Pre PeriodicPeriodic Table Chemistry. No organization of elements. Difficult to find information. Chemistry didn t make sense.

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2 Pre PeriodicPeriodic Table Chemistry No organization of elements. Difficult to find information. Chemistry didn t make sense.

3 Why is the Periodic Table important to us? The periodic table is the most useful tool to a chemist. You get to use it on every test. It organizes lots of information about all the known elements.

4 THE MODERN PERIODIC TABLE In modern periodic table elements are arranged in increasing order of their ATOMIC NUMBER The horizontal rows are called periods. The vertical columns are called groups.

5 The English physicist (1913) Henry Moseley, showed that the atomic number is a more fundamental property of an element than its atomic mass.

6 Modern Periodic Law The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic number

7 1) The atomic number is equal to the number of electrons (or protons) in a neutral atom. 2) Electronic configuration really determine the physical and chemical properties of elements and their compounds.

8

9 Periods are the horizontal rows in the periodic table. There are seven periods in modern periodic table. They are labeled from 1 to 7.

10 Period Number Number of elements 1 Shortest period 2 2 Short period 8 3 Short period 8 4 Long period 18 5 Long period 18 6 Longest period 32 7 Incomplete period

11 1) The period number corresponds to the principal energy shell (n). 2) The atomic sizes of the elements generally decreases from left to right in a particular period (because nuclear charge increases). 3) In a period, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity of the elements increases (because atomic size decreases).

12 GROUPS Elements in the same group have similar chemical and physical properties!! Why?? They have the same number of valence electrons.

13 1)There are 18 groups in the modern periodic table. 2) All the elements present inagroup have same general electronic configuration of the atoms.

14 Example: I group elements Li (3) [He] 2S 1 Na (11) [Ne] 3S 1 K (19) [Ar] 4S 1 [NG] ns 1 Rb (37) [Kr] 5S 1 Cs (55) [Xe] 6S 1 Fr (87) [Rn] 7S 1

15 3) The elements in a group are separated by definite gaps of atomic numbers 2, 8, 8, 18, 18, 32. Ex: H (1) Li (3) Na (11) K (19) Rb (37) Cs (55) Fr (87)

16 4) The atomic sizes of the elements in a group increases due to the increase the number of shells 5) In a group, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity of the elements decreases (because atomic size increases).

17 Families in the Periodic Table 1) Elements on the periodic table can be grouped into families bases on their hi chemical properties. 2) Families have names, Just like your family has a common last name.

18 3) Elements in each family have similar but not identical properties. 4) All elements in a family have the same number of valence electrons.

19 ALKALI METALS First group elements. Hydrogen is not a member, it is a non metal 1 electron in the outer shell Soft and silvery metals Very reactive, esp. with water Conduct electricity

20 ALKALINE EARTH METALS 2 nd group elements 2 electrons in the outer shell White and malleable Reactive, but less than Alkali metals Conduct electricity

21 TRANSITION ELEMENTS

22 TRANSITION ELEMENTS Elements in Groups 3 to 12 1) Good conductors of heat and electricity. 2) The compounds of transition metals are usually brightly colored and are often used to colour paints. 3) Transition elements have 1 or 2 valence electron, which hthey lose when they form bonds with other atoms.

23 13th group elements. BORON FAMILY Atoms in this family have 3 valence electrons. This family includes a metalloid (boron), and the rest are non metals. This family includes the most abundant metal in the earth s crust (aluminum).

24 CARBON FAMILY 14th Elements.. It Contains elements important to life (carbon) and computers (silicon). Carbon is the basis for an entire branch of chemistry. Silicon and Germanium are important semiconductors.

