Rheology and Polymer Characterization

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1 Rheology and Polymer Characterization Asst Prof Anongnat Somwangthanaroj 20 Sep 2010

2 Fundamentals: Why Rheology? Fundamental Rheology Concepts and Parameters Fundamental Rheometry Concepts Viscosity, Viscoelasticiy and the Storage Modulus The Linear Viscoelastic Region (LVR)

3 AGENDA Why Rheology? Fundamental Rheology Concepts and Parameters Fundamental Rheometry Concepts Viscosity, Viscoelasticiy and the Storage Modulus The Linear Viscoelastic Region (LVR)

4 A Rheological Paradox Sometimes it does Sometimes it doesn t

5 BECAUSE If a material is pumped, sprayed, extended, extruded, molded, coated, mixed, chewed, swallowed, rubbed, transported, stored, heated, cooled, aged RHEOLOGY is important.!!

6 AGENDA Why Rheology? Fundamental Rheology Concepts and Parameters Fundamental Rheometry Concepts Viscosity, Viscoelasticiy and the Storage Modulus The Linear Viscoelastic Region (LVR)

7 παντα ρει (everything flows ) - Heraclito de Samos (500 A.C.) Time Scale in Rheology Deborah Number De = λ / t exp Judges 5:5

8 Definition of Rheology Rheology is the science of? and? of matter under controlled testing conditions. flow deformation

9 Definition of Rheology Rheology is the science of deformation and flow of matter under controlled testing conditions. Flow is a special case of deformation Deformation is a special case of flow

10 Simple Shear Deformation and Shear Flow Shear Deformation τ = F A y y 0 θ x(t) V Strain, γ = x(t) y 0. Strain Rate, γ = V y 0 = 1 d x(t) y 0 d t z x A Viscosity, η = τ γ. γ. = γ t Shear Modulus, G = τ γ

11 Range of Rheological Material Behavior Rheology: The study of deformation and flow of matter at specified conditions. Range of material behavior Solid Like Liquid Like (Ideal Solid Ideal Fluid) Classical Extremes

12 Classical Extremes: Elasticity 1678: Robert Hooke develops his True Theory of Elasticity The power of any spring is in the same proportion with the tension thereof. Hooke s Law: τ = G γ or (Stress = G x Strain) where G is the RIGIDITY MODULUS

13 Linear and Non-Linear Stress-Strain Behavior of Solids 1000 Linear Region G is constant Non-Linear Region G = f(γ) G' (Pa) G osc. stress (Pa) σ % strain

14 Classical Extremes: Viscosity 1687: Isaac Newton addresses liquids and steady simple shearing flow in his Principia The resistance which arises from the lack of slipperiness of the parts of the liquid, other things being equal, is proportional to the velocity with which the parts of the liquid are separated from one another. Newton s Law: τ = ηγ where η is the Coefficient of Viscosity

15 Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Behavior of Fluids 1.000E5 Newtonian Region η Independent of γ Non-Newtonian Region η = f(γ) 1.000E η (Pa.s) η τ (Pa) τ E E E shear rate (1/s) γ

16 PARAMETERS for Rheological Properties Classical Extremes Ideal Solid -- [External Force] -- Ideal Fluid STEEL Strong Structure Rigidity Deformation Retains/recovers form Stores Energy WATER Weak Structure Fluidity Flow Losses form Dissipates Energy (Purely Elastic R. Hooke, 1678) [Energy] (Purely Viscous I. Newton, 1687) ELASTICITY Storage Modulus VISCOSITY Loss Modulus REAL Behavior Apparent Solid [Energy + time] Apparent Fluid - viscoelastic materials -

17 Types of non-newtonian fluids Deformation rate dependent viscosity Yield Stress (plasticity) Elasticity Thixotropy Transient behaviour

18 Stress-strain rate curve Dilatancy (shear thickening) Plastic and Pseudoplastic (shear thinning)

19 apparent viscosity as a function of time

20 AGENDA Why Rheology? Fundamental Rheology Concepts and Parameters Fundamental Rheometry Concepts Viscosity, Viscoelasticiy and the Storage Modulus The Linear Viscoelastic Region (LVR)

21 Viscometer vs. Rheometer Viscometer: instrument that measures the viscosity of a fluid over a limited shear rate range Rheometer: instrument that measures: Viscosity over a wide range of shear rates, and Viscoelasticity of fluids, semi-solids and solids

22 Frame of Reference Recognize that a rheometer is a highly sensitive device used to quantify viscoelastic properties of the molecular structure of materials. A rheometer can not always mimic the conditions of a process, application or use. Rheometers determine apparent properties under a wide range of testing conditions. The apparent behavior can be used as a finger print or benchmark of the material.

