He Ne Ar Kr. Concept/Skills Development FAMILY RESEMBLANCE. [Wolfgram, D. (1987, December). ChemMatters, p. 16.]

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1 Concept/Skills Development [Wolfgram, D. (1987, December). ChemMatters, p. 16.] FAMILY RESEMBLANCE Can you place these elements in their proper positions on the Periodic Table without knowing their identity? Instead of the usual chemical symbol, each element is represented by a code letter, and some clues to the element s identity are listed below. In addition, the elements fall into these families or groups: JKQ, WNVG, IAL, EPFZ, YBR, ODS, CXU, THM Place each code letter in its proper space in the table below, then indicate the actual chemical symbol that corresponds to each letter. W is an inert gas. P is an alkali metal. X is a halogen. D is an element that needs three electrons to become stable. K is an atom that readily yields a 2+ ion. M is an element found in the group to the right of S. B would probably form a 3+ ion. A has six protons in its nucleus. R has an atomic number one less than A. O has an atomic number one more than A. S has 18 more protons in its nucleus than has D. F has only one proton in each atom. Y has atoms that are larger than the atoms of B. I has the largest atomic number in its group. T is found in the fourth period (or row). C has atoms that are larger than those of U, but smaller than those of X. V has one more proton in its nucleus than U. H has the smallest atomic number in its group. G has two protons in each atom. N is a third period element. J is a second period element. Q has an atomic mass greater than that of J and less than that of K. E has an atomic number less than that of Z but greater than that of P. Z has more protons than other elements in its group. U is found in the second period H Li Be B Na Ms Al K Ca Ga C N Si P Ge As O F S Cl Se Br He Ne Ar Kr Answers to Family Resemblance: F = H; G = He; P = Li; J = Be; R = B; A = C; O = N; H = O; U = F; V = Ne; E = Na; Q = Mg; B = Al; L = Si; D = P; M = S; C = Cl; N = Ar; Z = K; K = Ca; Y = Ga; I = Ge; S = As; T = Se; X = Br; W = Kr. Periodicity (PERD) 31

2 Worksheet: Periodic Table Trends Name For each of the following, circle the correct element. Li Si S metal N P As smallest ionization energy K Ca Sc largest atomic mass S Cl Ar member of the halogen family Al Si P greatest electron affinity Ga Al Si largest atomic radius V Nb Ta largest atomic number Te I Xe member of noble gases Si Ge Sn 4 energy levels Li Be B member of alkali metals As Se Br 6 valence electrons H Li Na nonmetal Hg Tl Pb member of transition metals Na Mg Al electron distribution ending in s 2 p 1 Pb Bi Po metalloid B C N gas at room temperature Ca Sc Ti electron distribution ending in s 2 d 2 CHEMISTRY: A Study of Matter 2004, GPB 4.14

3 Worksheet: Periodic Table Puzzles Name Fictitious symbols are used for the first 18 elements in the periodic table. Use the clues below to write the fictitious symbol in the appropriate spot on the periodic table provided. Symbols for real elements do not represent those elements. HINT: You do not have to complete each clue in order Clue 1 Clue 2 Clue 3 Clue 4 Clue 5 Clue 6 Clue 7 Clue 8 Clue 9 Clue 10 Clue 11 U and J are alkali metals. J has more energy levels. T has 4 valence electrons on the 3 rd energy level. M is a metal in period 3 with 2 valence electrons. X has one proton in its nucleus. Q has 2 energy levels, is a nonmetal, and is a solid at room temperature. L is a noble gas that doesn t have 8 valence electrons. Z and Y are members of the nitrogen family. Y is a gas at room temperature. D has an ending electron distribution of s 2 p 5. R has an ending electron distribution of s 2. G has 6 valence electrons. V and W have full outer energy levels. V has 3 energy levels. A atoms have 3 valence electrons and E atoms have 6 valence electrons. Both are in the second period. Clue 12 K has one fewer total electrons than V. Clue 13 I has 3 valence electrons on the third energy level. CHEMISTRY: A Study of Matter 2004, GPB 4.8

4 Fictitious symbols are used for the first 18 elements in the periodic table. Use the clues below to write the fictitious symbol in the appropriate spot on the periodic table provided. HINT: You do not have to complete each clue in order Clue 1 Clue 2 Clue 3 Clue 4 Clue 5 Clue 6 Clue 7 Clue 8 Clue 9 Clue 10 Clue 11 Clue 12 Lg has 5 valence electrons on the second period. Eg atoms have 12 protons in the nucleus. Qp and Ju are halogens. Ju has fewer energy levels. Ke is a member of the oxygen family. Ke is in the same period as Lg. Gn is a member of the nitrogen family. Rm and Sk have 3 valence electrons. Rm has more occupied energy levels than Sk. Td and Vo are metals in the same family. Vo has 2 energy levels and Td has 3 energy levels. Wa is a member of the alkaline earth metals. Zy has an ending electron distribution of 3p 4. An has 18 total electrons. Ms is a nonmetal located on the side of the periodic table with all of the metals. Bx atoms and Oz atoms are stable. Oz atoms are heavier than Bx atoms. Ds and Cy are members of the carbon family. Ds has fewer protons than Cy. CHEMISTRY: A Study of Matter 2004, GPB 4.9