25 NITROGEN FAMILY Elements of 15 th group. Nitrogen makes up over ¾ of the atmosphere. Nitrogen and phosphorus are both important in living things. The red stuff on the tip of matches is phosphorus. p

26 HALOGENS 17 th group elements.. Very reactive, diatomic, nonmetals Always found combined with other element in nature. Used as disinfectants i t and to strengthen teeth. th

27 OXYGEN FAMILY Elements in group 16 Oxygen is necessary for respiration. i Many things that stink, contain sulphur (rotten eggs, garlic, etc.)

28 The Noble Gases 18 th group elements VERY unreactive, monatomic gases Used in lighted neon signs Have full valence shell. Helium (He) has only 2 electrons in the outer shell.

29 Rare Earth Elements Some are Radioactive The rare earths are silvery white, or gray metals. Conduct electricity

30 BLOCKS 1) The long form of the periodic table has also been divided into four blocks, known as s, p, d and f blocks.

31 BLOCKS

32 2) Classification of blocks depending on the type of orbitals in electrons are filled. Ex: i) Sodium(Na) belongs to S block, because valence electron enters into S orbital. 1S 2 2S 2 2P 6 3S 1 ii) Carbon(6), 1S 2, 2S 2 2P 2. It is p block element iii) Fe(26), 1S 2, 2S 2 2P 6,3S 2 3P 6, 4S 2, 3d 6. It belongs to d block.

33 Locating the position of an element in the periodic table From electronic configuration of the element, locate its position in the Periodic Table. Example: no N Where, n Period number O Block N Group Number

34 1) BLOCK : The sub shell (orbital) in which the valence electron is filled indicate block. 2) PERIOD NUMBER : The principal quantum number of the valence shell indicate period number. 3)GROUP NUMBER : a)for S block element: Group No.= No. of ns electrons. b)for p block elements: Group No.= 10 + No. of ns & np electrons. c) For d block elements: Group No. = No. of (n 1)d + ns electrons. d) For f block elements: Group No. = 3

35 Example: 1) Li(3) 1S 2 2S 1 I) Block = S II) Period No. = 2 III) Group No. = 1 2) Cl(17) 1S 2 2S 2 2P 6 3S 2 3P 5 I) Block = P II) Period No. = 3 III) Group No. = = 17

36 3) Ni(28) 1S 2 2S 2 2P 6 3S 2 3P 6 4S 2 3d 8 I) Block = d II) Period No. = 4 III) Group No. = = 10 4) Ar(36) 1S 2 2S 2 2P 6 3S 2 3P 6 3d 10 4S 2 4P 6 I) Block = P II) Period No. = 4 III) Group No. = = 18

37 Write your answers EC:1S 2 2S 2 2P 6 Name the block? Period Number? Group Number?

38 EC:1S 2 2S 2 2P 6 Name the block? Period Number? Group Number? P block 2 nd P nd Period = 18 th Group

39 Write your answers E C: 1S 2 2S 2 2P 6 3S 1 Name the block? Period Number? Group Number?

40 E C: 1S 2 2S 2 2P 6 3S 1 Name the block? S block Period Number? 3 Period Group Number? 1 Group

41 Write your answers EC:1S 2 2S 2 2P 6 3S 2 3P 6 4S 2 3d 6 Name the block? Period Number? Group Number?

42 EC:1S 2 2S 2 2P 6 3S 2 3P 6 4S 2 3d 6 Name the block? Period Number? d Block 4 th th Period Group Number? = 8 th Group

43 Write your answers E C: 1S 2 2S 2 2P 6 3S 2 3P 4 Name the block? Period Number? Group Number?

44 EC C: 1S 2 2S 2 2P 6 3S 2 3P 4 Name the block? Period Number? P- Block 3 rd rd Period Group Number? = 16 th Group

45 Write your answers EC C: 1S 2 2S 2 2P 6 3S 2 3P 6 4S 1 Name the block? Period Number? Group Number?

46 EC C: 1S 2 2S 2 2P 6 3S 2 3P 6 4S 1 Name the block? Period Number? Group Number? S Block 4 th th Period 1 st Group

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