Economics, Business, and Mathematics NAME: Beekeeping Economics Uniting Beekeeping, Economics, Business, and Mathematics Part 1: You Don t need to be a Prophet to Profit. Part 2: Part 3: Part 4: Shopping for Equipment and Estimating Cost

More information

EAST TEXAS BEEKEEPERS MONTHLY GUIDE BOOK

EAST TEXAS BEEKEEPERS MONTHLY GUIDE BOOK EAST TEXAS BEEKEEPERS MONTHLY GUIDE BOOK FORWARD Members of the EAST TEXAS BEEKEEPERS ASSOCIATION compiled this pamphlet during the year of 1992. It is intended as a guide for new beekeepers in Smith and

More information

Raising Honey Bee Queens

Raising Honey Bee Queens Raising Honey Bee Queens Written by Khalil Hamdan Apeldoorn, The Netherlands Carniolan Queen Bee (Photo by P-O Gustafsson) Queen raising is the production of mated queens for use in the apiary or sale

More information

The H-Map: An Alternative to the Venn Diagram

The H-Map: An Alternative to the Venn Diagram The H-Map: An Alternative to the Venn Diagram H Fossil Fuels 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Both? 1. 2. 3. Solar Power 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Venn Diagram Fossil Fuels Solar Energy Source: Holt Elements of Literature (2005) Word

More information

Glass Jar Beekeeping Creating Edible Art By Morris Ostrofsky

Glass Jar Beekeeping Creating Edible Art By Morris Ostrofsky 1 Glass Jar Beekeeping Creating Edible Art By Morris Ostrofsky Bees have always perfectly packaged honey in wax comb. Before the advent of modern bee hives, the bees built honey comb in straw skeps. Around

More information

Food chain to food web game. The Sun. Sun. The suns energy allows plant life to grow so that animals can survive. Produces heat and light

Food chain to food web game. The Sun. Sun. The suns energy allows plant life to grow so that animals can survive. Produces heat and light Sun The Sun The suns energy allows plant life to grow so that animals can survive. Produces heat and light Plants Plants Plants need the sun to make their own food through a process called photosynthesis.

More information

Unit 4 Lesson 1: A Pest by Any Other Name

Unit 4 Lesson 1: A Pest by Any Other Name Focus Areas: Pest Control: Biological; Environmental Science, Language Arts Focus Skills: critical thinking, conducting research, observing, graphing, interpreting data Objectives To explore human attitudes

More information

Wasp and Bee Management on Grapes Jody Gangloff-Kaufmann, PhD NYSIPM Program, Cornell University. Photo by Davidh-j, Flickr.com

Wasp and Bee Management on Grapes Jody Gangloff-Kaufmann, PhD NYSIPM Program, Cornell University. Photo by Davidh-j, Flickr.com Wasp and Bee Management on Grapes Jody Gangloff-Kaufmann, PhD NYSIPM Program, Cornell University Photo by Davidh-j, Flickr.com Wasps and bees Order Hymenoptera ants, wasps, bees Most important group of

More information

The Business of Beekeeping in South Carolina

The Business of Beekeeping in South Carolina The Business of Beekeeping in South Carolina David E. MacFawn Lexington, South Carolina June, 2015 Beekeeping is a complex endeavor that takes up-front knowledge and planning to be successful. One needs

More information

HOME & GARDEN. Nuisance Wasps and Bees no. 5.525 by W.S. Cranshaw 1. Quick Facts...

HOME & GARDEN. Nuisance Wasps and Bees no. 5.525 by W.S. Cranshaw 1. Quick Facts... I N S E C T S E R I E S HOME & GARDEN Nuisance Wasps and Bees no. 5.525 by W.S. Cranshaw 1 Quick Facts... Most wasps develop by feeding on insects. Bees develop on a diet of nectar or pollen. Almost all

More information

Beekeeping. B a c k y a r d ANR-135

Beekeeping. B a c k y a r d ANR-135 Beekeeping A l a b a m a C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S y s t e m A l a b a m a A & M U n i v e r s i t y a n d A u b u r n U n i v e r s i t y ANR-135 Beekeeping James E. Tew A l a b a m a

More information

Bee keeping. Training Manual

Bee keeping. Training Manual Wildlife Conservation Society P.O. Box 530225 Lundazi E-mail:wcs_lun@zamtel.zm Bee keeping Training Manual Complied By :Julius Mwale Contents Title Page No. SECTION 1... 2 INTRODUCTION... 2 SECTION 2...