5 Periodic Trends Practice Standard a. Use the Periodic Table to predict periodic trends including atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, and electronegativity of various elements. b. Compare and contrast trends in the chemical and physical properties of elements and their placement on the Periodic Table. SCb: Use the orbital configuration of neutral atoms to explain its effect on the atom s chemical properties 1. Circle which element has the larger atomic radius: Choice 1 Choice 2 Choice 1 Choice 2 K Br Al Cl Na Mg Mg Al Fr F Ca Cs Li Ca N Br I Br Ga K 2 Circle which element has the larger atomic radius: Choice 1 Choice 2 Choice 3 Choice 1 Choice 2 Choice 3 Cl Br S At Po Uuh Na Mg K Mg Al Ga Fr F Rh Ca Cs Hf Li Na K N P S I Br Te W Ta Sg 3. Circle which element has the larger Ionization Energy: Choice 1 Choice 2 Choice 1 Choice 2 K Br Al Cl Na Mg Mg Al Fr F Ca Cs Li Ca N Br I Br Ga K 4 Circle which element has the larger Ionization Energy: Choice 1 Choice 2 Choice 3 Choice 1 Choice 2 Choice 3 Cl Br S At Po Uuh Na Mg K Mg Al Ga Fr F Rh Ca Cs Hf Li Na K N P S I Br Te W Ta Sg

6 5. Circle which element has the larger Electronegativity: Choice 1 Choice 2 Choice 1 Choice 2 K Br Al Cl Na Mg Mg Al Fr F Ca Cs Li Ca N Br I Br Ga K 6 Circle which element has the larger Electronegativity: Choice 1 Choice 2 Choice 3 Choice 1 Choice 2 Choice 3 Cl Br S At Po Uuh Na Mg K Mg Al Ga Fr F Rh Ca Cs Hf Li Na K N P S I Br Te W Ta Sg 7. Circle which element or ion has a larger radius: choice 1 choice 2 choice 1 choice 2 Na Na + Cl Cl -1 Mg Mg +2 Cl -1 S O Cl -1 O 2- F O 2- O Li + Li Na + Mg 2+ O 2- F - 8 Circle which element or ion has a larger radius: Choice 1 Choice 2 Choice 3 Choice 1 Choice 2 Choice 3 Na Na + Cl Bi 3+ Pb Sn 4+ Na + Mg O 2- Mg Al 2+ Ga Fr F - Fr + Ca 2+ Cs Ba 2+ Li + Na + K + N 3- P S 2- I Br - Te 2- Mg 2+ Al Cl - 9. Which element is the most electronegative? Why? 10. Which element is the least electronegative? Why? 11. When they constructed the modern periodic table, did they have gaps or did they know every element? Why were they able to predict what would fill the gaps? (Use your book to help you with this answer.)

7 High School Chemistry Core Concept Cheat Sheet Key Chemistry Terms Periodic Table: Tool for organizing the elements Periods: Rows on the periodic table Groups: Columns on the periodic table Periodicity: Predictable patterns and trends on the periodic table Atomic Number: Number of protons in an atom. Defines the element. Periodic table is organized in increasing order of atomic number Atomic Mass: mass in grams of 1 mole of atoms (6.02 x atoms) Atomic Radius: Half the distance between two nuclei of the same element when bonded together Electronegativity: Pull an atom has on the shared electrons in a bond with another atom. Ionization Energy: Energy required to remove the outermost electron from an atom. Electron Affinity: Energy released when another electron is added to an atom. Ion: Atom with a charge Cation: Positively charged ion. Results from loss of electrons. Anion: Negatively charged ion. Results from gain of electrons. Reading the Periodic Table Most periodic tables give the following information (although it may be in a different order): 12 Atomic # C Symbol Carbon Name Atomic Mass Important Regions of the Periodic Table: Metals Non-metals 6 7 Metalloids The Periodic Table Periodicity, Atomic Mass & Atomic Radii 4 5 Atomic Mass a period: Subatomic particles are being added. This causes atomic mass to increase a group: Subatomic particles are also being added. This causes mass to increase Atomic Radii a period: # of protons and electrons increase, increasing the pull between the nucleus and the electrons. Radii decreases. a group: # of protons and electrons increase, but the electrons are added in a new electron shell. The new electrons are shielded by the inner electrons from the pull of the nucleus. Radii increases Relationship Between Radii and Other Properties a period: As radii decreases: The electrons are closer to the nucleus and therefore feel the pull more strongly. Electronegativity, ionization energy and electron affinity increase. a group: As radii increase: The electrons are farther from the nucleus and therefore are more shielded by inner electrons from the pull of the nucleus. Electronegativity, ionization energy and electron affinity decrease Ionic Radii Radii when forming a cation: Loss of electrons. There are now more protons than electrons. The pull of the protons on each electron is greater. Cations have smaller radii than their parent atom. Radii when forming an anion: Gain of electrons. There are less protons than electrons. The pull of the protons on each electron is less. Anions have larger radii than their parent atom. 1. Alkali Metals 2. Alkaline Earth Metals 3. Transition Metals 4. Halogens 5. Nobel Gases 6. Lanthanides 7. Actidines 8 tall columns = main groups or representative elements Memorizing the First 20 Elements Use a Mnemonic to remember the symbols of the first 20 elements in order: Happy Henry, the Little Beach Boy, CaN do FiNe; Naughty Megan, the Alpine Sister, Pretends to Ski at ClArK Canyon. Examples List Li, Cs and K in order of increasing: Radii: Li < K < Cs (radii increases a group) Electronegativity: Cs < K < Li (decreases as radii increases) Ionization Energy: Cs < K < Li (decreases as radii increases) Electron Affinity: Cs < K < Li (decreases as radii increases) List Ca +2, Ca and Ca 1+ in order of increasing radii: Ca 2+ < Ca 1+ < Ca (Each time an electron is lost, a charge of +1 is added. As electrons are lost, there is a higher ratio of protons : electrons and radii decreases) ChemistrySurvival.com 2006 All Right Reserved

8 How to Use This Cheat Sheet: These are the keys related this topic. Try to read through it carefully twice then recite it out on a blank sheet of paper. Review it again before the exams. ChemistrySurvival.com 2006 All Right Reserved

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