23 Constitutive Relations Stress = Strain Modulus Stress Shear rate = Viscosity

24 Measuring Systems - Geometries Concentric Cylinders Cone and Plate Parallel Plates Rectangular Torsion Very Low to Medium Viscosity Very Low to High Viscosity Low Viscosity to soft Solids Soft to Rigid Solids Decane Water Steel

25 AGENDA Why Rheology? Fundamental Rheology Concepts and Parameters Fundamental Rheometry Concepts Viscosity, Viscoelasticiy and the Storage Modulus The Linear Viscoelastic Region (LVR)

26 Dynamic Testing An oscillatory (sinusoidal) deformation (stress or strain) is applied to a sample. The material response (strain or stress) is measured. The phase angle δ, or phase shift, between the deformation and response is measured. Deformation Response Phase angle δ

27 Dynamic Viscoelastic Material Response Phase angle 0 < δ < 90 Stress Strain

28 Viscoelastic Parameters The Complex Modulus: Measure of materials overall resistance to deformation. The Elastic (Storage) Modulus: Measure of elasticity of material. The ability of the material to store energy. G* = Stress*/Strain G* = G + ig G' = (stress*/strain)cosө The Viscous (loss) Modulus: The ability of the material to dissipate energy. Energy lost as heat. G" = (stress*/strain)sinө Tan Delta: Measure of material damping - such as vibration or sound damping. Tan σ = G"/G'

29 Dynamic Time Sweep (Time Ramp) Stress or Strain Deformation Time The material response is monitored at a constant frequency, amplitude and temperature. USES Time dependent Thixotropy Cure Studies Stability against thermal degradation Solvent evaporation/drying

30 AGENDA Why Rheology? Fundamental Rheology Concepts and Parameters Fundamental Rheometry Concepts Viscosity, Viscoelasticiy and the Storage Modulus The Linear Viscoelastic Region (LVR)

31 Dynamic Stress or Strain Sweep (Torque Ramp) Stress or Strain Deformation Time The material response to increasing deformation amplitude (stress or strain) is monitored at a constant frequency and temperature. USES Identify Linear Viscoelastic Region Strength of dispersion structure - settling stability Resilience

32 Dynamic Strain Sweep: Material Response 1000 Linear Region G is constant Non-Linear Region G = f(γ) G' (Pa) G osc. stress (Pa) σ Critical Strain γ c % strain

33 Frequency Sweep Stress or Strain Deformation Time The material response to increasing frequency (rate of deformation) is monitored at a constant amplitude (stress or strain) and temperature. USES Viscosity Information - Zero Shear η, shear thinning Elasticity (reversible deformation) in materials MW & MWD differences Polymer Melts and Polymer solutions. Finding Yield in gelled dispersions High and Low Rate (short and long time) modulus properties. Extend time or frequency range with TTS

34 Time Sweep on Latex Structural Recovery after Preshear G' (Pa) time (s)

35 Dynamic Strain Sweep: Material Response 1000 Linear Region G is constant Non-Linear Region G = f(γ) G' (Pa) G osc. stress (Pa) σ Critical Strain γ c % strain

36 Oscillation Model Fitting for Classic Polymer Data [Polyacrylamide Soln.] Polyacrylamide Solution 20 C 1000 TA Instruments Slope = G' (Pa) G" G' n' 4 Element Maxwell Fit Slope = 1.96 n' (Pa.s) G'' (Pa) 1.000E-3 Straight Line Fit to Terminal Region of Data 1.000E ang. frequency (rad/sec) 1.000E E

37 Defining Shear Rate Ranges Situation Sedimentation of fine powders in liquids Leveling due to surface tension Draining off surfaces under gravity Extruders Chewing and Swallowing Dip coating Mixing and stirring Pipe Flow Brushing Rubbing High-speed coating Spraying Lubrication Shear Rate Range 10-6 to to to to to to to to to to to to to 10 7 Examples Medicines, Paints, Salad Dressing Paints, Printing inks Toilet bleaches, paints, coatings Polymers, foods Foods Confectionery, paints Liquids manufacturing Pumping liquids, blood flow Painting Skin creams, lotions Paper manufacture Atomization, spray drying Bearings, engines