More information

Graft-Free Queen Rearing Morris Ostrofsky

Graft-Free Queen Rearing Morris Ostrofsky Many beekeepers reach a point in their beekeeping experience where they are comfortable with the basics and are seeking a new challenge. In an environment in which beekeepers have to deal with exotic pests

More information

Total Course Hours. Semester Degree code. ID Course Name Professor Course Content Summary. 90 1 st 11070

Total Course Hours. Semester Degree code. ID Course Name Professor Course Content Summary. 90 1 st 11070 LEA0170 Invertebrate Zoology I Italo Delalibera Junior Characterization and importance of the Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nemata, Mollusca, Annelida, Echinodermata phyla and smaller invertebrate

More information

Overview of DFC-N AU in Benin

Overview of DFC-N AU in Benin Overview of DFC-N 10-025AU in Benin Increasing value of African mango and cashew production is a project financed by DANIDA. It is introducing, developing and optimizing weaver-ant Integrated Pest Management

More information

Sexual reproduction in Angiosperms

Sexual reproduction in Angiosperms Sexual reproduction in Angiosperms Name: ANGIOSPERMS Angiosperms are plants that have their seeds enclosed in an ovule inside their flower. About 80% of the plants we see and know are angiosperms. The

More information

100% New Zealand CERTIFIEd ORGANIC HONEY

100% New Zealand CERTIFIEd ORGANIC HONEY Product Catalogue 100% New Zealand CERTIFIEd ORGANIC HONEY NZ-BIO-003 New Zealand ACCREDITED Premium New Zealand Organic Honey Selection About TranzAlpineHoney TranzAlpineHoney is a New Zealand owned and

More information

Ranger Report About Deforestation of the Rainforest

Ranger Report About Deforestation of the Rainforest Ranger Report About Deforestation of the Rainforest About deforestation Forests are cut down for many reasons, but most of them are related to money or to people s need to provide for their families. The

More information

Identification of Bees and Wasps

Identification of Bees and Wasps Identification of Bees and Wasps BEES Bees are robust bodied, hairy insects with four wings. They are usually dark in color with minimal contrasting color patterns. Their hind legs are flattened into a

More information

Honey Bee Communication: Dance Language

Honey Bee Communication: Dance Language Page 1 of 13 : Dance Language a lesson plan by Louise I. Lynch, Bees Louise! and Dr. Marion Ellis, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Page 2 of 13 : Dance Language See www.beeslouise.org for more bee lessons!

More information

Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Naturwissenschaften

Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades der Naturwissenschaften Parasite host interactions between Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman and Apis mellifera L.: Influence of parasitism on flight behaviour and on the loss of infested foragers Dissertation zur Erlangung

More information

Kentucky Beekeeping : A Guide for Beginners. Thomas C. Webster College of Agriculture, Food Science and Sustainable Systems Kentucky State University

Kentucky Beekeeping : A Guide for Beginners. Thomas C. Webster College of Agriculture, Food Science and Sustainable Systems Kentucky State University Kentucky Beekeeping : A Guide for Beginners Thomas C. Webster College of Agriculture, Food Science and Sustainable Systems Kentucky State University CONTENTS Introduction 1 Part 1: Understanding the Bees

More information

Symbiosis, Competition, Predator/Prey

Symbiosis, Competition, Predator/Prey Symbiosis, Competition, Predator/Prey Why Do Living Things Interact With Each Other? Because, in order to survive, a living organism depends on other living things. Organisms may interact to find food

More information

Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Period. 4. Describe Lamarck s proposed theory of evolution, The Theory of Acquired Traits.

Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Period. 4. Describe Lamarck s proposed theory of evolution, The Theory of Acquired Traits. Ch. 13 How Populations Evolve Name Period California State Standards covered by this chapter: Evolution 7. The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on many factors and may be stable

More information

BEGINNING WITH BEES TABLE OF CONTENTS

BEGINNING WITH BEES TABLE OF CONTENTS Beginning With Bees TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction...3 Swarms...3 Established Colonies...4 Bee Removal...4 Transferring Bees from Box Hives...4 Package Bees...4 Equipment...5 Working the Hive...5 Biology

More information

Management of goats at pasture. Barry W Norton School of Land and Food, University of Queensland, Australia

Management of goats at pasture. Barry W Norton School of Land and Food, University of Queensland, Australia Management of goats at pasture Barry W Norton School of Land and Food, University of Queensland, Australia Introduction In Australian and most Asian production systems, goats are held continuously at pasture

More information

Bee Life. Grade 3 Science and Technology Unit

Bee Life. Grade 3 Science and Technology Unit Bee Life Grade 3 Science and Technology Unit Instructions to Teachers This unit is a Science and Technology lesson plan for the Understanding Life Systems Growth and Changes in Plants strand. Over a duration

More information