38 Stress Relaxation Experiment Strain 0 time Response of Classical Extremes Hookean Solid Newtonian Fluid Stress stress for t>0 is constant Stress stress for t>0 is 0 0 time 0 time

39 Stress Relaxation Experiment (cont d) Response of Material Stress decreases with time starting at some high value and decreasing to zero. Stress 0 time For small deformations (strains within the linear region) the ratio of stress to strain is a function of time only. This function is a material property known as the STRESS RELAXATION MODULUS, G(t) G(t) = s(t)/γ

40 Creep Recovery Experiment Stress t 1 time Response of Classical Extremes t 2 Strain Stain for t>t1 is constant Strain for t >t2 is 0 Strain Stain rate for t>t1 is constant Strain for t>t1 increase with time Strain rate for t >t2 is 0 t 1 time t 2 time t 2 t 1

41 Creep Recovery Experiment: Response of Viscoelastic Material Creep t 1 > 0 Recovery t 2 = 0 (after steady state) Strain σ/η Recoverable Strain t 1 t 2 time Strain rate decreases with time in the creep zone, until finally reaching a steady state. In the recovery zone, the viscoelastic fluid recoils, eventually reaching a equilibrium at some small total strain relative to the strain at unloading. Reference: Mark, J., et.al., Physical Properties of Polymers,American Chemical Society, 1984, p. 102.

42 Polyethylene 150 C HDPE viscosity (Pa.s) LLDPE LDPE 1.000E E shear rate (1/s)

43 Polydimethylsiloxane - Cox-Merz Data viscosity (Pa.s) Creep or Equilibrium Flow η (γ). = η (ω) PDMS.05F-Flow step PDMS.08F-Flow step Dynamic Frequency Sweep Dynamic data gives high shear rates unattainable in flow E E shear rate (1/s) 1000

44 Dynamic Temperature Ramp or Step and Hold: Material Response Glassy Region Transition Region Rubbery Plateau Region Terminal Region log E' (G') and E" (G") Storage Modulus (E' or G') Loss Modulus (E" or G") Temperature

45 Molecular Structure - Effect of Molecular Weight Glassy Region MW has practically no effect on the modulus below Tg Transition Region Rubbery Plateau Region log E' (G') Low MW Med. MW High MW Temperature

46 Effect of Heating Rate on Temperature of Cold Crystallization in PET Heating Rate After Quench Cooling Crystallization [kinetic event] T g melt

47 PET Bottle Resin Cold Crystallization 1.000E Temperature Ramp at 3 C/min. Frequency = 1 Hz Strain = 0.025% G α- transition T g = 88.0 C 1.000E E E9 G' (Pa) 1.000E tan(delta) G Cold Crystallization 1.000E8 G'' (Pa) E tan δ β- transition C 1.000E E temperature (Deg C) 1.000E

48 PET Bottle Resin Before and After DMA Scan Pressed PET Bottle Resin PET After Temperature Ramp Scan (Cold Crystallization)

49 PET Bottle Resin - Repeat Run After Cold Crystallization 1.000E E G Temperature Ramp at 3 C/min. Frequency = 1 Hz Strain = 0.025% Melt T m = 240 C 1.000E E E G 1.000E8 G' (Pa) 1.000E tan(delta) 1.000E7 G'' (Pa) 1.000E E E tan δ α- transition T g = 103 C 1.000E temperature (Deg C)

50 PET Bottle Resin - Comparison of G 1.000E10 Repeat Run After Cold Crystallization 1.000E9 Initial Scan on Pressed Resin G' (Pa) 1.000E E7 Temperature Ramp at 3 C/min. Frequency = 1 Hz Strain = 0.025% Cold Crystallization 1.000E temperature (Deg C) 250.0

51 BECAUSE Typical DSC Transitions Oxidation or Decomposition Heat Flow Glass Transition Crystallization Melting Cross-Linking (Cure) Describe Thermal Transitions of the Materials Structure Temperature Quantitative Description of Consistency (structure)?

52 BECAUSE Thermal Analysis describes thermal transitions NEED to quantify... Physical Properties of Structure Strength or weakness of the Structure and because Rheology can do these; therefore, it is much more informative tool

53 Shear Flexure

54 Tension Compression

55

56 Creep

57 Creep Stress relaxation

58 Creep Stress relaxation Constant stressing rate

59 Creep Stress relaxation Constant stressing rate Constant straining rate

60 Acknowledgements Abel Gaspar-Rosas, Ph.D. TA Instruments Waters, Inc For graphs and figures

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